Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: NKX2-1
Description: NK2 homeobox 1
Alias: BCH, BHC, NK-2, NKX2.1, NKX2A, TEBP, TITF1, TTF-1, TTF1, NK-2 homolog A, homeobox protein NK-2 homolog A, homeobox protein Nkx-2.1, thyroid nuclear factor 1, thyroid transcription factor 1
Publications188 found, 100 shown here
- Genomic profiling identifies TITF1 as a lineage-specific oncogene amplified in lung cancerK A Kwei
Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5176, USA
Oncogene 27:3635-40. 2008..The smallest region of recurrent amplification spanned the homeobox transcription factor TITF1 (thyroid transcription factor 1; also called NKX2-1), previously linked to normal lung development and function...
- Suppression of lung adenocarcinoma progression by Nkx2-1Monte M Winslow
David H Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Nature 473:101-4. 2011..Cross-species analysis identified the NK2-related homeobox transcription factor Nkx2-1 (also called Ttf-1 or Titf1) as a candidate suppressor of malignant progression...
- Thyroid transcription factor in differentiating type II cells: regulation, isoforms, and target genesVenkatadri Kolla
Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, USA
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 36:213-25. 2007..In addition, knockdown of TTF-1 inhibited 72 of 274 other genes induced by hormones. We conclude that 42-kD TTF-1 is required for induction of a subset of regulated genes during type II cell differentiation...
- Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression in human lung carcinomas: its prognostic implication and relationship with wxpressions of p53 and Ki-67 proteinsNa Hye Myong
Department of Pathology, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea
J Korean Med Sci 18:494-500. 2003....
- Thyroid transcription factor 1--a new prognostic factor in lung cancer: a meta-analysisT Berghmans
Department of Intensive Care and Thoracic Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Centre des Tumeurs de l Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Ann Oncol 17:1673-6. 2006The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic role for survival of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) in lung cancer.
- Epigenetic mechanisms modulate thyroid transcription factor 1-mediated transcription of the surfactant protein B geneYuXia Cao
Pulmonary Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
J Biol Chem 285:2152-64. 2010..b>Thyroid transcription factor 1 (Nkx2-1) regulates Sftpb gene expression in various species...
- TTF-1 response element is critical for temporal and spatial regulation and necessary for hormonal regulation of human surfactant protein-A2 promoter activityDongyuan Liu
Department of Biochemistry, North Texas March of Dimes Birth Defects Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75235 9038, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295:L264-71. 2008....
- Interleukin-10 induces uteroglobin-related protein (UGRP) 1 gene expression in lung epithelial cells through homeodomain transcription factor T/EBP/NKX2.1Achara Srisodsai
Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 279:54358-68. 2004..1-dependent pathway. The results further suggest that UGRP1 might be a target for IL-10 anti-inflammatory activities in the lung...
- Lineage-specific dependency of lung adenocarcinomas on the lung development regulator TTF-1Hisaaki Tanaka
Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
Cancer Res 67:6007-11. 2007....
- TTF1 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma: association with TTF1 gene amplification and improved survivalS Perner
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
J Pathol 217:65-72. 2009..3, which contains the TTF1 gene...
- Evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor-1 gene (TITF1) as a Hirschsprung's disease locusMaria Mercè Garcia-Barceló
Division of Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Ann Hum Genet 71:746-54. 2007..We previously showed that RET transcription was decreased due to alteration of the TITF1 binding site by two HSCR-associated RET promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
- Thyroid transcription factor-1 and "basal marker"--expressing small cell carcinoma of the breastCagatay Ersahin
Department of Pathology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, USA
Int J Surg Pathol 17:368-72. 2009..An unequivocal in situ component was identified intimately admixed with the invasive carcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of breast small cell carcinoma showing the expression of "basal markers."..
- TTF-1 and RET promoter SNPs: regulation of RET transcription in Hirschsprung's diseaseMerce Garcia-Barcelo
Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Hum Mol Genet 14:191-204. 2005..We also present a detailed profile of the RET gene in our population, which provides an insight into the higher incidence of the disease in China...
- Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate-induced DNA or protein modifications severely inhibit the protein/DNA interactionM Moro
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, , Italy
Horm Metab Res 29:347-50. 1997..e. in diabetes) or after a long time exposure (i.e. in Gzero-arrested cells during aging)...
- Monitoring of pesticide residues and their metabolites in surface and underground waters of Imathia (N. Greece) by means of solid-phase extraction disks and gas chromatographyT A Albanis
Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Greece
J Chromatogr A 823:59-71. 1998..compounds including propazine, trifluralin, malathion, parathion ethyl, lindane, alpha-benzene hexachloride (alpha-BHC), beta-BHC, 4,4'-DDE and heptachlor were determined in river waters...
