NR1H4

Summary

Gene Symbol: NR1H4
Description: nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 4
Alias: BAR, FXR, HRR-1, HRR1, PFIC5, RIP14, bile acid receptor, RXR-interacting protein 14, farnesoid X nuclear receptor, farnesoid X-activated receptor, farnesol receptor HRR-1, retinoid X receptor-interacting protein 14
Species: human
Products:     NR1H4

Top Publications

  1. Zhong X, Yu J, Zhang W, Wang Z, Dong Q, Tai S, et al. MicroRNA-421 functions as an oncogenic miRNA in biliary tract cancer through down-regulating farnesoid X receptor expression. Gene. 2012;493:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been reported to be a tumor suppressor for hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer; but few studies have ..
  2. Marzolini C, Tirona R, Gervasini G, Poonkuzhali B, Assem M, Lee W, et al. A common polymorphism in the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor is associated with decreased hepatic target gene expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:1769-80 pubmed
    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR or NR1H4) is an important bile-acid-activated, transcriptional regulator of genes involved in bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis...
  3. Kovacs P, Kress R, Rocha J, Kurtz U, Miquel J, Nervi F, et al. Variation of the gene encoding the nuclear bile salt receptor FXR and gallstone susceptibility in mice and humans. J Hepatol. 2008;48:116-24 pubmed
    From quantitative trait locus mapping in inbred mice, we identified the Nr1h4 gene encoding the nuclear bile salt receptor FXR as a candidate gene for the cholesterol gallstone susceptibility locus Lith7...
  4. Liu N, Meng Z, Lou G, Zhou W, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al. Hepatocarcinogenesis in FXR-/- mice mimics human HCC progression that operates through HNF1? regulation of FXR expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:775-85 pubmed publisher
    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a member of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, which plays essential roles in metabolism of bile acids, lipid, and glucose...
  5. Sinal C, Tohkin M, Miyata M, Ward J, Lambert G, Gonzalez F. Targeted disruption of the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR impairs bile acid and lipid homeostasis. Cell. 2000;102:731-44 pubmed
    Mice lacking the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR/BAR developed normally and were outwardly identical to wild-type littermates...
  6. Qin P, Borges Marcucci L, Evans M, Harnish D. Bile acid signaling through FXR induces intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in mouse liver and human hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G267-73 pubmed
    ..induction of small heterodimer partner (SHP) expression were also observed, suggesting that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) was activated...
  7. Vavassori P, Mencarelli A, Renga B, Distrutti E, Fiorucci S. The bile acid receptor FXR is a modulator of intestinal innate immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183:6251-61 pubmed publisher
    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-regulated nuclear receptor expressed in enterohepatic tissues...
  8. Holt J, Luo G, Billin A, Bisi J, McNeill Y, Kozarsky K, et al. Definition of a novel growth factor-dependent signal cascade for the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1581-91 pubmed
    The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR has been proposed to play a central role in the feedback repression of the gene encoding cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of bile acids...
  9. Anisfeld A, Kast Woelbern H, Meyer M, Jones S, Zhang Y, Williams K, et al. Syndecan-1 expression is regulated in an isoform-specific manner by the farnesoid-X receptor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20420-8 pubmed
    ..ligands, was identified in a screen designed to isolate genes that are regulated by the farnesoid X-receptor (FXR, NR1H4)...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Makishima M, Okamoto A, Repa J, Tu H, Learned R, Luk A, et al. Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids. Science. 1999;284:1362-5 pubmed
    ..Results presented here show that bile acids are physiological ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), an orphan nuclear receptor...
  2. Seol W, Choi H, Moore D. Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel orphan receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:72-85 pubmed
    ..Of four additional RXR-interacting proteins (RIPs) selected for further study two, RIP14 and RIP15, are previously unidentified orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily...
  3. Martínez Fernández P, Hierro L, Jara P, Alvarez L. Knockdown of ATP8B1 expression leads to specific downregulation of the bile acid sensor FXR in HepG2 cells: effect of the FXR agonist GW4064. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G1119-29 pubmed publisher
    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-sensing nuclear receptor that controls bile acid homeostasis...
