Gene Symbol: NPPB
Description: natriuretic peptide B
Alias: BNP, natriuretic peptides B, brain type natriuretic peptide, gamma-brain natriuretic peptide, natriuretic peptide precursor B, natriuretic protein
Species: human
Products:     NPPB

Top Publications

  1. Newton Cheh C, Larson M, Vasan R, Levy D, Bloch K, Surti A, et al. Association of common variants in NPPA and NPPB with circulating natriuretic peptides and blood pressure. Nat Genet. 2009;41:348-53 pubmed publisher
    We examined the association of common variants at the NPPA-NPPB locus with circulating concentrations of the natriuretic peptides, which have blood pressure-lowering properties...
  2. Wiersma J, van der Zee P, van Straalen J, Fischer J, van Eck Smit B, Tijssen J, et al. NT-pro-BNP is associated with inducible myocardial ischemia in mildly symptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Cardiol. 2010;145:295-296 pubmed publisher
    Baseline levels of N-terminal fragment of the brain natriuretic peptide prohormone (NT-pro-BNP) are associated with myocardial ischemia in non-diabetic patients with stable angina pectoris...
  3. Gale C, White J, Hunter A, Owen J, Allen J, Watson J, et al. Predicting mortality and hospital admission in patients with COPD: significance of NT pro-BNP, clinical and echocardiographic assessment. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2011;12:613-8 pubmed publisher
    To quantify the ability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP) to predict mortality and hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD)...
  4. Nakatsuji H, Kishida K, Funahashi T, Nakagawa T, Shimomura I. Hyperinsulinemia correlates with low levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in Japanese men irrespective of fat distribution. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:22 pubmed publisher
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a member of the natriuretic peptide family, is a cardiac-derived secretory hormone with natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities...
  5. Hijazi Z, Oldgren J, Andersson U, Connolly S, Ezekowitz M, Hohnloser S, et al. Cardiac biomarkers are associated with an increased risk of stroke and death in patients with atrial fibrillation: a Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) substudy. Circulation. 2012;125:1605-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiac biomarkers seem useful for improving risk prediction in AF beyond currently used clinical variables. ..
  6. Guéant Rodriguez R, Spada R, Pooya S, Jeannesson E, Moreno Garcia M, Anello G, et al. Homocysteine predicts increased NT-pro-BNP through impaired fatty acid oxidation. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:768-75 pubmed publisher
    ..homocysteine and produces myocardium hypertrophy with impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and increased BNP, through hypomethylation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor gamma co-activator-1?, in rat...
  7. Szabo G, Molvarec A, Stenczer B, Rigo J, Nagy B. Natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (TTTC)(n) microsatellite polymorphism in pre-eclampsia. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:1371-5 pubmed publisher
    There is a variable tandem repeat polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (NPPB)...
  8. Rost N, Biffi A, Cloonan L, Chorba J, Kelly P, Greer D, et al. Brain natriuretic peptide predicts functional outcome in ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2012;43:441-5 pubmed publisher
    Elevated serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been associated with cardioembolic stroke and increased poststroke mortality...
  9. Jeppesen J, Nielsen S, Torp Pedersen C, Hansen T, Olsen M, Berg N, et al. Genetic variation in the natriuretic peptide system, circulating natriuretic peptide levels, and blood pressure: an ambulatory blood pressure study. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:1095-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP ..

More Information


  1. De Geer L, Fredrikson M, Oscarsson A. Amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a predictor of outcome in patients admitted to intensive care. A prospective observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2012;29:275-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the incidence of elevated amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) on admission to intensive care and its relation to death in the ICU and within 30 days...
  2. Reinhard H, Hansen P, Wiinberg N, Kjær A, Petersen C, Winther K, et al. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:19 pubmed publisher
  3. Costello Boerrigter L, Boerrigter G, Ameenuddin S, Mahoney D, Slusser J, Heublein D, et al. The effect of the brain-type natriuretic peptide single-nucleotide polymorphism rs198389 on test characteristics of common assays. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86:210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..single-nucleotide polymorphism rs198389 in the promoter region of the gene of brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) on 3 commonly used BNP assays, clinical phenotype, disease prevalence, overall survival, and diagnostic test ..