- Thyroid transcription factor-1, thyroglobulin, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 20 in thyroid neoplasmsP A Bejarano
Department of Pathology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33136, USA
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 8:189-94. 2000..Thyroid tumors are CK7+/CK20-. The panel of antibodies for TG, TTF-1, CK7, and CK20 is useful when the thyroid origin of a metastatic tumor is a consideration...
- Use of thyroid transcription factor 1, PE-10, and cytokeratins 7 and 20 in discriminating between primary lung carcinomas and metastatic lesions in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimensD C Chhieng
Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35249 6823, USA
Cancer 93:330-6. 2001..It has been shown that antibodies to thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and PE-10 are fairly specific markers for primary lung tumors in histologic specimens...
- [Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in nine herbs by solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography]Zheng Yan
College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China
Se Pu 23:308-11. 2005..was introduced for determining 13 organochlorine pesticide residues including alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), betaBHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC, p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (pp'-DDE), p,p'-dichloro-di-phenyl-..
- Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression in ovarian carcinomas is an independent prognostic factorSawako Fujiwara
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Shouwa ku, Nagoya 466 8550, Japan
Hum Pathol 41:560-5. 2010Tthyroid transcription factor 1 is a marker of lung and thyroid carcinomas, but thyroid transcription factor 1 immunoreactivity is seen in other malignancies...
- Residues of endosulfan and other selected organochlorine pesticides in farm areas of the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, CanadaMichael T Wan
Environmental Protection Branch, Environment Canada, Pacific and Yukon Region, 201 401 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada
J Environ Qual 34:1186-93. 2005..endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide), hexachlorocyclohexanes [alpha-benzene-hexachloride (alpha-BHC), beta-BHC, delta-BHC, and gamma-BHC (lindane)], and DDT-related compounds (p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDE, and ..
- Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expressionM Nakazato
Cell Regulation Section, Metabolic Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Mol Cell Biol 20:8499-512. 2000..the molecular mechanism by which TG suppresses the prototypic thyroid-restricted transcription factor, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), in rat FRTL-5 thyrocytes...
- Sterol response element binding protein and thyroid transcription factor-1 (Nkx2.1) regulate Abca3 gene expressionValérie Besnard
Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293:L1395-405. 2007..Abca3 gene expression is mediated by discrete cis-acting cassettes that mediate pulmonary cell- and lipid-sensitive pathways regulating surfactant homeostasis...
- Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: single-laboratory validationNathan Paske
Covance Laboratories, 3301 Kinsman Blvd, Madison, WI 53704, USA
J AOAC Int 90:534-43. 2007..with mass selective detection The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; delta-BHC; methyl parathion; malathion; chlorpyrifos; aldrin; 2,4-..
- Career development among residents completing primary care and traditional residencies in medicine at the Boston City Hospital, 1974-1983R A Witzburg
Department of Medicine, Boston City Hospital, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts 02118
J Gen Intern Med 3:48-53. 1988A primary care (PC) pathway was initiated within the medical residency program at Boston City Hospital (BCH) in 1974...
- Immunohistochemical study of thyroid transcription factor-1 and HER2/neu in non-small cell lung cancer: strong thyroid transcription factor-1 expression predicts better survivalAbida K Haque
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555 0588, USA
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 10:103-9. 2002..The results of this study suggest that strong expression of TTF-1 is an independent predictor of better survival and may be a useful prognostic tool for evaluation of patients with NSCLC...
- Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1/Nkx2.1/TITF1) gene regulation in the lungVijay Boggaram
Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, 11937 US Highway 271, Tyler, TX 75708 3154, USA
Clin Sci (Lond) 116:27-35. 2009TTF-1 [thyroid transcription factor-1; also known as Nkx2.1, T/EBP (thyroid-specific-enhancer-binding protein) or TITF1] is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for the morphogenesis and differentiation of the thyroid, ..
- The mouse Muc5b mucin gene is transcriptionally regulated by thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and GATA-6 transcription factorsNicolas Jonckheere
INSERM, U837, Jean Pierre Aubert Research Center, Lille, France
FEBS J 278:282-94. 2011..The characterization of the structural and functional features of the Muc5b mucin gene will provide us with a strong base to develop studies in murine models aimed at the identification of its biological role in lung pathophysiology...
- Functional inactivation of the transcription factor Pax8 through oligomerization chain reactionBarbara D'Andrea
Istituto di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Sperimentale Consiglio Nazionale delie Ricerche and Dipartimento di Biologia e Patologia Cellulare e Molecolare, Italy
Mol Endocrinol 20:1810-24. 2006..in thyroid cells Pax8 interacts biochemically and functionally with the transcription factor TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1), and that such interaction leads to the synergistic activation of thyroglobulin (Tg) gene expression...
