Gene Symbol: NOX4
Description: NADPH oxidase 4
Alias: KOX, KOX-1, RENOX, NADPH oxidase 4, kidney oxidase-1, kidney superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase, renal NAD(P)H-oxidase
Species: human
Products:     NOX4

Top Publications

  1. Diebold I, Petry A, Hess J, Gorlach A. The NADPH oxidase subunit NOX4 is a new target gene of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NOX4 appears to be involved in vascular signaling and may contribute to the response to hypoxia...
  2. Weyemi U, Caillou B, Talbot M, Ameziane El Hassani R, Lacroix L, Lagent Chevallier O, et al. Intracellular expression of reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidase NOX4 in normal and cancer thyroid tissues. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010;17:27-37 pubmed publisher
    b>NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) belongs to the NOX family that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Function and tissue distribution of NOX4 have not yet been entirely clarified...
  3. Zhang L, Nguyen M, Lardy B, Jesaitis A, Grichine A, Rousset F, et al. New insight into the Nox4 subcellular localization in HEK293 cells: first monoclonal antibodies against Nox4. Biochimie. 2011;93:457-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Nox4, a member of Nox family of NADPH oxidase expressed in nonphagocytic cells, is a major source of reactive oxygen species in many cell types...
  4. Michaeloudes C, Sukkar M, Khorasani N, Bhavsar P, Chung K. TGF-? regulates Nox4, MnSOD and catalase expression, and IL-6 release in airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300:L295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-? also triggers intracellular ROS release in ASMCs by upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)...
  5. Hecker L, Vittal R, Jones T, Jagirdar R, Luckhardt T, Horowitz J, et al. NADPH oxidase-4 mediates myofibroblast activation and fibrogenic responses to lung injury. Nat Med. 2009;15:1077-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a role for the NOX4 isoform in tissue repair functions of myofibroblasts and fibrogenesis...
  6. Manea A, Tanase L, Raicu M, Simionescu M. Jak/STAT signaling pathway regulates nox1 and nox4-based NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:105-12 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress mediated by Nox1- and Nox4-based NADPH oxidase (Nox) plays a key role in vascular diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of Nox are not entirely elucidated...
  7. Chen K, Kirber M, Xiao H, Yang Y, Keaney J. Regulation of ROS signal transduction by NADPH oxidase 4 localization. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:1129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase 4 (Nox4), a major Nox isoform expressed in nonphagocytic cells, including vascular endothelium, is localized to the ..
  8. Mochizuki T, Furuta S, Mitsushita J, Shang W, Ito M, Yokoo Y, et al. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase 4 activates apoptosis via the AKT/apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 pathway in pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:3699-707 pubmed
    ..The signaling mechanism by which Nox4 transmits cell survival signals remains unclear...
  9. Goyal P, Weissmann N, Rose F, Grimminger F, Schäfers H, Seeger W, et al. Identification of novel Nox4 splice variants with impact on ROS levels in A549 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:32-9 pubmed
    ..While analyzing the expression of Nox4 at the protein and the mRNA levels, we identified four novel Nox4 splice-variants Nox4B, Nox4C, Nox4D, and Nox4E, ..

More Information


  1. Muzaffar S, Jeremy J, Angelini G, Shukla N. NADPH oxidase 4 mediates upregulation of type 4 phosphodiesterases in human endothelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..of PDE4A, B, C, and D and splice variants thereof assessed using Western blotting and qPCR and mRNA silencing of Nox4 and Nox5. Effects on cell replication and angiogenesis were also studied...
  2. Pedruzzi E, Guichard C, Ollivier V, Driss F, Fay M, Prunet C, et al. NAD(P)H oxidase Nox-4 mediates 7-ketocholesterol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10703-17 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Nox-4 plays a key role in 7-Kchol-induced SMC death, which is consistent with the hypothesis that Nox-4/oxysterols are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ..
  3. Goettsch C, Goettsch W, Muller G, Seebach J, Schnittler H, Morawietz H. Nox4 overexpression activates reactive oxygen species and p38 MAPK in human endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used DNA microarray, real-time PCR and Western blot to demonstrate that the subunit Nox4 is the major Nox isoform in primary human endothelial cells; we also found high levels of NADPH oxidase subunit p22(..
  4. Lee Y, Kim B, Chun Y, So I, Choi H, Kim M, et al. NOX4 as an oxygen sensor to regulate TASK-1 activity. Cell Signal. 2006;18:499-507 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we propose that the NADPH oxidase NOX4 functions as an oxygen-sensing partner and that it modulates the oxygen sensitivity of TASK-1...