  4. Journe F, Durbecq V, Chaboteaux C, Rouas G, Laurent G, Nonclercq D, et al. Association between farnesoid X receptor expression and cell proliferation in estrogen receptor-positive luminal-like breast cancer from postmenopausal patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;115:523-35 pubmed publisher
    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors, is normally produced in the liver and the gastrointestinal tract, where it acts as a bile acid sensor...
  5. Parks D, Blanchard S, Bledsoe R, Chandra G, Consler T, Kliewer S, et al. Bile acids: natural ligands for an orphan nuclear receptor. Science. 1999;284:1365-8 pubmed
    ..conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and deoxycholic acid activated the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4), an orphan nuclear receptor...
  6. Zhang Y, Lee F, Barrera G, Lee H, Vales C, Gonzalez F, et al. Activation of the nuclear receptor FXR improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1006-11 pubmed
    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in maintaining bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that FXR also regulates glucose metabolism...
  7. Landrier J, Eloranta J, Vavricka S, Kullak Ublick G. The nuclear receptor for bile acids, FXR, transactivates human organic solute transporter-alpha and -beta genes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G476-85 pubmed
    ..is induced by bile acids through ligand-dependent transactivation of both OST genes by the nuclear bile acid receptor/farnesoid X receptor (FXR)...
  8. van Mil S, Milona A, Dixon P, Mullenbach R, Geenes V, Chambers J, et al. Functional variants of the central bile acid sensor FXR identified in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:507-16 pubmed
    ..Bile acid synthesis, metabolism, and transport are regulated by the bile acid sensor FXR, and we hypothesized that genetic variation in FXR confers susceptibility to ICP...
  9. Renga B, Migliorati M, Mencarelli A, Fiorucci S. Reciprocal regulation of the bile acid-activated receptor FXR and the interferon-gamma-STAT-1 pathway in macrophages. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:564-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid sensor expressed in immune cells such as macrophages where it exerts counter-regulatory effects...
  10. Swales K, Korbonits M, Carpenter R, Walsh D, Warner T, Bishop Bailey D. The farnesoid X receptor is expressed in breast cancer and regulates apoptosis and aromatase expression. Cancer Res. 2006;66:10120-6 pubmed
    ..The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates bile acid homeostasis...
  11. Lian F, Xing X, Yuan G, Schafer C, Rauser S, Walch A, et al. Farnesoid X receptor protects human and murine gastric epithelial cells against inflammation-induced damage. Biochem J. 2011;438:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..FXR (farnesoid X receptor/NR1H4) is a transcription factor regulated by bile acids such as CDCA (chenodeoxycholic acid)...
  12. Dai J, Wang H, Shi Y, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Wang J. Impact of bile acids on the growth of human cholangiocarcinoma via FXR. J Hematol Oncol. 2011;4:41 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different types of bile acids on proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma and the potential molecular mechanisms...
  13. Renga B, Francisci D, D Amore C, Schiaroli E, Mencarelli A, Cipriani S, et al. The HIV matrix protein p17 subverts nuclear receptors expression and induces a STAT1-dependent proinflammatory phenotype in monocytes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35924 pubmed publisher
    ..proatherogenic genes (MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD40, CD86 and CD36) while downregulating the expression of nuclear receptors (FXR and PPAR?) that counter-regulate the proinflammatory response and modulate lipid metabolism in these cells...
  14. Renga B, Migliorati M, Mencarelli A, Cipriani S, D Amore C, Distrutti E, et al. Farnesoid X receptor suppresses constitutive androstane receptor activity at the multidrug resistance protein-4 promoter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1809:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we demonstrate that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates MRP4 in vivo and in vitro. In vivo deletion of FXR induces MRP4 gene expression...
