NKG2D

Summary

Gene Symbol: NKG2D
Description: killer cell lectin like receptor K1
Alias: CD314, D12S2489E, KLR, NKG2-D, NKG2D, NKG2-D type II integral membrane protein, NK cell receptor D, NKG2-D-activating NK receptor, killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily K, member 1
Species: human
Products:     NKG2D

Top Publications

  1. Groh V, Wu J, Yee C, Spies T. Tumour-derived soluble MIC ligands impair expression of NKG2D and T-cell activation. Nature. 2002;419:734-8 pubmed
    Engagement of the NKG2D receptor by tumour-associated ligands may promote tumour rejection by stimulating innate and adaptive lymphocyte responses...
  2. Raulet D. Roles of the NKG2D immunoreceptor and its ligands. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:781-90 pubmed
    ..b>NKG2D is, perhaps, the best characterized receptor that is associated with responses to cellular distress, defined as ..
  3. Groh V, Smythe K, Dai Z, Spies T. Fas-ligand-mediated paracrine T cell regulation by the receptor NKG2D in tumor immunity. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:755-62 pubmed
    Tumor-associated ligands of the activating NKG2D receptor can effectively stimulate T cell responses at early but not late stages of tumor growth...
  4. Richard J, Sindhu S, Pham T, Belzile J, Cohen E. HIV-1 Vpr up-regulates expression of ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor and promotes NK cell-mediated killing. Blood. 2010;115:1354-63 pubmed publisher
    HIV up-regulates cell-surface expression of specific ligands for the activating NKG2D receptor, including ULBP-1, -2, and -3, but not MICA or MICB, in infected cells both in vitro and in vivo...
  5. Yang D, Wang H, Ni B, He Y, Li J, Tang Y, et al. Mutual activation of CD4+ T cells and monocytes mediated by NKG2D-MIC interaction requires IFN-gamma production in systemic lupus erythematosus. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1432-42 pubmed publisher
    The activating receptor NKG2D is mainly expressed by human CD8(+) T cells and NK cells but normally absent on CD4(+) T cells...
  6. Gilfillan S, Ho E, Cella M, Yokoyama W, Colonna M. NKG2D recruits two distinct adapters to trigger NK cell activation and costimulation. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:1150-5 pubmed
    b>NKG2D is a receptor on natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes that binds major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like ligands expressed primarily on virally infected and neoplastic cells...
  7. Pariente B, Mocan I, Camus M, Dutertre C, Ettersperger J, Cattan P, et al. Activation of the receptor NKG2D leads to production of Th17 cytokines in CD4+ T cells of patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:217-26, 226.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    The natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) is a stimulatory receptor expressed on a subset of mucosal and peripheral CD4+ T cells in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and other inflammatory diseases...
  8. Maccalli C, Nonaka D, Piris A, Pende D, Rivoltini L, Castelli C, et al. NKG2D-mediated antitumor activity by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and antigen-specific T-cell clones isolated from melanoma patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:7459-68 pubmed
    The role of NKG2D receptor in antitumor immunosurveillance has not been completely clarified. We addressed this issue by investigating the involvement of this receptor in tumor-specific immunologic response in melanoma patients...
  9. Schulz U, Kreutz M, Multhoff G, Stoelcker B, Kohler M, Andreesen R, et al. Interleukin-10 promotes NK cell killing of autologous macrophages by stimulating expression of NKG2D ligands. Scand J Immunol. 2010;72:319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, macrophages cultured in the presence of IL-10 show elevated expression of the NKG2D ligands major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1-like molecules (MIC) - A and - B, as well as UL-16 binding ..

More Information

Publications80

  1. Houchins J, Yabe T, McSherry C, Bach F. DNA sequence analysis of NKG2, a family of related cDNA clones encoding type II integral membrane proteins on human natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 1991;173:1017-20 pubmed
    ..This family is characterized by the presence of a C-type animal lectin domain, and several of its members have demonstrated transmembrane signaling capability. ..
  2. Benitez A, Dai Z, Mann H, Reeves R, Margineantu D, Gooley T, et al. Expression, signaling proficiency, and stimulatory function of the NKG2D lymphocyte receptor in human cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4081-6 pubmed publisher
    The stimulatory natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) lymphocyte receptor and its tumor-associated ligands are important mediators in the immune surveillance of cancer...