- The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteinsS Guazzi
Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Istituto Scientifico H S Raffaele, Milano, Italy
EMBO J 13:3339-47. 1994..Some of the DNA-protein complexes formed by the embryonic extracts are indistinguishable from those generated by HOXB3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
- Utility of tissue-specific transcription factors thyroid transcription factor 1 and Cdx2 in determining the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brainLeah B Strickland-Marmol
University of South Florida Department of Pathology, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, MDC Box 11, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
Arch Pathol Lab Med 131:1686-90. 2007..Recently, attention has turned to tissue-specific transcription factors, such as thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and Cdx2, in the appraisal of metastatic adenocarcinomas.
- Thyroid transcription factor 1 immunohistochemistry as an intraoperative diagnostic tool at frozen section for distinction between primary and secondary lung tumorsDavid N Butcher
Department of Histopathology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London SW3 6NP, United Kingdom
Arch Pathol Lab Med 131:582-7. 2007..Intraoperative distinction between primary and metastatic carcinomas in the lung at frozen section remains problematic...
- Residues of 18 organochlorine pesticides in 30 traditional Chinese medicinesJian Xue
Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100094, China
Chemosphere 71:1051-5. 2008..We tested for 18 pesticides: benzene hexachloride (BHC, including alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, tecnazene, ..
- [Quantitative analysis of thyroid transcription factor-1 mRNA expressions in primary lung cancer and its metastatic foci]Xiao Yan Bai
Department of Pathology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 28:20-5. 2008....
- Antinociceptive effects of bethanechol or dimethylphenylpiperazinium in models of phasic or incisional pain in ratsWiliam A Prado
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Av Bandeirantes 3900, 14049 900, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
Brain Res 1018:272-82. 2004..used intrathecal administration of drugs to rats to show that muscarinic or nicotinic agonists such as bethanechol (BCh) and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DM), respectively, dose-dependently increased the tail flick latency and reduced ..
- [A comparative evaluation of immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis between malignant mesothelioma, non-small cell carcinoma involving the pleura, and benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation]Ewa Szczepulska-Wójcik
Zakład Patomorfologii Instytutu Gruźlicy i Chorób Płuc w Warszawie
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 75:57-69. 2007..The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of selected immunohistochemical stains in differentiating MM from non-small cell lung cancers infiltrating the pleura and from benign reactive mesothelial cell proliferation...
- Immunostaining for thyroid transcription factor-1 on fine-needle aspiration specimens of lung tumors: a comparison of direct smears and cell block preparationsJing Liu
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Cancer 102:109-14. 2004....
- In vitro characterization of the thyroidal uptake of O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosineOlaf Prante
Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Friedrich Alexander University, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
Nucl Med Biol 34:305-14. 2007..We therefore studied several factors potentially governing the uptake of FET in the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 in comparison with thyroid tumor cell lines of human origin...
- Effects of of habitats and pesticides on aerobic capacity and survival of soil faunaG Tripathi
Department of Zoology, J N Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 001, India
Biomed Environ Sci 18:169-75. 2005..Faunal health is largely dependent on their soil environment and available litter quality. So the effects of different soil habitats and pesticides on citrate synthase (CS) activity of soil fauna and its population were studied...
- Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in human body fluids and tissuesK A Bucholski
, Department of Analytical Chemistry, , Germany
J Chromatogr A 754:479-85. 1996..The method allows the simultaneous determination of chlorinated pesticides such as aldrin, DDT, DDE, BHC and HCB and is also applicable to other biological matrices, such as bone marrow or tissues.
- Inhibition by a nonmetabolized analogue of L-leucine of protein biosynthesis in tumoral pancreatic islet cellsM Barreto
, Centro Asociado al Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
Horm Metab Res 21:533-6. 1989..metabolite 2-ketoisocaproate and its nonmetabolized analogue b(+/-)2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) upon protein labelling was examined in tumoral islet cells (RINm5F line) exposed to L-[4-3H]phenylalanine or L-[3-..
- Endocrine disrupting chemicals in Hungarian canned foodsMasaharu Yamamoto
Div of Social and Environmental Medicine Dept of Community Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 951 8510, Niigata City, Japan
Environ Health Prev Med 6:273-5. 2002The aim of this study was to clarify the worldwide residual levels of organochloride compounds, such as BHC and DDT, which were reportedly concentrated in animal tissues by biological food chains...
- Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasmsDaisuke Nonaka
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
Mod Pathol 21:192-200. 2008..In differentiated thyroid neoplasms, no significant difference in expression was seen in all the three transcription factors...
- PCBs and organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) in the north-eastern MediterraneanV Goutner
Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, GR 54006, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
Mar Pollut Bull 42:377-88. 2001Levels of eight PCB congeners (IUPAC 8, 20, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 180) and 13 organochlorine pesticides (alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane (gamma-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, 2,4'-DDT, 2,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDT, 4,..