  5. Graham K, Kulawiec M, Owens K, Li X, Desouki M, Chandra D, et al. NADPH oxidase 4 is an oncoprotein localized to mitochondria. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;10:223-31 pubmed
    ..Similar pattern of expression was revealed in a breast epithelial cell line. We found that NOX4 was overexpressed in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors...
  6. Datla S, Peshavariya H, Dusting G, Mahadev K, Goldstein B, Jiang F. Important role of Nox4 type NADPH oxidase in angiogenic responses in human microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2319-24 pubmed
    ..Because Nox4 type NADPH oxidase is also highly expressed in endothelial cells, we studied the role of Nox4 in angiogenic ..
  7. Ismail S, Sturrock A, Wu P, Cahill B, Norman K, Huecksteadt T, et al. NOX4 mediates hypoxia-induced proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: the role of autocrine production of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the NADPH oxidase homolog NOX4 mediates human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (HPASMC) proliferation by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-..
  8. Petry A, Djordjevic T, Weitnauer M, Kietzmann T, Hess J, Gorlach A. NOX2 and NOX4 mediate proliferative response in endothelial cells. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:1473-84 pubmed
    ..The authors, therefore, compared the role of NOX2 with NOX4 and NOX1 in endothelial EaHy926 and human microvascular endothelial cells...
  9. Lener B, Kozieł R, Pircher H, Hutter E, Greussing R, Herndler Brandstetter D, et al. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 restricts the replicative lifespan of human endothelial cells. Biochem J. 2009;423:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), Nox4 is predominantly expressed, but its role in replicative senescence of HUVECs remains to be elucidated...
  10. Park H, Jin D, Shin S, Jang M, Longo N, Park J, et al. Impaired generation of reactive oxygen species in leprechaunism through downregulation of Nox4. Diabetes. 2005;54:3175-81 pubmed
    ..tyrosine phosphorylation in response to growth factors results from the downregulation of an NADPH oxidase, Nox4, which in turn results in the reduction of ROS generation...
  11. Martyn K, Frederick L, von Loehneysen K, Dinauer M, Knaus U. Functional analysis of Nox4 reveals unique characteristics compared to other NADPH oxidases. Cell Signal. 2006;18:69-82 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to delineate the requirements for ROS generation by Nox4. Nox4, in contrast to other Nox proteins, produces large amounts of hydrogen peroxide constitutively...
  12. Fitzgerald J, Nayak B, Shanmugasundaram K, Friedrichs W, Sudarshan S, Eid A, et al. Nox4 mediates renal cell carcinoma cell invasion through hypoxia-induced interleukin 6- and 8- production. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30712 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that the NADPH oxidase isoform, Nox4, play a key role in hypoxia-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in RCC...
  13. Moe K, Aulia S, Jiang F, Chua Y, Koh T, Wong M, et al. Differential upregulation of Nox homologues of NADPH oxidase by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human aortic smooth muscle and embryonic kidney cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10:231-9 pubmed
    ..Previously we demonstrated that the Nox4 subunit of NADPH oxidase is a critical catalytic component for superoxide production in quiescent vascular smooth ..
  14. Vaquero E, Edderkaoui M, Pandol S, Gukovsky I, Gukovskaya A. Reactive oxygen species produced by NAD(P)H oxidase inhibit apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34643-54 pubmed
    ..Transfection with Nox4 antisense oligonucleotide inhibited NAD(P)H oxidase activity and ROS production in MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells...
  15. Peshavariya H, Dusting G, Jiang F, Halmos L, Sobey C, Drummond G, et al. NADPH oxidase isoform selective regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and survival. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the roles of the ROS-generating Nox4- and Nox2-containing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases in proliferation of human ..
  16. Maranchie J, Zhan Y. Nox4 is critical for hypoxia-inducible factor 2-alpha transcriptional activity in von Hippel-Lindau-deficient renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9190-3 pubmed
    ..Studies have shown that HIF-alpha can be alternatively activated by reactive oxygen species. Nox4 is an NADP(H) oxidase that generates signaling levels of superoxide and is found in greatest abundance in the ..
  17. Wu R, Ma Z, Liu Z, Terada L. Nox4-derived H2O2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum signaling through local Ras activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3553-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of the oxidase Nox4, expressed on ER endomembranes, or expression of ER-targeted catalase blocked ER H(2)O(2) production by tunicamycin ..
  18. Li S, Tabar S, Malec V, Eul B, Klepetko W, Weissmann N, et al. NOX4 regulates ROS levels under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, triggers proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis in pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008;10:1687-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed the role of the non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase subunits NOX1 and NOX4 in PAFB. NOX4 was predominantly expressed in comparison to NOX1 at mRNA levels...