  3. Nowbakht P, Ionescu M, Rohner A, Kalberer C, Rossy E, Mori L, et al. Ligands for natural killer cell-activating receptors are expressed upon the maturation of normal myelomonocytic cells but at low levels in acute myeloid leukemias. Blood. 2005;105:3615-22 pubmed
    ..Here, we have studied the role of NKG2D and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) in the recognition of human leukemia...
  4. Roda Navarro P, Reyburn H. The traffic of the NKG2D/Dap10 receptor complex during natural killer (NK) cell activation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16463-72 pubmed publisher
    b>NKG2D is an important activating receptor for triggering the NK cell cytotoxic activity, although chronic engagement of specific ligands by NKG2D is also known to provoke decreased cell surface expression of the receptor and compromised ..
  5. Melum E, Buch S, Schafmayer C, Kalthoff H, Tepel J, Schreiber S, et al. Investigation of cholangiocarcinoma associated NKG2D polymorphisms in colorectal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:241-2 pubmed publisher
  6. Waldhauer I, Goehlsdorf D, Gieseke F, Weinschenk T, Wittenbrink M, Ludwig A, et al. Tumor-associated MICA is shed by ADAM proteases. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6368-76 pubmed publisher
    The immunoreceptor NKG2D promotes immunosurveillance of malignant cells and protects the host from tumor initiation by activating natural killer cells and costimulating CD8 T cells...
  7. Raulet D, Gasser S, Gowen B, Deng W, Jung H. Regulation of ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013;31:413-41 pubmed publisher
    b>NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells and subsets of T cells...
  8. Clayton A, Tabi Z. Exosomes and the MICA-NKG2D system in cancer. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2005;34:206-13 pubmed
    ..if exosomes produced by tumor cells can inhibit immunological functions, through modulating expression of the NKG2D receptor by effector cells...
  9. Duan X, Deng L, Chen X, Lu Y, Zhang Q, Zhang K, et al. Clinical significance of the immunostimulatory MHC class I chain-related molecule A and NKG2D receptor on NK cells in pancreatic cancer. Med Oncol. 2011;28:466-74 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this paper was to determine the clinical significance of the MHC class I chain-related molecule A(MICA) and NKG2D receptor on NK cells in pancreatic cancer...
  10. Hedlund M, Stenqvist A, Nagaeva O, Kjellberg L, Wulff M, Baranov V, et al. Human placenta expresses and secretes NKG2D ligands via exosomes that down-modulate the cognate receptor expression: evidence for immunosuppressive function. J Immunol. 2009;183:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..that the MHC class I chain-related (MIC) proteins A and B, human ligands of the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D, are expressed by placenta, sorted to MVB of syncytiotrophoblast and probably released via MIC-bearing exosomes...
  11. Castriconi R, Cantoni C, Della Chiesa M, Vitale M, Marcenaro E, Conte R, et al. Transforming growth factor beta 1 inhibits expression of NKp30 and NKG2D receptors: consequences for the NK-mediated killing of dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4120-5 pubmed
    ..that transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) down-regulates the surface expression of NKp30 and in part of NKG2D but not that of other triggering receptors such as NKp46...
  12. Chalupny N, Sutherland C, Lawrence W, Rein Weston A, Cosman D. ULBP4 is a novel ligand for human NKG2D. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;305:129-35 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that ULBPs 1, 2, and 3 are functional ligands of the NKG2D/DAP10 receptor complex on human natural killer (NK) cells...
  13. Allez M, Tieng V, Nakazawa A, Treton X, Pacault V, Dulphy N, et al. CD4+NKG2D+ T cells in Crohn's disease mediate inflammatory and cytotoxic responses through MICA interactions. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2346-58 pubmed
    ..complex-related molecule expressed on normal intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and recognized by the NKG2D-activating receptor on CD8(+) T cells, gammadelta T cells, and natural killer cells...
  14. Cosman D, Mullberg J, Sutherland C, Chin W, Armitage R, Fanslow W, et al. ULBPs, novel MHC class I-related molecules, bind to CMV glycoprotein UL16 and stimulate NK cytotoxicity through the NKG2D receptor. Immunity. 2001;14:123-33 pubmed
    ..The ULBP and MICB molecules are ligands for the activating receptor, NKG2D/DAP10, and this interaction is blocked by a soluble form of UL16...