  4. Koizumi M, Watanabe H, Kaneko Y, Iino K, Ishida M, Kosaka T, et al. Impact of obesity on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels in Japanese community-based subjects. Heart Vessels. 2012;27:287-94 pubmed publisher
    The plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration was recently shown to be inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI)...
  5. Sadanaga T, Mitamura H, Kohsaka S, Ogawa S. Steady-state B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients with atrial fibrillation of various clinical backgrounds. Heart Vessels. 2012;27:280-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Steady-state B-type natriuretic peptide levels of various clinical backgrounds were presented. Contributions of BNP elevation by clinical variables were somewhat different in different population...
  6. Sivalingam M, Suresh M, Farrington K. Comparison of B-type natriuretic peptide and NT proBNP as predictors of survival in patients on high-flux hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration. Hemodial Int. 2011;15:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT proBNP reflect cardiovascular risk but it is unknown which of these peptides is a better predictor of ..
  7. Beleigoli A, Lima Costa M, Diniz M, Ribeiro A. B-type natriuretic peptide and anthropometric measures in a Brazilian elderly population with a high prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Peptides. 2011;32:1787-92 pubmed publisher
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a diagnostic and prognostic tool in heart failure and also in Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and has cardiomyopathy as a main feature. BNP lipolytic actions and T...
  8. Wannamethee S, Welsh P, Lowe G, Gudnason V, Di Angelantonio E, Lennon L, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic Peptide is a more useful predictor of cardiovascular disease risk than C-reactive protein in older men with and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..8% and 0.6%, respectively). NT-proBNP, but not CRP, improved prediction of major CVD events in older men with and without pre-existing CVD. ..
  9. García Berrocoso T, Giralt D, Bustamante A, Etgen T, Jensen J, Sharma J, et al. B-type natriuretic peptides and mortality after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology. 2013;81:1976-85 pubmed publisher
    To measure the association of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal fragment of BNP (NT-proBNP) with all-cause mortality after stroke, and to evaluate the additional predictive value of BNP/NT-proBNP over clinical information...
  10. Fox E, Musani S, Bidulescu A, Nagarajarao H, Samdarshi T, Gebreab S, et al. Relation of obesity to circulating B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in blacks: the Jackson Heart Study. Circulation. 2011;124:1021-7 pubmed publisher
    Lower plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations in obese individuals ("natriuretic handicap") may play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension...
  11. Gariani K, Delabays A, Perneger T, Agoritsas T. Use of brain natriuretic peptide to detect previously unknown left ventricular dysfunction in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Swiss Med Wkly. 2011;141:w13298 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the performance of BNP in detecting left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with no history of HF admitted for acute ..
  12. Kawai M, Yoshimura M, Harada M, Mizuno Y, Hiramitsu S, Shimizu M, et al. Determination of the B-type natriuretic peptide level as a criterion for abnormalities in Japanese individuals in routine clinical practice: the J-ABS Multi-Center Study (Japan Abnormal BNP Standard). Intern Med. 2013;52:171-7 pubmed
    The present study was undertaken to establish a useful range for the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level, with the ultimate goal of determining a cut-off BNP level that will make it possible to identify patients with clinically ..
  13. Gaede P, Hildebrandt P, Hess G, Parving H, Pedersen O. Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a major risk marker for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Diabetologia. 2005;48:156-63 pubmed
    ..We conclude that high plasma NT-proBNP is a major risk marker for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. ..
  14. Romano S, Di Mauro M, Fratini S, Guarracini L, Guarracini F, Poccia G, et al. Early diagnosis of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in diabetic patients: a possible role for natriuretic peptides. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:89 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to verify whether BNP might detect pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in type-2 diabetic patients...
  15. Halse K, Lindegaard M, Goetze J, Damm P, Mathiesen E, Nielsen L. Increased plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in infants of women with type 1 diabetes. Clin Chem. 2005;51:2296-302 pubmed
    ..Increased plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor (proBNP) are markers of cardiac failure and hypoxia in adults...
  16. Choquet H, Cavalcanti Proença C, Lecoeur C, Dina C, Cauchi S, Vaxillaire M, et al. The T-381C SNP in BNP gene may be modestly associated with type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis in 49 279 subjects. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2495-501 pubmed publisher
    A recent study reported an association between the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter T-381C polymorphism (rs198389) and protection against type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
  17. Takase H, Dohi Y, Toriyama T, Okado T, Tanaka S, Sato K, et al. Does B-type natriuretic peptide predict the new onset of hypertension?. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:1737-44 pubmed publisher
    Increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression precedes the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats...