  15. Cai S, Gautam S, Nguyen T, Soroka C, Rahner C, Boyer J. ATP8B1 deficiency disrupts the bile canalicular membrane bilayer structure in hepatocytes, but FXR expression and activity are maintained. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1060-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether ATP8B1 deficiency produces cholestasis by altering the activity of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or by impairing the structure of the canalicular membrane.
  16. Ma K, Saha P, Chan L, Moore D. Farnesoid X receptor is essential for normal glucose homeostasis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1102-9 pubmed
    The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a central regulator of bile acid and lipid metabolism. We show here that FXR plays a key regulatory role in glucose homeostasis...
  17. Huber R, Murphy K, Miao B, Link J, Cunningham M, Rupar M, et al. Generation of multiple farnesoid-X-receptor isoforms through the use of alternative promoters. Gene. 2002;290:35-43 pubmed
    ..alpha (NR1H3), while feedback regulation is provided by bile acids through farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) (NR1H4). The Syrian golden hamster provides a useful model for studying lipid metabolism...
  18. Eloranta J, Kullak Ublick G. The role of FXR in disorders of bile acid homeostasis. Physiology (Bethesda). 2008;23:286-95 pubmed publisher
    As ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR, bile acids regulate their own synthesis, transport, and conjugation, thus protecting against bile acid toxicity...
  19. Wang H, Chen J, Hollister K, Sowers L, Forman B. Endogenous bile acids are ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR. Mol Cell. 1999;3:543-53 pubmed
    ..We suggest that FXR (BAR) is the endogenous bile acid sensor and thus an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis.
  20. De Gottardi A, Dumonceau J, Bruttin F, Vonlaufen A, Morard I, Spahr L, et al. Expression of the bile acid receptor FXR in Barrett's esophagus and enhancement of apoptosis by guggulsterone in vitro. Mol Cancer. 2006;5:48 pubmed
    ..the bile acid receptor FXR is significantly overexpressed in Barrett's esophagus compared to normal mucosa, esophagitis and ..
  21. Claudel T, Inoue Y, Barbier O, Duran Sandoval D, Kosykh V, Fruchart J, et al. Farnesoid X receptor agonists suppress hepatic apolipoprotein CIII expression. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:544-55 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated whether activators of the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) modulate Apo CIII gene expression...
  22. Deng Y, Wang H, Lu Y, Liu S, Zhang Q, Huang J, et al. Identification of chemerin as a novel FXR target gene down-regulated in the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1794-801 pubmed publisher
    ..and secretion are induced in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes from wild-type mice, but not farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-/- mice, in response to the synthetic FXR ligand GW4064...
  23. Nijmeijer R, Gadaleta R, van Mil S, van Bodegraven A, Crusius J, Dijkstra G, et al. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23745 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation...
  24. Alvarez L, Jara P, Sánchez Sabaté E, Hierro L, Larrauri J, Díaz M, et al. Reduced hepatic expression of farnesoid X receptor in hereditary cholestasis associated to mutation in ATP8B1. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:2451-60 pubmed
    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a transcription factor that controls bile acid homeostasis. The phenotype of Fxr null mice is characterized by hypercholanaemia, impaired secretion of bile acids and failure to thrive...
  25. Huang L, Zhao A, Lew J, Zhang T, Hrywna Y, Thompson J, et al. Farnesoid X receptor activates transcription of the phospholipid pump MDR3. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51085-90 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the MDR3 gene is trans-activated by the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) via a direct binding of FXR/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimers to a highly conserved inverted repeat element (..
  26. Huang W, Ma K, Zhang J, Qatanani M, Cuvillier J, Liu J, et al. Nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling is required for normal liver regeneration. Science. 2006;312:233-6 pubmed
    ..regeneration, and decreased levels inhibit liver regrowth, as does the absence of the primary nuclear bile acid receptor FXR...
  27. Kalaany N, Mangelsdorf D. LXRS and FXR: the yin and yang of cholesterol and fat metabolism. Annu Rev Physiol. 2006;68:159-91 pubmed
    Liver X receptors (LXRs) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are nuclear receptors that function as intracellular sensors for sterols and bile acids, respectively...