  15. Champsaur M, Lanier L. Effect of NKG2D ligand expression on host immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2010;235:267-85 pubmed publisher
    Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor present on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, some NKT cells, CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells, gammadelta T cells, and under certain conditions CD4(+) T cells...
  16. Eagle R, Traherne J, Hair J, Jafferji I, Trowsdale J. ULBP6/RAET1L is an additional human NKG2D ligand. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..2-q25.3, have been shown to encode ligands of the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D. Here, we show that a sixth gene, ULBP6/RAET1L, is a polymorphic locus that expresses a functional transcript...
  17. Kennedy P, Gehring A, Nowbath A, Selden C, Quaglia A, Dhillon A, et al. The expression and function of NKG2D molecule on intrahepatic CD8+ T cells in chronic viral hepatitis. J Viral Hepat. 2008;15:901-9 pubmed publisher
    The natural killer (NK) cell receptor, NKG2D is a member of the c-type lectin-activating receptor family. It is expressed by all NK cells and by a sub-population of CD8+ T cells...
  18. Kraetzel K, Stoelcker B, Eissner G, Multhoff G, Pfeifer M, Holler E, et al. NKG2D-dependent effector function of bronchial epithelium-activated alloreactive T-cells. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:563-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data imply that the respiratory epithelium has an antigen presenting function and directly alloactivates cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells that show nonclassical effector function. ..
  19. Li P, Morris D, Willcox B, Steinle A, Spies T, Strong R. Complex structure of the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D and its MHC class I-like ligand MICA. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:443-51 pubmed
    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I homolog, MICA, is a stress-inducible ligand for NKG2D, a C-type lectin-like activating immunoreceptor...
  20. Fuertes M, Girart M, Molinero L, Domaica C, Rossi L, Barrio M, et al. Intracellular retention of the NKG2D ligand MHC class I chain-related gene A in human melanomas confers immune privilege and prevents NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 2008;180:4606-14 pubmed
    Most tumors grow in immunocompetent hosts despite expressing NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) such as the MHC class I chain-related genes A and B (MICA/B). However, their participation in tumor cell evasion is still not completely understood...
  21. Shah A, Sowrirajan B, Davis Z, Ward J, Campbell E, Planelles V, et al. Degranulation of natural killer cells following interaction with HIV-1-infected cells is hindered by downmodulation of NTB-A by Vpu. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Although HIV-1 Vpr induces expression of ligands for NK cell activation receptor, NKG2D, on infected cells, this is not sufficient to promote lytic granule release...
  22. Azimi N, Jacobson S, Tanaka Y, Corey L, Groh V, Spies T. Immunostimulation by induced expression of NKG2D and its MIC ligands in HTLV-1-associated neurologic disease. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:252-8 pubmed
    The NKG2D receptor costimulates effector/memory CD8 T cells and is normally absent on CD4 T cells but can be induced by T cell antigen receptor complex stimulation and interleukin-15 (IL-15)...
  23. Welte S, Sinzger C, Lutz S, Singh Jasuja H, Sampaio K, Eknigk U, et al. Selective intracellular retention of virally induced NKG2D ligands by the human cytomegalovirus UL16 glycoprotein. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:194-203 pubmed
    ..molecules, the HCMV UL16 glycoprotein was shown to interact with some ligands of the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D and, therefore, may also function as a viral immunomodulator...
  24. Cerboni C, Zingoni A, Cippitelli M, Piccoli M, Frati L, Santoni A. Antigen-activated human T lymphocytes express cell-surface NKG2D ligands via an ATM/ATR-dependent mechanism and become susceptible to autologous NK- cell lysis. Blood. 2007;110:606-15 pubmed
    ..We studied the interaction between the NKG2D receptor and its ligands (NKG2DLs), and asked whether T cells expressed NKG2DLs in response to superantigen, ..