  18. Nakagawa K, Yamaguchi T, Seida M, Yamada S, Imae S, Tanaka Y, et al. Plasma concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005;19:157-64 pubmed
    ..Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), which is produced in response to such cardiovascular alterations, is expected to play a hemodynamic role...
  19. Etgen T, Baum H, Sander K, Sander D. Cardiac troponins and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in acute ischemic stroke do not relate to clinical prognosis. Stroke. 2005;36:270-5 pubmed
    ..Neither NT-proBNP nor cardiac troponins influence clinical outcome if other risk factors are considered. ..
  20. Kandil E, Burack J, Sawas A, Bibawy H, Schwartzman A, Zenilman M, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide: a biomarker for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with septic shock. Arch Surg. 2008;143:242-6; discussion 246 pubmed publisher
    ..B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a neurohormone released from the ventricles of the heart in response to myocardial dysfunction...
  21. Srisawasdi P, Vanavanan S, Charoenpanichkit C, Kroll M. The effect of renal dysfunction on BNP, NT-proBNP, and their ratio. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;133:14-23 pubmed publisher
    We examined the effect of renal dysfunction on B-natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal (NT)-proBNP, and their molar ratio at varying severities of cardiac function in 94 Thai patients with chest pain (52 men; 32 women), also measuring ..
  22. Dencker M, Stagmo M, Dorkhan M. Relationship between natriuretic peptides and echocardiography parameters in patients with poorly regulated type 2 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2010;6:373-82 pubmed
    ..Natriuretic peptides brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone BNP (NT-proBNP) were measured...
  23. Poręba R, Poczatek K, Gać P, Poręba M, Gonerska M, Jonkisz A, et al. SNP rs198389 (T-381 C) polymorphism in the B-type natriuretic peptide gene promoter in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular hypertension. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2009;119:219-24 pubmed
    ..Renovascular hypertension caused by renal artery stenosis (RAS) accounts for 3-5% of all cases of hypertension...
  24. Richards A, Nicholls M, Espiner E, Lainchbury J, Troughton R, Elliott J, et al. B-type natriuretic peptides and ejection fraction for prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2003;107:2786-92 pubmed
    A recent landmark report has demonstrated that plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measured in acute coronary syndromes independently predicts mortality, heart failure, and new myocardial infarction...
  25. Masson S, Latini R, Anand I, Barlera S, Angelici L, Vago T, et al. Prognostic value of changes in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in Val-HeFT (Valsartan Heart Failure Trial). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:997-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Although previous studies examined the prognostic value of repeated determinations of BNP in HF, there are only limited data on the clinical utility of serial measurements of the inactive peptide NT-proBNP ..
  26. Rosenberg J, Gustafsson F, Remme W, Riegger G, Hildebrandt P. Effect of beta-blockade and ACE inhibition on B-type natriuretic peptides in stable patients with systolic heart failure. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2008;22:305-11 pubmed publisher
    The long-term effect of beta-blockade on the plasma levels of natriuretic peptides BNP and its N-terminal counterpart, NT-proBNP, as risk markers in heart failure (HF) is obscure...
  27. Satyan S, Light R, Agarwal R. Relationships of N-terminal pro-B-natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin T to left ventricular mass and function and mortality in asymptomatic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50:1009-19 pubmed
    ..with end-stage renal disease, the independent association of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cTnT levels in predicting outcomes is unknown...
  28. Gormus U, Ozmen D, Ozmen B, Parildar Z, Ozdogan O, Mutaf I, et al. Serum N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetic patients with asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;87:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that NT-proBNP may be a simple screening tool to select diabetic patients with LVDD requiring further examination with echocardiography. ..
  29. Schouten O, Hoeks S, Goei D, Bax J, Verhagen H, Poldermans D. Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor of perioperative and long-term outcome after vascular surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49:435-41; discussion 441-2 pubmed publisher
    ..4 years. NT-proBNP is an independent prognostic marker for postoperative cardiac events and long-term mortality in patients undergoing different types of vascular surgery and might be used for preoperative cardiac risk stratification. ..