  28. Lu T, Makishima M, Repa J, Schoonjans K, Kerr T, Auwerx J, et al. Molecular basis for feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis by nuclear receptors. Mol Cell. 2000;6:507-15 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that repression is coordinately regulated by a triumvirate of nuclear receptors, including the bile acid receptor, FXR; the promoter-specific activator, LRH-1; and the promoter-specific repressor, SHP...
  29. Forman B, Goode E, Chen J, Oro A, Bradley D, Perlmann T, et al. Identification of a nuclear receptor that is activated by farnesol metabolites. Cell. 1995;81:687-93 pubmed
    ..Intermediary metabolites have been recognized as transcriptional regulators in bacteria and yeast. Our results now suggest that metabolite-controlled intracellular signaling systems are utilized by higher organisms...
  30. Lee H, Zhang Y, Lee F, Nelson S, Gonzalez F, Edwards P. FXR regulates organic solute transporters alpha and beta in the adrenal gland, kidney, and intestine. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:201-14 pubmed
    Expression of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is limited to the liver, intestine, kidney, and adrenal gland. However, the role of FXR in the latter two organs is unknown...
  31. Urizar N, Liverman A, Dodds D, Silva F, Ordentlich P, Yan Y, et al. A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science. 2002;296:1703-6 pubmed
    ..We show that guggulsterone is a highly efficacious antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear hormone receptor that is activated by bile acids...
  32. Bishop Bailey D, Walsh D, Warner T. Expression and activation of the farnesoid X receptor in the vasculature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3668-73 pubmed
    The farnesoid X receptor/bile acid receptor (FXR) is a recently discovered member of the nuclear hormone superfamily...
  33. Geenes V, Dixon P, Chambers J, Raguz S, Marin J, Bhakoo K, et al. Characterisation of the nuclear receptors FXR, PXR and CAR in normal and cholestatic placenta. Placenta. 2011;32:535-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of the nuclear receptor FXR and several of it's target genes and of PXR and CAR was found to be very low in both normal and cholestatic placenta...
  34. Chen X, Wang L, Shan Q, Tang Q, Deng Y, Lian S, et al. A novel heterozygous NR1H4 termination codon mutation in idiopathic infantile cholestasis. World J Pediatr. 2012;8:67-71 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to evaluate the genetic effect of the NR1H4 gene in the pathogenesis of idiopathic infantile cholestasis of Chinese subjects in Guangxi, China...
  35. Downes M, Verdecia M, Roecker A, Hughes R, Hogenesch J, Kast Woelbern H, et al. A chemical, genetic, and structural analysis of the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR. Mol Cell. 2003;11:1079-92 pubmed
    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a bile acid (BA) sensor coordinating cholesterol metabolism, lipid homeostasis, and absorption of dietary fats and vitamins...
  36. Li Y, Swales K, Thomas G, Warner T, Bishop Bailey D. Farnesoid x receptor ligands inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and migration. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2606-11 pubmed
    The farnesoid X receptor/bile acid receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates bile acid and lipid homeostasis, and is highly expressed in enterohepatic tissue. FXR is also expressed in vascular tissue...
  37. Gadaleta R, van Mil S, Oldenburg B, Siersema P, Klomp L, van Erpecum K. Bile acids and their nuclear receptor FXR: Relevance for hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:683-92 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) critically regulates nascent bile formation and bile acid enterohepatic circulation...
  38. Porez G, Prawitt J, Gross B, Staels B. Bile acid receptors as targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1723-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5 both regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, rendering them potential pharmacological targets for ..
  39. Ananthanarayanan M, Li S, Balasubramaniyan N, Suchy F, Walsh M. Ligand-dependent activation of the farnesoid X-receptor directs arginine methylation of histone H3 by CARM1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54348-57 pubmed
    In this study we demonstrate that the class II nuclear hormone receptor, farnesoid X-receptor (FXR), incorporates histone methyltransferase activity within the gene locus for bile salt export pump (BSEP), a well established FXR target ..