- [Thyroid transcription factor-1 in pulmonary cytology]Silvana Smojver-Jezek
Klinika za plućne bolesti Jordanovac, Zagreb, Hrvatska
Acta Med Croatica 62:373-8. 2008..Mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinomas are usually negative. Immunocytochemistry with a panel of cytokeratins (CK) 7 and 20, along with TTF-1, is recommended for identification of the origin of adenocarcinoma in pulmonary cytology...
- GCDFP-15 positive and TTF-1 negative primary lung neoplasms: a tissue microarray study of 381 primary lung tumorsLi J Wang
Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 17:505-11. 2009..On whole sections, about half (55%) of GCDFP-15 positive cases were negative and one-third (33%) revealed focal TTF1 staining in areas distinct from the tumor regions that expressed GCDFP-15...
- TTF1 expression in normal lung neuroendocrine cells and related tumors: immunohistochemical study comparing two different monoclonal antibodiesStefano La Rosa
Department of Pathology, Ospedale di Circolo, 21100 Varese, Italy
Virchows Arch 457:497-507. 2010Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) regulates lung morphogenesis and differentiation, and its immunohistochemical expression is used for identifying lung neoplasms...
- Mutations in TITF1 are not relevant to sporadic and familial chorea of unknown causePeter Bauer
Medical Genetics, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
Mov Disord 21:1734-7. 2006..Benign hereditary chorea (BHC; OMIM 118700) is an autosomal dominant movement disorder. Mutations in the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TITF1) gene have been linked with BHC...
- Glutaminolysis and insulin secretion: from bedside to bench and backAndrea Kelly
Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Diabetes 51:S421-6. 2002..bicarbonate buffer with 2 mmol/l glutamine using 10 mmol/l 2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) or a BCH ramp after 50 or 120 min of glucose deprivation...
- Expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 in colorectal carcinomaBo Xu
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 18:244-9. 2010..Positive nuclear TTF-1 in a metastatic carcinoma does not rule out CRC primary. Clinicopathologic correlation, tumor morphology, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers are essential to render the correct diagnosis...
- Thyroid transcription factor-1 regulates feeding behavior via melanocortin pathway in the hypothalamusJae Geun Kim
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
Diabetes 60:710-9. 2011..This study aims to identify the function of TTF-1 in the transcriptional regulation of AgRP and α-MSH synthesis for the control of feeding behavior...
- TTF-1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, participates in the control of body fluid homeostasis by regulating angiotensinogen gene transcription in the rat subfornical organYoung June Son
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680 749, South Korea
J Biol Chem 278:27043-52. 2003..These results demonstrate a novel role for TTF-1 in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis, exerted via the transactivational control of angiotensinogen synthesis in the subfornical organ...
- [Value of thyroid transcription factor-1 in identification of the prognosis of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma]Chang Li Wang
Department of Lung Tumor, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060, China
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 87:2350-4. 2007....
- Bhc-cNMPs as either water-soluble or membrane-permeant photoreleasable cyclic nucleotides for both one- and two-photon excitationToshiaki Furuta
Department of Biomolecular Science, Toho University, 2 2 1 Miyama, Funabashi 274 8510, Japan
Chembiochem 5:1119-28. 2004..the synthesis, photochemistry, and biological testing of 6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyl esters of cNMP (Bhc-cNMP) and their acetyl derivatives (Bhc-cNMP/Ac) as new caged second messengers...
- Cough headache presenting as a toothache: a case reportE Moncada
Orofacial Pain and Dysfunction Program, UCLA School of Dentistry 90024
Headache 33:240-3. 1993Benign cough headache (BCH) presents as an intermittent, usually bilateral, severe bursting or explosive pain brought on by coughing...
- An immunohistochemical study of cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas: Neoplasms that are commonly TTF1 positive and which may express CK20 and P63W Glenn McCluggage
Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Am J Surg Pathol 34:525-32. 2010..Cases were stained with AE1/3, chromogranin, CD56, synaptophysin, PGP9.5, TTF1, p16, p63, CK7, CK20, neurofilament, and CD99...
- Comparative study of a novel nucleoside analogue (Troxatyl, troxacitabine, BCH-4556) and AraC against leukemic human tumor xenografts expressing high or low cytidine deaminase activityH Gourdeau
BioChem Pharma Inc, 275 Armand Frappier Blvd, Laval, Quebec H7V 4A7, Canada
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 47:236-40. 2001Troxacitabine (beta-L-dioxolane cytidine, BCH-4556; Troxatyl, BioChem Pharma Inc.) is a novel nucleoside analogue, which in experiments demonstrated potent antitumor activity against both leukemias and solid tumors...
- Early embryonic expression of a LIM-homeobox gene Cs-lhx3 is downstream of beta-catenin and responsible for the endoderm differentiation in Ciona savignyi embryosY Satou
Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
Development 128:3559-70. 2001..We found that a LIM-homeobox gene (Cs-lhx3), an otx homolog (Cs-otx) and an NK-2 class gene (Cs-ttf1) were among beta-catenin downstream genes...
- Thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein/NKX2.1 is required for the maintenance of ordered architecture and function of the differentiated thyroidTakashi Kusakabe
Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute NCI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Mol Endocrinol 20:1796-809. 2006..Taken together, these results suggest that T/ebp/Nkx2.1 is required for maintenance of the normal architecture and function of differentiated thyroids...
- The immunohistochemical diagnosis of mesothelioma: a comparative study of epithelioid mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinomaNelson G Ordonez
University of Texas, Texas 77030, USA
Am J Surg Pathol 27:1031-51. 2003..3, Ber-EP4, or BG-8) for the negative markers. An extensive and detailed review of the literature is also provided...
- Superficial primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 15 casesJ Lu
Department of Pathology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China
Dis Esophagus 23:153-9. 2010..Higher proportion of positive labeling of NSE, Syn, AE1/AE3, CD56, TTF-1, and CgA in PESCC was valuably applied in diagnosis and differential diagnosis...
- Comparative functional analysis provides evidence for a crucial role for the homeobox gene Nkx2.1/Titf-1 in forebrain evolutionWillem M R van den Akker
Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
J Comp Neurol 506:211-23. 2008....
- Chronic subdural hematoma: comparison of two surgical techniques. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized studyV F Muzii
Neurosurgical Clinic, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
J Neurosurg Sci 49:41-6; discussion 46-7. 2005..Burr hole craniotomy (BHC) is a common treatment and twist drill craniostomy (TDC) is a less invasive alternative...
- Pyrido [1,2a] indole derivatives identified as novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1D L Taylor
MRC Collaborative Centre, London, UK
Antivir Chem Chemother 10:79-86. 1999..The most potent compound of the series, BCH-1, had similar antiviral activity to the licensed NNRTI nevirapine against laboratory strains of HIV-1 cultured in ..
- Pituitary hormones are not required for sexual differentiation of male mice: phenotype of the T/ebp/Nkx2.1 null mutant micePirjo Pakarinen
Department of Physiology, University of Turku, FIN 20520 Turku, Finland
Endocrinology 143:4477-82. 2002..The endogenous testosterone level in the null mutant testes is 5-10% of the control level, which suggests that there is a considerable safety margin in the amount of testosterone that is needed for the male fetal masculinization...
- Systemic activation of glutamate dehydrogenase increases renal ammoniagenesis: implications for the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndromeJason R Treberg
Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John s, Newfoundland, Canada
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E1219-25. 2010..2-Aminobicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) is a nonmetabolizable analog of the natural GDH allosteric activator leucine...
- [Action mechanism of p,p'-DDE and/or beta-BHC on JNK and MAPK signal transduction pathways in rat Sertoli cells]Hai Ge Yu
MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 14:311-6. 2008To study the action mechanism of p,p'-DDE and/or beta-BHC on JNK and MAPK signal transduction pathways in rat Sertoli cells in vitro.
- Survivability and causes of loss of broody-hen chicks on smallholder households in BangladeshP K Biswas
Department of Microbiology, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University former, Chittagong Government Veterinary College, Khulshi, Chittagong 4202, Bangladesh
Prev Vet Med 83:260-71. 2008We determined the flock sizes and rates of loss caused by different factors in broody-hen chicks (BHC) up to 60 days of age on 600 randomly selected smallholdings in Bangladesh...
- L-leucine transport in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231): kinetics, regulation by estrogen and molecular identity of the transporterD B Shennan
Hannah Research Institute, Ayr, Scotland, KA6 5HL, UK
Biochim Biophys Acta 1664:206-16. 2004..L-leucine uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was via a BCH-sensitive, Na+ -independent pathway...
- Rubella reimmunization: comparative analysis of the immunoglobulin G response to rubella virus vaccine in previously seronegative and seropositive individualsL A Mitchell
Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
J Clin Microbiol 34:2210-8. 1996..Three different whole-RV enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and an epitope-specific EIA with a synthetic peptide (BCH-178c) representing a heutralization domain on the RV E1 envelope protein were used. Before vaccination, 84.2, 87...
- Alkylator resistance in human B lymphoid cell lines: (1). Melphalan accumulation, cytotoxicity, interstrand-DNA-crosslinks, cell cycle analysis, and glutathione content in the melphalan-sensitive B-lymphocytic cell line (WIL2) and in the melphalan-resistaQ Pu
Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital, Manchester, U K
Anticancer Res 20:2561-8. 2000..Melphalan transport was inhibited by 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1] heptane-2-carboxylic acid(BCH) in both cell lines, indicating that the amino acid transport (System L, which is sodium independent and inhibited ..