  30. Lee S, Jung J, Choi S, Lee N, Park W, Oh D, et al. Determinants of brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. Circ J. 2006;70:100-4 pubmed
    Although brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increasingly being used for screening and monitoring of congestive heart failure, its utility in patients with lone atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear...
  31. Ciurzyński M, Bienias P, Lichodziejewska B, Kurnicka K, Szewczyk A, Glinska Wielochowska M, et al. Non-invasive diagnostic and functional evaluation of cardiac involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:991-7 pubmed publisher
    Elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) released from myocytes of ventricles upon stretch have been found in patients with isolated right ventricular (RV) pressure overload...
  32. Shimizu Y, Nishinaga M, Takata J, Miyano I, Okumiya K, Matsubayashi K, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide is predictive of hospitalization in community-dwelling elderly without heart diseases. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2009;9:148-54 pubmed publisher
    To examine prospectively the relationship between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in community-dwelling elderly and their hospitalization...
  33. Weidemann A, Klanke B, Wagner M, Volk T, Willam C, Wiesener M, et al. Hypoxia, via stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1alpha, is a direct and sufficient stimulus for brain-type natriuretic peptide induction. Biochem J. 2008;409:233-42 pubmed
    b>BNP (brain-type natriuretic peptide) is a cardiac hormone with systemic haemodynamic effects as well as local cytoprotective and antiproliferative properties...
  34. Nilsson K, Gustafson L, Hultberg B. The clinical use of N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide in elderly patients with mental illness. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:1282-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Determinations of NT-proBNP could be used in elderly patients with mental illness to detect patients in need of control and treatment of vascular risk factors. The levels of NT-proBNP may also provide prognostic information. ..
  35. LaPointe M. Molecular regulation of the brain natriuretic peptide gene. Peptides. 2005;26:944-56 pubmed
    After brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was isolated in 1988, rapid progress was made in cloning its cDNA and gene, facilitating studies of tissue-specific expression and molecular regulation of gene expression...
  36. Kapoun A, Liang F, O Young G, Damm D, Quon D, White R, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide exerts broad functional opposition to transforming growth factor-beta in primary human cardiac fibroblasts: fibrosis, myofibroblast conversion, proliferation, and inflammation. Circ Res. 2004;94:453-61 pubmed
    The natriuretic peptides, including human B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), have been implicated in the regulation of cardiac remodeling...
  37. Nakatsu T, Shinohata R, Mashima K, Yuki Y, Nishitani A, Toyonaga S, et al. Use of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level to identify asymptomatic hypertensive patients with abnormal diurnal blood pressure variation profiles: nondippers, extreme dippers, and risers. Hypertens Res. 2007;30:651-8 pubmed
    We examined the relationship between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level and diurnal variability pattern of blood pressure (BP)...
  38. Rollin R, Mediero A, Roldán Pallarès M, Fernandez Cruz A, Fernández Durango R. Natriuretic peptide system in the human retina. Mol Vis. 2004;10:15-22 pubmed
    The natriuretic peptide (NP) family includes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Natriuretic peptides are known to inhibit vascular cell growth and regulate vessel tone...
  39. Breidthardt T, Kindler C, Schindler C, Futterer M, Yonekawa K, Mueller C. B-type natriuretic peptide in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:690-5 pubmed publisher
    ..B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was determined preoperatively in 270 patients undergoing scheduled orthopaedic surgery...
  40. Surdacki A, Marewicz E, Rakowski T, Szumańska M, Szastak G, Pryjma J, et al. Coincidence of moderately elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, endothelial progenitor cells deficiency and propensity to exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in stable angina. Dis Markers. 2010;28:101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, chronic subclinical ischemia can also be involved in these associations. These might result from BNP overexpression in the ischemic myocardium and a hypothetical exhaustion of the bone marrow capacity to mobilize EPC ..
  41. Hawkridge A, Heublein D, Bergen H, Cataliotti A, Burnett J, Muddiman D. Quantitative mass spectral evidence for the absence of circulating brain natriuretic peptide (BNP-32) in severe human heart failure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17442-7 pubmed
    C-terminal brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP)-32 is a widely used clinical biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of heart failure (HF)...
  42. Sun L, Sun Y, Zhao X, Xu C, Chen D, Li L, et al. Predictive role of BNP and NT-proBNP in hemodialysis patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2008;110:c178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of BNP and NT-proBNP in predicting the outcome and prognostic value in hemodialysis with ESRD patients...