  40. Chen F, Ananthanarayanan M, Emre S, Neimark E, Bull L, Knisely A, et al. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, type 1, is associated with decreased farnesoid X receptor activity. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:756-64 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms by which mutations in the familial intrahepatic cholestasis-1 gene cause Byler's disease (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1) are unknown...
  41. Williams J, Thomas A, Li G, Kong B, Zhan L, Inaba Y, et al. Tissue specific induction of p62/Sqstm1 by farnesoid X receptor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43961 pubmed publisher
    Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is a ligand-activated transcription factor essential for maintaining liver and intestinal homeostasis...
  42. Goodwin B, Jones S, Price R, Watson M, McKee D, Moore L, et al. A regulatory cascade of the nuclear receptors FXR, SHP-1, and LRH-1 represses bile acid biosynthesis. Mol Cell. 2000;6:517-26 pubmed
    ..Although bile acids activate the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the mechanism underlying bile acid-mediated repression of CYP7A1 remained unclear...
  43. Gadaleta R, van Erpecum K, Oldenburg B, Willemsen E, Renooij W, Murzilli S, et al. Farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits inflammation and preserves the intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 2011;60:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The bile salt, nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), was recently implicated in intestinal antibacterial defence and barrier function...
  44. Frankenberg T, Miloh T, Chen F, Ananthanarayanan M, Sun A, Balasubramaniyan N, et al. The membrane protein ATPase class I type 8B member 1 signals through protein kinase C zeta to activate the farnesoid X receptor. Hepatology. 2008;48:1896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..8B member 1 [familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 (FIC1)] posttranslationally activated the farnesoid X receptor (FXR)...
  45. Journe F, Laurent G, Chaboteaux C, Nonclercq D, Durbecq V, Larsimont D, et al. Farnesol, a mevalonate pathway intermediate, stimulates MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth through farnesoid-X-receptor-mediated estrogen receptor activation. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;107:49-61 pubmed
    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a metabolic nuclear receptor expressed in the liver and traditionally considered as a bile acid sensor...
  46. Uspal N, Rutman L, Kodish I, Moore A, Migita R. Use of a Dedicated, Non-Physician-led Mental Health Team to Reduce Pediatric Emergency Department Lengths of Stay. Acad Emerg Med. 2016;23:440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..244 minutes, p < 0.001). An x-bar chart of mean LOS shows special cause variation...
  47. Azeem H, Martinsson J, Stenström K, Swietlicki E, Sandahl M. Towards the isolation and estimation of elemental carbon in atmospheric aerosols using supercritical fluid extraction and thermo-optical analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409:4293-4300 pubmed publisher
    ..Supercritical CO2 with 10% methanol by volume at a temperature of 60 °C, a pressure of 350 bar and 20 min static mode extraction were found to be the most suitable conditions for the removal of 59 ± 3% ..
  48. Kazgan N, Metukuri M, Purushotham A, Lu J, Rao A, Lee S, et al. Intestine-specific deletion of SIRT1 in mice impairs DCoH2-HNF-1?-FXR signaling and alters systemic bile acid homeostasis. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:1006-16 pubmed publisher
    ..25% cholesterol, or lithogenic diets. SIRT1 iKO mice had reduced intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling via hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? (HNF-1?) compared with controls, which reduced expression of the bile ..
  49. Sasaki Y, Hidaka T, Ueno T, Akiba Takagi M, Oliva Trejo J, Seki T, et al. Sorting Nexin 9 facilitates podocin endocytosis in the injured podocyte. Sci Rep. 2017;7:43921 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed and confirmed that SNX9 interacts with podocin exclusively through the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain of SNX9...
  50. Roh M, Lee K, Jang I, Suk K, Lee M. Acrylic Resin Molding Based Head Fixation Technique in Rodents. J Vis Exp. 2016;:e53064 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we provide a novel head fixation method. Using a custom-made head fixation bar, head mounter is constructed during implantation surgery...