  19. Jaulmes A, Sansilvestri Morel P, Rolland Valognes G, Bernhardt F, Gaertner R, Lockhart B, et al. Nox4 mediates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 via p38 MAPK pathway in cultured human endothelial cells. Thromb Res. 2009;124:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Growing evidence indicates that NADPH oxidase and in particular the constitutively active Nox4-p22(phox) complexes are major sources of ROS in endothelial cells...
  20. Ambasta R, Kumar P, Griendling K, Schmidt H, Busse R, Brandes R. Direct interaction of the novel Nox proteins with p22phox is required for the formation of a functionally active NADPH oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45935-41 pubmed
    Nox1 and Nox4, homologues of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 (gp91phox) mediate superoxide anion formation in various cell types. However, their interactions with other components of the NADPH oxidase are poorly defined...
  21. Mittal M, Roth M, Konig P, Hofmann S, Dony E, Goyal P, et al. Hypoxia-dependent regulation of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX4 in the pulmonary vasculature. Circ Res. 2007;101:258-67 pubmed
    ..NOX1, NOXA1, NOXO1, p22phox, p47phox, p40phox, p67phox, NOX2, and NOX4 were present in mouse lung tissue...
  22. Block K, Gorin Y, Hoover P, Williams P, Chelmicki T, Clark R, et al. NAD(P)H oxidases regulate HIF-2alpha protein expression. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8019-26 pubmed
    ..We show that in VHL-deficient cells p22phox, Nox4 protein levels and NADPH-dependent superoxide generation are increased...
  23. Crestani B, Besnard V, Boczkowski J. Signalling pathways from NADPH oxidase-4 to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1086-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies indicate that NOX4 is induced in pulmonary fibroblasts in response to TGF-?...
  24. Dikalov S, Dikalova A, Bikineyeva A, Schmidt H, Harrison D, Griendling K. Distinct roles of Nox1 and Nox4 in basal and angiotensin II-stimulated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;45:1340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known that the heme-containing catalytic subunits Nox1 and Nox4 are responsible for oxygen reduction in vascular smooth muscle cells from large arteries...
  25. Williams R, Yao H, Peng F, Yang Y, Bethel Brown C, Buch S. Cooperative induction of CXCL10 involves NADPH oxidase: Implications for HIV dementia. Glia. 2010;58:611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms involved in reducing both oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory agents could lead to the development of therapeutics aimed at decreasing neuro-inflammation in patients suffering from HAD. ..
  26. Yamaura M, Mitsushita J, Furuta S, Kiniwa Y, Ashida A, Goto Y, et al. NADPH oxidase 4 contributes to transformation phenotype of melanoma cells by regulating G2-M cell cycle progression. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the expression and function of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox)4 in human melanoma cells. Nox4 was up-regulated in 13 of 20 melanoma cell lines tested...
  27. Craige S, Chen K, Pei Y, Li C, Huang X, Chen C, et al. NADPH oxidase 4 promotes endothelial angiogenesis through endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. Circulation. 2011;124:731-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a reactive oxygen species-producing enzyme that is highly expressed in the endothelium, yet its ..
  28. Schröder K, Zhang M, Benkhoff S, Mieth A, Pliquett R, Kosowski J, et al. Nox4 is a protective reactive oxygen species generating vascular NADPH oxidase. Circ Res. 2012;110:1217-25 pubmed publisher
    The function of Nox4, a source of vascular H(2)O(2), is unknown. Other Nox proteins were identified as mediators of endothelial dysfunction...
  29. Cucoranu I, Clempus R, Dikalova A, Phelan P, Ariyan S, Dikalov S, et al. NAD(P)H oxidase 4 mediates transforming growth factor-beta1-induced differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Circ Res. 2005;97:900-7 pubmed
    ..enzymes are involved, we first performed quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and found that Nox5 and Nox4 are abundantly expressed in cardiac fibroblasts, whereas Nox1 and Nox2 are barely detectable...
  30. Liu Q, Li H, Chen H, Wang J. [Caloric restriction suppresses endothelial cells senescence via down-regulation of NOX4 induced by HNF3?]. Yi Chuan. 2012;34:573-83 pubmed
    ..The gene and protein expressions of HNF3? and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively...