  43. Kondziella D, Göthlin M, Fu M, Zetterberg H, Wallin A. B-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subcortical vascular dementia. Neuroreport. 2009;20:825-7 pubmed publisher
    High levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a serum marker of congestive heart failure, are associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline. However, no study has yet assessed this marker in different subtypes of dementia...
  44. Shibazaki K, Kimura K, Iguchi Y, Aoki J, Sakai K, Kobayashi K. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide predicts death during hospitalization in acute ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack patients with atrial fibrillation. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether the plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level on admission can serve as a biological marker of in-hospital death in acute ischaemic stroke and transient ..
  45. Guo Q, Barany P, Qureshi A, Snaedal S, Heimburger O, Stenvinkel P, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide independently predicts protein energy wasting and is associated with all-cause mortality in prevalent HD patients. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..95, p < 0.001). We demonstrate a novel association between NT-proBNP and PEW, which may be part of the explanation for the strong links between NT-proBNP and mortality in HD patients. ..
  46. Toda K, Sato Y, Hara T, Hijiya K, Kaneko R, Okada T, et al. Correlates of NT-proBNP concentration in patients with essential hypertension in absence of congestive heart failure. J Clin Lab Anal. 2010;24:12-6 pubmed publisher
    ..272, P=0.009) were correlated with serum concentrations of NT-proBNP. Age, gender, Hgb, left ventricular hypertrophy and renal function were correlated with NT-proBNP in patients with EHT. ..
  47. Iltumur K, Yavavli A, Karabulut A, Apak I, Aluclu U, Ariturk Z, et al. Elevated plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in acute ischemic stroke. Am Heart J. 2006;151:1115-22 pubmed
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a neurohormone secreted mainly in the cardiac ventricles in response to volume expansion and pressure overload...
  48. Das S, Drazner M, Dries D, Vega G, Stanek H, Abdullah S, et al. Impact of body mass and body composition on circulating levels of natriuretic peptides: results from the Dallas Heart Study. Circulation. 2005;112:2163-8 pubmed
    The association between higher body mass index (BMI) and lower B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is thought to be mediated by expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) in adipose tissue...
  49. Sattar N, Welsh P, Sarwar N, Danesh J, Di Angelantonio E, Gudnason V, et al. NT-proBNP is associated with coronary heart disease risk in healthy older women but fails to enhance prediction beyond established risk factors: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results caution against use of NT-proBNP for CHD risk prediction in healthy women and suggest a need for larger studies in both genders to resolve outstanding uncertainties. ..
  50. Magnusson M, Melander O, Israelsson B, Grubb A, Groop L, Jovinge S. Elevated plasma levels of Nt-proBNP in patients with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1929-35 pubmed
    ..This peptide is a split product from the proBNP molecule, and its level in the circulation is not, as the mature BNP peptide, dependent on the peripheral number of BNP receptors...
  51. Goonewardena S, Gemignani A, Ronan A, Vasaiwala S, Blair J, Brennan J, et al. Comparison of hand-carried ultrasound assessment of the inferior vena cava and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide for predicting readmission after hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2008;1:595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..assessment with hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to identify patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) who will be readmitted or seek emergency ..
  52. Inoue T, Kawai M, Nakane T, Nojiri A, Minai K, Komukai K, et al. Influence of low-grade inflammation on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels. Intern Med. 2010;49:2659-68 pubmed
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone. The results of previous in vitro studies suggest that neurohumoral factors, and not only hemodynamic factors, may cause BNP secretion...
  53. Totsune K, Takahashi K, Satoh F, Sone M, Ohneda M, Satoh C, et al. Urinary immunoreactive brain natriuretic peptide in patients with renal disease. Regul Pept. 1996;63:141-7 pubmed
    Urinary immunoreactive brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was studied by radioimmunoassay in patients with renal disease. Urinary immunoreactive human BNP excretion measured in 11 normal subjects was 3.82 +/- 0.62 pmol/day (mean +/- SEM)...
  54. Marchini A, Häcker B, Marttila T, Hesse V, Emons J, Weiss B, et al. BNP is a transcriptional target of the short stature homeobox gene SHOX. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:3081-7 pubmed
    ..Here we identify NPPB encoding the natriuretic peptide, BNP, a well-known cardiac and natriuretic peptide hormone, as a transcriptional ..