  25. Mincheva Nilsson L, Nagaeva O, Chen T, Stendahl U, Antsiferova J, Mogren I, et al. Placenta-derived soluble MHC class I chain-related molecules down-regulate NKG2D receptor on peripheral blood mononuclear cells during human pregnancy: a possible novel immune escape mechanism for fetal survival. J Immunol. 2006;176:3585-92 pubmed
    ..evasion of maternal immune attack, based on the engagement and down-regulation of the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D on PBMC by soluble MHC class I chain-related proteins A and B (collectively termed MIC)...
  26. Kato N, Tanaka J, Sugita J, Toubai T, Miura Y, Ibata M, et al. Regulation of the expression of MHC class I-related chain A, B (MICA, MICB) via chromatin remodeling and its impact on the susceptibility of leukemic cells to the cytotoxicity of NKG2D-expressing cells. Leukemia. 2007;21:2103-8 pubmed
    Innate immune cells such as natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in antitumor immune responses. NKG2D is a major activating immunoreceptor expressed in not only NK cells but also CD8+ T cells and shows cytotoxicity against ..
  27. Rincon Orozco B, Kunzmann V, Wrobel P, Kabelitz D, Steinle A, Herrmann T. Activation of V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells by NKG2D. J Immunol. 2005;175:2144-51 pubmed
    ..b>NKG2D, an activating receptor for NK cells, has been described as a potent costimulatory receptor in the Ag-specific ..
  28. Verneris M, Karimi M, Karami M, Baker J, Jayaswal A, Negrin R. Role of NKG2D signaling in the cytotoxicity of activated and expanded CD8+ T cells. Blood. 2004;103:3065-72 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of target cell recognition has previously been unknown. Recent studies show that ligation of NKG2D on natural killer (NK) cells directly induces cytotoxicity, whereas on T cells it costimulates TCR signaling...
  29. Crane C, Han S, Barry J, Ahn B, Lanier L, Parsa A. TGF-beta downregulates the activating receptor NKG2D on NK cells and CD8+ T cells in glioma patients. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:7-13 pubmed publisher
    The activating receptor NKG2D, expressed by natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells, has a role in the specific killing of transformed cells...
  30. Ehrlich L, Ogasawara K, Hamerman J, Takaki R, Zingoni A, Allison J, et al. Engagement of NKG2D by cognate ligand or antibody alone is insufficient to mediate costimulation of human and mouse CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2005;174:1922-31 pubmed
    ..The role of CD28 in costimulating T cell activation is well established. NKG2D, a receptor found on NK cells, CD8+ alphabeta-TCR+ T cells, and gammadelta-TCR+ T cells, has also been implicated ..
  31. Guerra N, Tan Y, Joncker N, Choy A, Gallardo F, Xiong N, et al. NKG2D-deficient mice are defective in tumor surveillance in models of spontaneous malignancy. Immunity. 2008;28:571-80 pubmed publisher
    Ligands for the NKG2D stimulatory receptor are frequently upregulated on tumor lines, rendering them sensitive to natural killer (NK) cells, but the role of NKG2D in tumor surveillance has not been addressed in spontaneous cancer models...
  32. Coudert J, Held W. The role of the NKG2D receptor for tumor immunity. Semin Cancer Biol. 2006;16:333-43 pubmed
    ..One of these receptor ligand systems, the NKG2D pathway, has received particular attention, and now serves as a paradigm for how the immune system is able to ..
  33. Segovis C, Schoon R, Dick C, Nacusi L, Leibson P, Billadeau D. PI3K links NKG2D signaling to a CrkL pathway involved in natural killer cell adhesion, polarity, and granule secretion. J Immunol. 2009;182:6933-42 pubmed publisher
    The NK cell-activating receptor NKG2D plays a critical role in the destruction of malignant cells, but many of the cell-signaling mechanisms governing NKG2D-mediated cellular cytotoxicity are unknown...
  34. Hilpert J, Grosse Hovest L, Grunebach F, Buechele C, Nuebling T, Raum T, et al. Comprehensive analysis of NKG2D ligand expression and release in leukemia: implications for NKG2D-mediated NK cell responses. J Immunol. 2012;189:1360-71 pubmed publisher
    Ligands of the prototypical activating NK receptor NKG2D render cancer cells susceptible to NK cell-mediated cytolysis if expressed at sufficiently high levels...