- [The expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 in pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma and a further investigation on histogenesis of the tumor]Jianqiang Zhang
Department of Pathology, Nanjing General Hospital, PLA Nanjing 210002, China Email
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 31:42-5. 2002..To investigate the histogenesis and pathologic features of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (SH) and its expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)...
- Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors may express CDX-2: a potential pitfall in distinction from metastatic intestinal carcinoid tumors involving the ovaryJoseph T Rabban
Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Int J Gynecol Pathol 28:41-8. 2009....
- Inhibition of distal lung morphogenesis in Nkx2.1(-/-) embryosB Yuan
Department of Pediatrics, Women s and Children s Hospital, USC School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
Dev Dyn 217:180-90. 2000..1 independent, while distal lung morphogenesis appears to be strictly dependent on the wild-type activity of Nkx2.1...
- Drug resistance and drug combination features of the human immunodeficiency virus inhibitor, BCH-10652 [(+/-)-2'-deoxy-3'-oxa-4'-thiocytidine, dOTC]D L Taylor
Virogen Drug Discovery Ltd, Mill Hill, London, UK
Antivir Chem Chemother 11:291-301. 2000The heterosubstituted nucleoside analogue dOTC [( )-2'-deoxy-3'-oxa-4'-thiocytidine, BCH-10652] is a racemic compound structurally related to 3TC (lamivudine), but has the oxygen and sulphur in the furanosyl ring transposed...
- Determination of pyrethroid pesticides in cinnamomi cortexTakaomi Tagami
Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Nakamichi, Higashinari ku, Osaka, Japan
Yakugaku Zasshi 129:173-6. 2009In Japan, maximum residue levels (MRL) have been set for eight pesticides (alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC (BHCs), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT (DDTs)) in 14 crude drugs (below 0.2 ppm as total of BHCs, below 0...
- Pax-8 expression correlates with type II 5' deiodinase expression in thyroids from patients with Graves' diseaseMichał Ambroziak
Department of Biochemistry, Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, Poland
Thyroid 13:141-8. 2003..Our data suggest that transcription factor Pax-8 could be involved in the upregulation of D2 expression in the thyroid of Graves' patients...
- Hypoperfusion in caudate nuclei in patients with brain-lung-thyroid syndromeMitsugu Uematsu
Department of Pediatrics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
J Neurol Sci 315:77-81. 2012..These brain nuclear image findings indicate that NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency causes dysfunction of the basal ganglia, especially the caudate nuclei, resulting in choreoathetosis and gait disturbance in this disease...
- Best immunohistochemical panel in distinguishing adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma of lung: tissue microarray assay in resected lung cancer specimensMi Jin Kim
Department of Pathology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Nam Gu, Daegu, South Korea
Ann Diagn Pathol 17:85-90. 2013..We performed a battery of immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray for napsin-A, Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), p63, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, thrombomodulin (CD141), Epithelial-related antigen (MOC-31), ..
- Kras(G12D) and Nkx2-1 haploinsufficiency induce mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lungYutaka Maeda
Perinatal Institute, Section of Neonatology, Perinatal and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
J Clin Invest 122:4388-400. 2012..NKX2-1 inhibited both AP-1 activity and tumor colony formation in vitro. These data demonstrate that NKX2-1 functions in a context-dependent manner in lung tumorigenesis and inhibits Kras(G12D)-driven mucinous pulmonary adenocarcinoma...
- Neural lineage-specific homeoprotein BRN2 is directly involved in TTF1 expression in small-cell lung cancerMasashi Sakaeda
Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
Lab Invest 93:408-21. 2013b>Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) plays crucial roles in thyroid, lung, and developing brain morphogenesis...
- Rapid multiplex immunohistochemistry using the 4-antibody cocktail YANA-4 in differentiating primary adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma of the lungEmmy Yanagita
Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kobe University Hospital, Japan
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 19:509-13. 2011..This antibody cocktail consists of the following monoclonal antibodies: rabbit for thyroid transcription factor 1(TTF-1), mouse for napsin A, mouse l for p63, and rabbit for CK14...
- Lack of germline A339V mutation in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF-1/NKX2.1) gene in familial papillary thyroid cancerSilvia Cantara
Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Metabolism and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
Thyroid Res 3:4. 2010..We concluded that the A339V mutation in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF-1/NKX2.1) is not correlated with the familial form of PTC, even when the tumor was in the context of multinodular goiter...
- Transcriptional activity of the 5'-flanking region of the thyroid transcription factor-1 gene in human thyroid cell linesHiroya Yamada
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Genet Mol Biol 34:6-10. 2011....
- Secretoglobin 3A2/uteroglobin-related protein 1 is a novel marker for pulmonary carcinoma in mice and humansReiko Kurotani
Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA
Lung Cancer 71:42-8. 2011..The results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 is a useful marker for diagnosis of pulmonary tumors both in mice and humans...
- Thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in normal gynecologic tissues and its potential significanceHui Lin Niu
Department of Pathology, Guangzhou Children s Hospital, China
Int J Gynecol Pathol 28:301-7. 2009..The high TTF-1 expression in tubal epithelium but not in normal ovarian surface epithelium suggests that some TTF-1-positive ovarian tumors might be related to the tubal epithelium...
- Clinical significance of TTF-1 protein expression and TTF-1 gene amplification in lung adenocarcinomaJustine A Barletta
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Cell Mol Med 13:1977-86. 2009..Patients with no TTF-1 expression or TTF-1 expression and TTF-1 gene amplification tend to have a significantly worse prognosis than patients with TTF-1 expression and no TTF-1 gene amplification...
- The FOXE1 and NKX2-1 loci are associated with susceptibility to papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Japanese populationMichiko Matsuse
Department of Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan
J Med Genet 48:645-8. 2011..FOXE1 and NKX2-1 are two known genetic risk factors for the predisposition to sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in Europeans, but their association in other ethnicities is still unknown...
- Panels of immunohistochemical markers help determine primary sites of metastatic adenocarcinomaSeog Yun Park
Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Cancer Research Institute, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul 110 744, South Korea
Arch Pathol Lab Med 131:1561-7. 2007..Because none of the individual immunohistochemical markers used for tissue identification are both site specific and site sensitive, multiple markers are needed to improve the prediction of primary sites...
- Islet 1 (Isl1) expression is a reliable marker for pancreatic endocrine tumors and their metastasesAnja M Schmitt
Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Am J Surg Pathol 32:420-5. 2008Tracing the origin of a metastasis of a neuroendocrine carcinoma is a challenge. The transcription factors Cdx2 and TTF1 have been found to be helpful in identifying well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal and ..
- Epigenetic silencing of TTF-1/NKX2-1 through DNA hypermethylation and histone H3 modulation in thyroid carcinomasTetsuo Kondo
Department of Pathology, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan
Lab Invest 89:791-9. 2009..Our data suggest that epigenetics is involved with inactivation of TTF-1 in thyroid carcinomas, and provide a possible means of using TTF-1 as a target for differentiation-inducing therapy through epigenetic modification...
- Immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1 in various cytological subtypes of primary lung adenocarcinoma, with special reference to intratumoral heterogeneityAkiko M Maeshima
Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
Pathol Int 58:31-7. 2008..BSE and POR in both groups had a different phenotype, possibly reflecting their different natural history. In group C 80% of cases were TTF-1 positive, suggesting that the majority were derived from group A tumors...
- Upregulation of thyroid transcription factor-1 and human leukocyte antigen class I in Hashimoto's disease providing a clinical evidence for possible triggering autoimmune reactionHuibin Huang
Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, People s Republic of China
Eur J Endocrinol 164:795-800. 2011..In this study, the expressions and potential role of TTF-1 and HLA class I in Hashimoto's disease (HT) were examined...
- Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumorsAmitabh Srivastava
Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center Lebanon, NH, USA
Am J Surg Pathol 33:626-32. 2009..TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids in our study but was present in only about a third of cases. A panel of these 4 markers may be useful in predicting the primary site of metastatic WDNET...
- Thyroid transcription factor 1 is an independent prognostic factor for patients with stage I lung adenocarcinomaValsamo K Anagnostou
Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8023, USA
J Clin Oncol 27:271-8. 2009b>Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in lung development...
- CAATT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha and delta interact with NKX2-1 to synergistically activate mouse secretoglobin 3A2 gene expressionTakeshi Tomita
Laboratory of Metabolism, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 283:25617-27. 2008....
- Frequent ALK rearrangement and TTF-1/p63 co-expression in lung adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cell componentAkihiko Yoshida
Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan
Lung Cancer 72:309-15. 2011..The characteristic histology, immunoprofile, frequent ALK translocation, and total lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations, may suggest that Ad-SRCC forms a histologically/molecularly coherent subgroup of adenocarcinoma...
- Subclassification of non-small cell lung carcinomas lacking morphologic differentiation on biopsy specimens: Utility of an immunohistochemical panel containing TTF-1, napsin A, p63, and CK5/6Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
Department of Pathology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
Am J Surg Pathol 35:15-25. 2011..Discrepancies in immunohistochemical staining between biopsies and resections are uncommon...
- Airway administration of dexamethasone, 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and isobutylmethylxanthine facilitates compensatory lung growth in adult miceYusuke Takahashi
Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Dept of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio Univ, Tokyo, Japan
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 300:L453-61. 2011..Recently, we found that RNA silencing of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) delayed compensatory lung growth...