  55. Booth J, Pinney J, Davenport A. N-terminal proBNP--marker of cardiac dysfunction, fluid overload, or malnutrition in hemodialysis patients?. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1036-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, because bioimpedance results can also be affected by malnutrition with loss of cell mass, NTproBNP may be elevated not only in patients with volume overload, but also those with malnutrition. ..
  56. Shibazaki K, Kimura K, Okada Y, Iguchi Y, Uemura J, Terasawa Y, et al. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality after acute ischemic stroke. Intern Med. 2009;48:1601-6 pubmed
    We investigated whether the plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level on admission can serve as a biological marker of in-hospital death in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
  57. Lee J, Choi S, Huh W, Park S, Kim D, Oh H, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict left ventricular systolic function in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24 Suppl:S63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..812 and 4,740 pg/mL in CKD stage 4, and 0.745 and 15,892 pg/mL in CKD stage 5. The NT-proBNP level was a predictor of LV systolic dysfunction in CKD patients. Optimum cut points should be stratified according to renal function. ..
  58. Lanfear D, Stolker J, Marsh S, Rich M, McLeod H. Genetic variation in the B-type natiuretic peptide pathway affects BNP levels. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2007;21:55-62 pubmed
    ..b>Natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (NPPB) variants incrementally improved models of logBNP after inclusion of clinical/physiologic ..
  59. Tarnow L, Gall M, Hansen B, Hovind P, Parving H. Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2006;49:2256-62 pubmed
  60. Belluardo P, Cataliotti A, Bonaiuto L, Giuffrè E, Maugeri E, Noto P, et al. Lack of activation of molecular forms of the BNP system in human grade 1 hypertension and relationship to cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H1529-35 pubmed
    ..235, P = 0.012) and HTN grade (beta = 0.218, P = 0.0023). Two forms of BNP were measured in normal subjects and patients with essential HTN...
  61. Pimenta J, Paulo C, Gomes A, Silva S, Rocha Goncalves F, Bettencourt P. B-type natriuretic peptide is related to cardiac function and prognosis in hospitalized patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2010;30:1059-66 pubmed publisher
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations are high in cirrhosis, possibly related to volume status and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The prognostic significance of BNP in cirrhosis is unknown...
  62. Kucher N, Printzen G, Goldhaber S. Prognostic role of brain natriuretic peptide in acute pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 2003;107:2545-7 pubmed
    ..We measured at the time of admission the plasma level of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to determine its utility in prognosticating the clinical course of 73 consecutive patients with acute PE...
  63. Mueller T, Gegenhuber A, Poelz W, Haltmayer M. Head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic utility of BNP and NT-proBNP in symptomatic and asymptomatic structural heart disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;341:41-8 pubmed
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the amino-terminal fragment of the BNP prohormone (NT-proBNP) are markers for functional cardiac impairment and are elevated in heart failure (HF)...
  64. McCullough P, Duc P, Omland T, McCord J, Nowak R, Hollander J, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide and renal function in the diagnosis of heart failure: an analysis from the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41:571-9 pubmed
    Both B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and renal function are prognostic indicators of survival in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF)...
  65. Reny J, Millot O, Vanderecamer T, Vergnes C, Barazer I, Sedighian S, et al. Admission NT-proBNP levels, renal insufficiency and age as predictors of mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for acute dyspnea. Eur J Intern Med. 2009;20:14-9 pubmed publisher
    Assay of baseline B-type peptide (BNP and NT-proBNP) is useful for heart failure (HF) prognostication. In contrast, the prognostic value of NT-proBNP assay performed on admission of elderly subjects for acute dyspnea is uncertain...
  66. Law C, Glover C, Benson K, Guglin M. Extremely high brain natriuretic peptide does not reflect the severity of heart failure. Congest Heart Fail. 2010;16:221-5 pubmed publisher
    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is important in the diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF). Sometimes, very high BNP levels encountered in clinical settings seem to be out of proportion to the severity of HF...
  67. Steiner J, Guglin M. BNP or NTproBNP? A clinician's perspective. Int J Cardiol. 2008;129:5-14 pubmed publisher
    Existing literature on two natriuretic peptides--B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP)--is overwhelming. Both peptides are acknowledged markers for cardiac dysfunction...