  35. Lopez Soto A, Quiñones Lombraña A, Lopez Arbesu R, Lopez Larrea C, Gonzalez S. Transcriptional regulation of ULBP1, a human ligand of the NKG2D receptor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30419-30 pubmed
    Tumor cells expressing ligands of the NKG2D receptor stimulate anti-tumor immunity mediated by natural killer and T cells. In humans, NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) are encoded by MIC and ULBP proteins...
  36. Lee J, Lee K, Kim D, Heo D. Elevated TGF-beta1 secretion and down-modulation of NKG2D underlies impaired NK cytotoxicity in cancer patients. J Immunol. 2004;172:7335-40 pubmed
    ..secreted by tumors is responsible for the poor NK lytic activity via down-regulating an NK-activating receptor, NKG2D. The plasma level of TGF-beta1 in human lung cancer or colorectal cancer patients was elevated compared with that ..
  37. Bacon L, Eagle R, Meyer M, Easom N, Young N, Trowsdale J. Two human ULBP/RAET1 molecules with transmembrane regions are ligands for NKG2D. J Immunol. 2004;173:1078-84 pubmed
    ..Both proteins were capable of being expressed at the cell surface. Both proteins bound the activating receptor NKG2D, and RAET1G bound the human CMV protein UL16...
  38. El Sherbiny Y, Meade J, Holmes T, McGonagle D, Mackie S, Morgan A, et al. The requirement for DNAM-1, NKG2D, and NKp46 in the natural killer cell-mediated killing of myeloma cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:8444-9 pubmed
    ..In myeloma cell lines, cell surface expression of PVR was associated with low levels of NKG2D ligands, whereas cells expressing high levels of NKG2D ligands did not express PVR protein or mRNA...
  39. Schepis D, D AMATO M, Studahl M, Bergstr m T, K rre K, Berg L. Herpes simplex virus infection downmodulates NKG2D ligand expression. Scand J Immunol. 2009;69:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon HSV-1 infection of cell lines, surface levels of NKG2D ligands MHC class I related proteins (MIC) A and UL16 binding protein 2 were downmodulated due to late viral gene ..
  40. Clayton A, Mitchell J, Court J, Linnane S, Mason M, Tabi Z. Human tumor-derived exosomes down-modulate NKG2D expression. J Immunol. 2008;180:7249-58 pubmed
    b>NKG2D is an activating receptor for NK, NKT, CD8(+), and gammadelta(+) T cells, whose aberrant loss in cancer is a key mechanism of immune evasion...
  41. Salih H, Holdenrieder S, Steinle A. Soluble NKG2D ligands: prevalence, release, and functional impact. Front Biosci. 2008;13:3448-56 pubmed
    ..are promoted by the tumor-associated expression of cell stress-inducible ligands of the activating NK receptor NKG2D. Current evidence suggests that established tumors subvert NKG2D-mediated tumor immunosurveillance by releasing ..
  42. Wu J, Song Y, Bakker A, Bauer S, Spies T, Lanier L, et al. An activating immunoreceptor complex formed by NKG2D and DAP10. Science. 1999;285:730-2 pubmed
    ..NK) and T cells, DAP10 was identified as a cell surface adaptor protein in an activating receptor complex with NKG2D, a receptor for the stress-inducible and tumor-associated major histocompatibility complex molecule MICA...
  43. Saikali P, Antel J, Newcombe J, Chen Z, Freedman M, Blain M, et al. NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity toward oligodendrocytes suggests a mechanism for tissue injury in multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1220-8 pubmed
    b>NKG2D is an activating or coactivating receptor expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and gamma/delta T cells...
  44. Vivier E, Tomasello E, Paul P. Lymphocyte activation via NKG2D: towards a new paradigm in immune recognition?. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002;14:306-11 pubmed
    b>NKG2D is an activating cell surface receptor expressed on a wide range of immune effector cells including NK cells, NKT cells, gammadelta T cells as well as CD8(+) alphabeta T cells...
  45. Sáez Borderías A, Guma M, Angulo A, Bellosillo B, Pende D, Lopez Botet M. Expression and function of NKG2D in CD4+ T cells specific for human cytomegalovirus. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:3198-206 pubmed
    The human NKG2D killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) is coupled by the DAP10 adapter to phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 K) and specifically interacts with different stress-inducible molecules (i.e...