  51. Lee S, Yan G, Bassett P, Gopal A, Samant S. Use of local noise power spectrum and wavelet analysis in quantitative image quality assurance for EPIDs. Med Phys. 2016;43:4996 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 93 image sets including custom-made bar-pattern images and open exposure images were collected from four iViewGT a-Si EPID systems over three years...
  52. Huang Y, Fang L, Zhu Z, Ma Y, Zhou L, Chen X, et al. Design and synthesis of target-responsive hydrogel for portable visual quantitative detection of uranium with a microfluidic distance-based readout device. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016;85:496-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, to avoid the visual errors caused by naked eye observation, a previously developed volumetric bar-chart chip (V-Chip) was used to quantitatively detect UO2(2+) concentrations in water by encapsulating Au-Pt ..
  53. Valsecchi I, Mellado E, Beau R, Raj S, Latgé J. Fitness Studies of Azole-Resistant Strains of Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:7866-9 pubmed publisher
    Isogenic bar-coded strains of Aspergillus fumigatus carrying the G54W or M220K mutation in Cyp51A were constructed. In vitro, the growth and conidiation capacities of the mutants were similar to those of the parental strain...
  54. Linnarsson D, Ostlund A, Lind F, Hesser C. Hyperbaric bradycardia and hypoventilation in exercising men: effects of ambient pressure and breathing gas. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:1428-32 pubmed
    ..Eight men were studied during exercise at 50, 150, and 250 W while breathing 1) air at 1 bar, 2) helium-oxygen (He-O(2)) at 5.5 bar, 3) sulfur hexafluoride-oxygen (SF(6)-O(2)) at 1...
  55. Marcon M, Vorel J, Ninčević K, Wan Wendner R. Modeling Adhesive Anchors in a Discrete Element Framework. Materials (Basel). 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..A bonded anchor typically denotes a threaded bar placed into a borehole filled with adhesive mortar...
  56. Alvarez L, Jara P, Hierro L, Sánchez Sabaté E, Martínez Fernández P, López Santamaría M. Molecular basis of cholestatic diseases of surgical interest. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2005;14:200-5 pubmed
    ..For some of them, putative targets of therapeutic interest, such as interferon-gamma and Farnesoid X receptor, have been proposed...
  57. Borges A, Münchow E, de Oliveira Souza A, Yoshida T, Vallittu P, Bottino M. Effect of random/aligned nylon-6/MWCNT fibers on dental resin composite reinforcement. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2015;48:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the reinforcing effects on the flexural strength of a dental resin composite, bar-shaped (20×2×2 mm(3)) resin composite specimens were prepared by first placing one increment of the ..
  58. Zheng Z, Zhao Z, Li S, Lu X, Jiang M, Lin J, et al. Altenusin, a Nonsteroidal Microbial Metabolite, Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Activating the Farnesoid X Receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2017;92:425-436 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is no effective pharmacological therapy approved for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily, plays important roles in maintaining the homeostasis of bile acids, ..
  59. Popelka H, Damasio A, Hinshaw J, Klionsky D, Ragusa M. Structure and function of yeast Atg20, a sorting nexin that facilitates autophagy induction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E10112-E10121 pubmed publisher
    ..Atg20 and Snx4 contain putative BAR domains, suggesting a possible role in membrane deformation, but they have been relatively uncharacterized...
  60. Zhang Y, LaCerte C, Kansra S, Jackson J, Brouwer K, Edwards J. Comparative potency of obeticholic acid and natural bile acids on FXR in hepatic and intestinal in vitro cell models. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a semisynthetic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, an analogue of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) which is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (..
  61. Abdolhosseini S, Kohandani R, Kaatuzian H. Analysis and investigation of temperature and hydrostatic pressure effects on optical characteristics of multiple quantum well slow light devices. Appl Opt. 2017;56:7331-7340 pubmed publisher
    ..real part change with alterations of temperature and hydrostatic pressure in the range of 5-40 deg of Kelvin and 1 bar to 2 kbar, respectively. Thus, the peak value of the slow down factor can be adjusted by altering these parameters...