  68. Cortés R, Otero M, Morillas P, Roselló Lletí E, Grigorian L, Martinez Dolz L, et al. Obese and nonobese patients with essential hypertension show similar N-terminal proBNP plasma levels. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21:820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are in contrast with those previously found in heart failure, and raise questions about the role of obesity per se as primary cause of decreased NT-proBNP levels in other pathophysiological conditions. ..
  69. Hamano K, Abe M, Komi R, Kobayashi S. N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for predicting silent myocardial ischaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus independent of microalbuminuria. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2010;26:534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7%, negative predictive value 94.3%). The outstandingly high negative predictive value of NT-proBNP enables us to focus on diabetic patients with occult coronary disease, independently of microalbuminuria. ..
  70. Sugisawa T, Kishimoto I, Kokubo Y, Makino H, Miyamoto Y, Yoshimasa Y. Association of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels with obesity in a general urban Japanese population: the Suita Study. Endocr J. 2010;57:727-33 pubmed
    The inverse association between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and body mass index (BMI) has been reported in Western populations...
  71. Oravec R, Bredemeier M, Laurino C, Pinotti A, Rohde L, Brenol J, et al. NT-proBNP levels in systemic sclerosis: association with clinical and laboratory abnormalities. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:745-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1-100) and specificity of 72.3% (62.3-80.5). NT-proBNP levels are related to clinical and laboratory abnormalities in SSc. The results indicate that NT-proBNP may be a useful tool in the evaluation of SScPAH. ..
  72. Roberts M, Srivastava P, MacMillan N, Hare D, Ratnaike S, Sikaris K, et al. B-type natriuretic peptides strongly predict mortality in patients who are treated with long-term dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:1057-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of B-type natriuretic peptide are greatest in patients who are on dialysis and have cardiovascular comorbidities and are strong predictors of death. ..
  73. Kim J, Lee E, Jee J, Lee B, Chung J, Jeun E, et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in Type 2 diabetes with left ventricular dysfunction. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;77 Suppl 1:S238-42 pubmed
    ..001). NT-proBNP levels significantly differed among three groups according to urinary albumin excretion (P=0.031). These results suggest that NT-proBNP could be used to identify any impairment of left ventricular function in diabetes. ..
  74. Lajer M, Tarnow L, Jorsal A, Parving H. Polymorphisms in the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene are associated with NT-proBNP levels but not with diabetic nephropathy or mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:3235-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we investigated the association between two polymorphisms -381T/C and 1551G/A of the BNP gene, plasma NT-proBNP levels and mortality prognosis in 380 type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic ..
  75. Antonelli A, Ferri C, Ferrari S, Colaci M, Sebastiani M, Zignego A, et al. High levels of circulating N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:851-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase of NT-proBNP may indicate the presence of a sub-clinical cardiac dysfunction. Further prospective studies quantifying these symptoms in correlation with echocardiography are needed to confirm this association. ..
  76. Modrego P, Boned B, Berlanga J, Serrano M. Plasmatic B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein in hyperacute stroke as markers of CT-evidence of brain edema. Int J Med Sci. 2008;5:18-23 pubmed
    ..We conclude that CRP at baseline but not NT-PBNP predicts CT evidence of brain edema in stroke patients. We hypothesize that NT-PBNP levels elevated in response to edema after 48 hours of admission. ..
  77. Epshteyn V, Morrison K, Krishnaswamy P, Kazanegra R, Clopton P, Mudaliar S, et al. Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a screen for left ventricular dysfunction in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2081-7 pubmed
    ..B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is secreted from the left ventricle in response to pressure overload and is elevated in both systolic and ..
  78. Rutten J, Mattace Raso F, Steyerberg E, Lindemans J, Hofman A, Wieberdink R, et al. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide improves cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk prediction in the population: the Rotterdam study. Hypertension. 2010;55:785-91 pubmed publisher
  79. Singh H, Bibbins Domingo K, Ali S, Wu A, Schiller N, Whooley M. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and inducible ischemia in the Heart and Soul Study. Clin Cardiol. 2009;32:447-53 pubmed publisher
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is predictive of inducible ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  80. Hameed A, Chan K, Ghamsary M, Elkayam U. Longitudinal changes in the B-type natriuretic peptide levels in normal pregnancy and postpartum. Clin Cardiol. 2009;32:E60-2 pubmed publisher
    Normal levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are not well established in pregnancy...