  31. Lim S, Liu J, Low H, Morgenthaler N, Li Y, Yeoh L, et al. Microarray analysis of multiple candidate genes and associated plasma proteins for nephropathy secondary to type 2 diabetes among Chinese individuals. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these 13 SNPs, four clustered to a 5' end NADPH oxidase homologue 4 (NOX4) haplotype (GGCC frequency = 0.776) with estimated OR for diabetic nephropathy of 2.05 (95% CI 1.04-4...
  32. Geiszt M, Kopp J, Varnai P, Leto T. Identification of renox, an NAD(P)H oxidase in kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8010-4 pubmed
    ..We have characterized a source of superoxide anions in the kidney that we refer to as a renal NAD(P)H oxidase or Renox. Renox is homologous to gp91(phox) (91-kDa subunit of the phagocyte oxidase), the electron-transporting subunit of ..
  33. Shiose A, Kuroda J, Tsuruya K, Hirai M, Hirakata H, Naito S, et al. A novel superoxide-producing NAD(P)H oxidase in kidney. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1417-23 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the cloning of human cDNA that encodes a novel NAD(P)H oxidase, designated NOX4. The NOX4 protein of 578 amino acids exhibits 39% identity to gp91(phox) with special conservation in membrane-..
  34. Carmona Cuenca I, Roncero C, Sancho P, Caja L, Fausto N, Fernandez M, et al. Upregulation of the NADPH oxidase NOX4 by TGF-beta in hepatocytes is required for its pro-apoptotic activity. J Hepatol. 2008;49:965-76 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-beta upregulates the Rac-independent Nox4, which correlates with its pro-apoptotic activity...
  35. Djordjevic T, BelAiba R, Bonello S, Pfeilschifter J, Hess J, Gorlach A. Human urotensin II is a novel activator of NADPH oxidase in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:519-25 pubmed
    ..hU-II upregulated expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p22phox and NOX4 and increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were abrogated by transfecting p22phox or NOX4 ..
  36. Shono T, Yokoyama N, Uesaka T, Kuroda J, Takeya R, Yamasaki T, et al. Enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase Nox4 in human gliomas and its roles in cell proliferation and survival. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:787-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that Nox4, a member of Nox family, is prominently expressed in various neuroepithelial tumors by reverse transcription-..
  37. Prata C, Maraldi T, Fiorentini D, Zambonin L, Hakim G, Landi L. Nox-generated ROS modulate glucose uptake in a leukaemic cell line. Free Radic Res. 2008;42:405-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Results prove that Nox2 and Nox4 are the candidates and that phosphorylation processes are important in the regulation of glucose uptake on which ..
  38. Schröder K, Wandzioch K, Helmcke I, Brandes R. Nox4 acts as a switch between differentiation and proliferation in preadipocytes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin also stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the NADPH oxidases Nox1 and Nox4 are important sources of ROS...
  39. Boudreau H, Casterline B, Rada B, Korzeniowska A, Leto T. Nox4 involvement in TGF-beta and SMAD3-driven induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration of breast epithelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:1489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-beta induces EMT but the mechanism is unclear. Our studies suggest that Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family, is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting cell migration ..
  40. Bedard K, Krause K. The NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases: physiology and pathophysiology. Physiol Rev. 2007;87:245-313 pubmed
    ..Over the last years, six homologs of the cytochrome subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase were found: NOX1, NOX3, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1, and DUOX2...
  41. von Löhneysen K, Noack D, Wood M, Friedman J, Knaus U. Structural insights into Nox4 and Nox2: motifs involved in function and cellular localization. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:961-75 pubmed publisher
    Regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is primarily accomplished by NADPH oxidases (Nox). Nox1 to Nox4 form a membrane-associated heterodimer with p22(phox), creating the docking site for assembly of the activated oxidase...
  42. Lyle A, Deshpande N, Taniyama Y, Seidel Rogol B, Pounkova L, Du P, et al. Poldip2, a novel regulator of Nox4 and cytoskeletal integrity in vascular smooth muscle cells. Circ Res. 2009;105:249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..novel p22phox binding partner, Poldip2, and demonstrated that it associates with p22phox, NADPH oxidase (Nox)1, and Nox4 and colocalizes with p22phox at sites of Nox4 localization...
  43. Sturrock A, Huecksteadt T, Norman K, Sanders K, Murphy T, Chitano P, et al. Nox4 mediates TGF-beta1-induced retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, proliferation, and hypertrophy in human airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L1543-55 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that TGF-beta1 is a potent inducer of expression of the nonphagocyte NAD(P)H oxidase catalytic homolog Nox4, diphenylene iodonium-inhibitable reactive oxygen species production, proliferation, and hypertrophy in cultured ..