  46. Hue S, Monteiro R, Berrih Aknin S, Caillat Zucman S. Potential role of NKG2D/MHC class I-related chain A interaction in intrathymic maturation of single-positive CD8 T cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:1909-17 pubmed
    The nonclassical MHC class I molecule MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) interacts with the NKG2D receptor expressed at the surface of most peripheral CD8 T cells, gammadelta T cells, and NK cells...
  47. Sene D, Levasseur F, Abel M, Lambert M, Camous X, Hernandez C, et al. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) evades NKG2D-dependent NK cell responses through NS5A-mediated imbalance of inflammatory cytokines. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001184 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the decreased expression of the NKG2D activating receptor as a novel strategy adopted by HCV to evade NK-cell mediated responses...
  48. Diefenbach A, Tomasello E, Lucas M, Jamieson A, Hsia J, Vivier E, et al. Selective associations with signaling proteins determine stimulatory versus costimulatory activity of NKG2D. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:1142-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that alternative splicing leads to two distinct NKG2D polypeptides that associate differentially with the DAP10 and KARAP (also known as DAP12) signaling subunits...
  49. Park S, Bae J, Kim S, Son Y, Kim J, Park H, et al. Comparison of level of NKG2D ligands between normal and tumor tissue using multiplex RT-PCR. Cancer Invest. 2007;25:299-307 pubmed
    The abilities of NKG2D ligands to specifically mark stressed or transformed cells and activate NK cells suggest the possibility that the expression levels of NKG2D ligands in cancers may be helpful to predict the efficacy of NK cell-..
  50. Sutherland C, Chalupny N, Schooley K, VandenBos T, Kubin M, Cosman D. UL16-binding proteins, novel MHC class I-related proteins, bind to NKG2D and activate multiple signaling pathways in primary NK cells. J Immunol. 2002;168:671-9 pubmed
    ..ULBP expression renders a relatively resistant target cell sensitive to NK cytotoxicity, presumably by engaging NKG2D, an activating receptor expressed by NK and other immune effector cells...
  51. Thomas M, Boname J, Field S, Nejentsev S, Salio M, Cerundolo V, et al. Down-regulation of NKG2D and NKp80 ligands by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K5 protects against NK cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The NK activatory receptors NKG2D and NKp80, both C-type lectin-like homodimeric receptors, stimulate NK cell cytotoxicity toward target cells...
  52. Dann S, Wang H, Gambarin K, Actor J, Robinson P, Lewis D, et al. Interleukin-15 activates human natural killer cells to clear the intestinal protozoan cryptosporidium. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1294-302 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that IL-15 increased expression of the activation receptor NKG2D on NK cells, particularly among the CD16Hi cytolytically active cells...
  53. Wrobel P, Shojaei H, Schittek B, Gieseler F, Wollenberg B, Kalthoff H, et al. Lysis of a broad range of epithelial tumour cells by human gamma delta T cells: involvement of NKG2D ligands and T-cell receptor- versus NKG2D-dependent recognition. Scand J Immunol. 2007;66:320-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to TCR-dependent recognition, activation of NKG2D-positive gammadelta T cells by tumour cell-expressed NKG2D ligands can also trigger cytotoxic effector function...
  54. Venkataraman G, Suciu D, Groh V, Boss J, Spies T. Promoter region architecture and transcriptional regulation of the genes for the MHC class I-related chain A and B ligands of NKG2D. J Immunol. 2007;178:961-9 pubmed
    Ligands of the NKG2D receptor, which activates NK cells and costimulates effector T cells, are inducibly expressed under harmful conditions, such as malignancies and microbial infections...
  55. Song H, Kim J, Cosman D, Choi I. Soluble ULBP suppresses natural killer cell activity via down-regulating NKG2D expression. Cell Immunol. 2006;239:22-30 pubmed
    b>NKG2D is an activating receptor that is expressed on most natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells. MHC class I-related chain A(MICA) and UL16-binding protein (ULBP) 1, 2, and 3 are well-known ligands for NKG2D...
  56. Dai Z, Turtle C, Booth G, Riddell S, Gooley T, Stevens A, et al. Normally occurring NKG2D+CD4+ T cells are immunosuppressive and inversely correlated with disease activity in juvenile-onset lupus. J Exp Med. 2009;206:793-805 pubmed publisher
    The NKG2D receptor stimulates natural killer cell and T cell responses upon engagement of ligands associated with malignancies and certain autoimmune diseases...