- Transcription factor mutations and congenital hypothyroidism: systematic genetic screening of a population-based cohort of Japanese patientsSatoshi Narumi
Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1981-5. 2010..Gene mutations of transcription factors that are predominantly expressed in the thyroid gland cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The prevalence of CH due to transcription factor mutations remains undetermined...
- Specimen size and porosity can introduce error into microCT-based tissue mineral density measurementsRoberto J Fajardo
Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Bone 44:176-84. 2009..Two beam-hardening correction (BHC) algorithms, determined using a 200 and 1200 mg/cm(3) HA wedge phantom, were used to calculate rho(m) of the HA and ..
- NKX2-1, A Candidate Lineage Survival Oncogene in Lung AdenocarcinomaMatthew L Meyerson; Fiscal Year: 2010..Our hope is that this understanding will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. ..
- Genetic Control of Basal Telencephalic DevelopmentJohn L R Rubenstein; Fiscal Year: 2010..Disruption of these mechanisms can cause psychiatric and neurological disorders that include mental retardation, autism, schizophrenia, movement disorders and addiction. ..
- Genetic Control of Basal Telencephalic DevelopmentJohn Rubenstein; Fiscal Year: 2009..Disruption of these mechanisms can cause psychiatric and neurological disorders that include mental retardation, autism, schizophrenia, movement disorders and addiction. ..
- MECHANISMS IN THE REGULATION OF SP-A GENE EXPRESSIONCAROLE MENDELSON; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- MECHANISMS IN THE REGULATION OF SP-A GENE EXPRESSIONCarole R Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2011....
- MECHANISMS IN THE REGULATION OF SP-A GENE EXPRESSIONCarole R Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- THE ROLE OF GATA6 IN LUNG DEVELOPMENTEdward E Morrisey; Fiscal Year: 2010..Thus, the studies described in our proposal will greatly enhance our knowledge of the pathways that regulate early lung progenitor development as well as airway regeneration in the adult. ..
- NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF PUBERTY AND SEXUAL DEVELOPMENTSergio Ojeda; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- The role of Nkx genes in hypothalamic & NAc developmentCindy Yee; Fiscal Year: 2006..I will analyze Nkx2.1 function in dorsoventral patterning, specification and differentiation of NPY+/GABA+ neurons in the hypothalamus and NAc using cre recombinase-mediated gene inactivation technology in mice. ..
- SYNTHESIS & BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ANTI-HIV NUCLEOSIDEDavid Chu; Fiscal Year: 1993..Additionally, new classes of anti-HIV nucleosides, BCH-189 and dioxolane-T analogues and their C- nucleosides will be synthesized and evaluated as potential anti-HIV ..
- Specification of GABergic Interneurons in the developing Cerebral CortexStewart Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2009..2 to rescue interneuron fate in Nkx2.1-/- slices. Future experiments will test the functions of other genes with enriched expressed in the dorsal or ventral MGE that have been identified through an array based screen. ..
- Specification of GABergic Interneurons in the developing Cerebral CortexStewart A Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2010..2 to rescue interneuron fate in Nkx2.1-/- slices. Future experiments will test the functions of other genes with enriched expressed in the dorsal or ventral MGE that have been identified through an array based screen. ..
- REGIONAL PATTERNING IN THE VENTRAL TELENCEPHALONGORDON J FISHELL; Fiscal Year: 2010..If we can understand how this population is generated, we will take the first step towards assessing whether we can use gene or cell therapies to ameliorate the devasting consequences associated with cortical interneuron dysfunction. ..
- Specification of GABergic Interneurons in the developing Cerebral CortexStewart Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2007..2 to rescue interneuron fate in Nkx2.1-/- slices. Future experiments will test the functions of other genes with enriched expressed in the dorsal or ventral MGE that have been identified through an array based screen. ..
- REGULATORY MECHANISMS IN SURFACTANT SYNTHESISCAROLE MENDELSON; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF PUBERTY AND SEXUAL DEVELOPMENTSergio R Ojeda; Fiscal Year: 2010..4) To examine the hypothesis that a novel gene, termed EAP-1 (Enhanced At. Puberty-1) belongs - along with TTF-1 - to the hierarchy of controlling genes involved in the transcriptional regulation of the pubertal process. ..
- Specification of Cortical InterneuronsStewart Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2007..In addition Shh function will be studied using conditional knockouts that target Shh expression within the ventral forebrain. ..
- NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS AS ANTICANCER COMPOUNDSYung Chi Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2005..on the study of the anticancer action of a novel L-deoxynucleoside analog, L(-)dioxolane cytidine (L(-)OddC or BCH 4664) discovered in this laboratory and currently undergoing Phase II clinical studies...
- Specification of Interneurons of the Cerebral CortexStewart Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2003..The two main factors under investigation, by manipulations in slice cultures followed by transplantation, are the secreted signalling molecule Sonic Hedghog, and the transcription factor Lhx6. ..