  44. Serrander L, Cartier L, Bedard K, Banfi B, Lardy B, Plastre O, et al. NOX4 activity is determined by mRNA levels and reveals a unique pattern of ROS generation. Biochem J. 2007;406:105-14 pubmed
    b>NOX4 is an enigmatic member of the NOX (NADPH oxidase) family of ROS (reactive oxygen species)-generating NADPH oxidases...
  45. Carnesecchi S, Deffert C, Donati Y, Basset O, Hinz B, Preynat Seauve O, et al. A key role for NOX4 in epithelial cell death during development of lung fibrosis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15:607-19 pubmed publisher linked to oxidative stress, possibly generated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating NADPH oxidase NOX4. Epithelial cell death is a crucial early step in the development of the disease, followed only later by the ..
  46. Kuroda J, Nakagawa K, Yamasaki T, Nakamura K, Takeya R, Kuribayashi F, et al. The superoxide-producing NAD(P)H oxidase Nox4 in the nucleus of human vascular endothelial cells. Genes Cells. 2005;10:1139-51 pubmed
    The superoxide-producing NAD(P)H oxidase Nox4 was initially identified as an enzyme that is highly expressed in the kidney and is possibly involved in oxygen sensing and cellular senescence...
  47. Mahadev K, Motoshima H, Wu X, Ruddy J, Arnold R, Cheng G, et al. The NAD(P)H oxidase homolog Nox4 modulates insulin-stimulated generation of H2O2 and plays an integral role in insulin signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1844-54 pubmed
    ..Using reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analyses, we found that Nox4, a homolog of gp91phox, the phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase catalytic subunit, is prominently expressed in insulin-..
  48. Cheng G, Cao Z, Xu X, Van Meir E, Lambeth J. Homologs of gp91phox: cloning and tissue expression of Nox3, Nox4, and Nox5. Gene. 2001;269:131-40 pubmed
    ..Herein, we report the cloning and tissue expression of three additional homologs of gp91phox, termed Nox3, Nox4 and Nox5, members of a growing family of gp91phox homologs...
  49. Crosas Molist E, Bertran E, Sancho P, López Luque J, Fernando J, Sánchez A, et al. The NADPH oxidase NOX4 inhibits hepatocyte proliferation and liver cancer progression. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;69:338-47 pubmed publisher
    The NADPH oxidase NOX4 has emerged as an important source of reactive oxygen species in signal transduction, playing roles in physiological and pathological processes...
  50. Hilenski L, Clempus R, Quinn M, Lambeth J, Griendling K. Distinct subcellular localizations of Nox1 and Nox4 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:677-83 pubmed
    ..Nox1 and Nox4, two homologues to the phagocytic NAD(P)H subunit gp91phox, both generate ROS in VSMC but differ in their response ..
  51. Brar S, Kennedy T, Sturrock A, Huecksteadt T, Quinn M, Whorton A, et al. An NAD(P)H oxidase regulates growth and transcription in melanoma cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;282:C1212-24 pubmed
    ..p22(phox), gp91(phox), and p67(phox) components of the human phagocyte NAD(P)H oxidase and the gp91(phox) homolog NOX4 were demonstrated in melanomas by RT-PCR and sequencing, and protein product for both p22(phox) and gp91(phox) was ..
  52. Qiao X, Wang L, Wang Y, Su X, Qi Y, Fan Y, et al. Intermedin inhibits unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase Nox4 and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Ren Fail. 2017;39:652-659 pubmed publisher
    NADPH oxidase Nox4-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in renal fibrosis...
  53. Wanchai K, Yasom S, Tunapong W, Chunchai T, Thiennimitr P, Chaiyasut C, et al. Prebiotic prevents impaired kidney and renal Oat3 functions in obese rats. J Endocrinol. 2018;237:29-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations were improved by XOS supplementation. Renal MDA level and the expression of AT1R, NOX4, p67phox, 4-HNE, phosphorylated PKCα and ERK1/2 were significantly decreased after XOS treatment...
  54. Kim Y, Kim S, Tatsunami R, Yamamura H, Fukai T, Ushio Fukai M. ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by Nox4, Nox2, and mitochondria in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;312:C749-C764 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of Nox4 or Nox2 or overexpression of mitochondria-targeted catalase significantly inhibits VEGF-induced tyrosine ..
  55. Souza Silva L, Alves Lopes R, Silva Miguez J, Dela Justina V, Neves K, Mestriner F, et al. Glycosylation with O-Linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) induces vascular dysfunction via production of superoxide anion / reactive oxygen species. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, PUGNAc treatment increased Nox1 and Nox4 protein expression in aorta and VSMCs...