  57. Lünemann A, Lunemann J, Roberts S, Messmer B, Barreira da Silva R, Raine C, et al. Human NK cells kill resting but not activated microglia via NKG2D- and NKp46-mediated recognition. J Immunol. 2008;181:6170-7 pubmed
    ..Ab-mediated NKG2D and NKp46 blockade completely prevented the killing of human microglia by activated NK cells...
  58. Nausch N, Cerwenka A. NKG2D ligands in tumor immunity. Oncogene. 2008;27:5944-58 pubmed publisher
    The activating receptor NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) and its ligands play an important role in the NK, gammadelta(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune response to tumors...
  59. Espinoza J, Takami A, Onizuka M, Sao H, Akiyama H, Miyamura K, et al. NKG2D gene polymorphism has a significant impact on transplant outcomes after HLA-fully-matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation for standard risk hematologic malignancies. Haematologica. 2009;94:1427-34 pubmed publisher
    b>NKG2D, an activating and co-stimulatory receptor expressed on natural killer cells and T cells, plays pivotal roles in immunity to microbial infections as well as in cancer immunosurveillance...
  60. Capraru D, Muller A, Csernok E, Gross W, Holl Ulrich K, Northfield J, et al. Expansion of circulating NKG2D+ effector memory T-cells and expression of NKG2D-ligand MIC in granulomaous lesions in Wegener's granulomatosis. Clin Immunol. 2008;127:144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of T(EM) in WG, we analyzed the expression of the activating NK-receptor NKG2D and its ligand MIC on circulating T(EM) and in granulomatous lesions, respectively...
  61. Rosen D, Araki M, Hamerman J, Chen T, Yamamura T, Lanier L. A Structural basis for the association of DAP12 with mouse, but not human, NKG2D. J Immunol. 2004;173:2470-8 pubmed
    Prior studies have revealed that alternative mRNA splicing of the mouse NKG2D gene generates receptors that associate with either the DAP10 or DAP12 transmembrane adapter signaling proteins...
  62. Conejo Garcia J, Benencia F, Courreges M, Khang E, Zhang L, Mohamed Hadley A, et al. Letal, A tumor-associated NKG2D immunoreceptor ligand, induces activation and expansion of effector immune cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2003;2:446-51 pubmed
    b>NKG2D serves as one of the most potent activating receptors for effector lymphocytes. in peripheral tissues...
  63. Apps R, Gardner L, Traherne J, Male V, Moffett A. Natural-killer cell ligands at the maternal-fetal interface: UL-16 binding proteins, MHC class-I chain related molecules, HLA-F and CD48. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:2535-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) and 2B4 (CD244) are receptors ubiquitously expressed by the distinctive population of CD56 bright, uterine ..
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    ..In the present study, we explored the effect of IL-12 upregulation on the NK receptor NKG2D and on the promotion of NK cell function...
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    The interaction of the activating receptor NKG2D with its ligands plays an important role in immunosurveillance of tumors and infectious pathogens, but dysregulation of this system may lead to autoimmunity...
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    The immune recognition receptor complex NKG2D-DAP10 on natural killer cells is stimulated by specific ligands carried on virus-infected and malignant cells...
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    ..Finally, expression of a truncated form of MICA that lacks the putative site for S-acylation and the cytoplasmic tail can be expressed at the cell surface, but is unable to activate NK cells. ..
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    ..The NKG2D receptor is constitutively expressed on the surface of circulating and tissue-resident NK cells (and other ..
  69. Maasho K, Opoku Anane J, Marusina A, Coligan J, Borrego F. NKG2D is a costimulatory receptor for human naive CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2005;174:4480-4 pubmed
    In humans, all alpha beta CD8+ T cells express NKG2D, but in mouse, it is only expressed by activated and memory CD8+ T cells...
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    ..cell-activating ligands, specifically the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I-like MICA and ULBP molecules that bind NKG2D, an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells...
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    ..detected on most gammadelta T cells, CD8+ alphabeta T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells and was identified as NKG2D. Effector cells from all these subsets could be stimulated by ligation of NKG2D...