Gene Symbol: NFKBIB
Description: NFKB inhibitor beta
Alias: IKBB, TRIP9, NF-kappa-B inhibitor beta, I-kappa-B-beta, NF-kappa-BIB, TR-interacting protein 9, TRIP-9, ikB-B, ikB-beta, ikappaBbeta, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, beta, thyroid receptor-interacting protein 9
Species: human
Products:     NFKBIB

Top Publications

  1. Wang X, Zhang Y, Nilsson C, Berven F, Andrén P, Carlsohn E, et al. Association of chromosome 19 to lung cancer genotypes and phenotypes. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2015;34:217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..genes (TGFB1, LTBP4), Dyrk1B, and potential oncogenesis protector genes such as NFkB pathway inhibition genes (NFKBIB, PPP1R13L) and EGLN2...
  2. Khan Z, Labala R, Yumnamcha T, Devi S, Mondal G, Sanjita Devi H, et al. Artificial Light at Night (ALAN), an alarm to ovarian physiology: A study of possible chronodisruption on zebrafish (Danio rerio). Sci Total Environ. 2018;628-629:1407-1421 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-Seq data of ovarian samples revealed the upregulation of Mid2, Tfg, Irak1, Pim2, Tradd, Tmem101, Nfkbib genes and ultimately increase the expression of NF-?B, a cellular transformer for tumourigenesis, confirmed by the ..
  3. McKenna S, Wright C. Inhibiting IκBβ-NFκB signaling attenuates the expression of select pro-inflammatory genes. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:2143-55 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrate the necessary and sufficient role of inhibitor of NFκB family member IκBβ (also known as NFKBIB) in the expression of these genes...
  4. Yang B, Qi X, Chen Z, Chen S, Xue Q, Jia P, et al. Binding and entry of peste des petits ruminants virus into caprine endometrial epithelial cells profoundly affect early cellular gene expression. Vet Res. 2018;49:8 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene network analysis showed that 13 genes (EIF2AK3, IL10, TLR4, ZO3, NFKBIB, RAC1, HSP90AA1, SMAD7, ARG2, JUNB, ZFP36, APP, and IL1A) were located in the core of the network...
  5. Du Y, Zhu M, Zhou X, Huang Z, Zhu J, Xu J, et al. miR-20a enhances cisplatin resistance of human gastric cancer cell line by targeting NFKBIB. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:1261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..And the upregulation of miR-20a was concurrent with the downregulation of NFKBIB (also known as IκBβ) as well as upregulation of p65, livin, and survivin...
  6. Mamidipudi V, Li X, Wooten M. Identification of interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase as a conserved component in the p75-neurotrophin receptor activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28010-8 pubmed
    ..occurs predominantly through the p75 receptor, and TrkA activity suppresses NF-kappaB activation and retards IkappaBbeta degradation...
  7. Spiecker M, Darius H, Liao J. A functional role of I kappa B-epsilon in endothelial cell activation. J Immunol. 2000;164:3316-22 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that c-Rel-associated I kappa B-epsilon is involved in the induction of ICAM-1 expression. ..
  8. Harhaj E, Blaney J, Millhouse S, Sun S. Differential effects of I kappa B molecules on Tat-mediated transactivation of HIV-1 LTR. Virology. 1996;216:284-7 pubmed
    ..While I kappa B alpha, I kappa B beta, and p100 potently inhibit Tat-mediated transactivation, p105 fails to inhibit, but even moderately synergizes,..
  9. Manna S, Aggarwal B. Differential requirement for p56lck in HIV-tat versus TNF-induced cellular responses: effects on NF-kappa B, activator protein-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and apoptosis. J Immunol. 2000;164:5156-66 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results demonstrate that p56lck plays a critical role in the activation of NF-kappa B, AP-1, JNK, and apoptosis by HIV-tat protein but has minimal or no role in activation of these responses by TNF. ..

More Information


  1. Li X, Josef J, Marasco W. Hiv-1 Tat can substantially enhance the capacity of NIK to induce IkappaB degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:587-94 pubmed
    ..We propose a model to explain these collective experimental findings. ..
  2. Budde L, Wu C, Tilman C, Douglas I, Ghosh S. Regulation of IkappaBbeta expression in testis. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4179-94 pubmed
    IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta are regulators of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor family. Both IkappaBs bind to the same NF-kappaB dimers and are widely expressed in different cells and tissues...
  3. Ganesh L, Burstein E, Guha Niyogi A, Louder M, Mascola J, Klomp L, et al. The gene product Murr1 restricts HIV-1 replication in resting CD4+ lymphocytes. Nature. 2003;426:853-7 pubmed
    ..Through its effects on the proteasome, Murr1 acts as a genetic restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes, which could contribute to the regulation of asymptomatic HIV infection and the progression of AIDS. ..
  4. Xu Y, Kulkosky J, Acheampong E, Nunnari G, Sullivan J, Pomerantz R. HIV-1-mediated apoptosis of neuronal cells: Proximal molecular mechanisms of HIV-1-induced encephalopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7070-5 pubmed
    ..These analyses suggest molecular mechanisms for the induction of apoptosis relating to the exposure of viral and host cell factors and rationally designed approaches toward neuroprotection. ..
  5. Aguilera C, Hoya Arias R, Haegeman G, Espinosa L, Bigas A. Recruitment of IkappaBalpha to the hes1 promoter is associated with transcriptional repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16537-42 pubmed
    ..These findings provide additional insight in the cross-talk between NF-kappaB and other signaling pathways. ..
  6. Lee D, Kang J, Park H, Kim M, Yim T, Kim J, et al. FBI-1 enhances transcription of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-responsive E-selectin gene by nuclear localization of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27783-91 pubmed
    ..FBI-1 also interacted with IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta. ..
  7. Joo M, Hahn Y, Kwon M, Sadikot R, Blackwell T, Christman J. Hepatitis C virus core protein suppresses NF-kappaB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by direct interaction with IkappaB kinase beta. J Virol. 2005;79:7648-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies are necessary to determine whether interrupted COX-2 expression by HCV core contributes to HCV pathogenesis...
  8. Sheu W, Chang T, Lee W, Ou H, Wu C, Tseng L, et al. Effect of weight loss on proinflammatory state of mononuclear cells in obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1033-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, weight loss by 5% of initial weight in nondiabetic obese women led to significant improvement in activated intranuclear NF-kappaB binding as well as several transcriptions of proinflammatory genes regulated by NF-kappaB. ..
  9. Kim J, Voll R, Ko C, Kim D, Park K, Kim S. A new regulatory mechanism of NF-kappaB activation by I-kappaBbeta in cancer cells. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:756-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, increased I-kappaBbeta expression reversed NF-kappaB activation in cancer cells, compensating for the loss of I-kappaBalpha via TGase 2 polymerization. ..
  10. Liao Y, Wang Y, Guo Y, Ozaki K, Tanaka T, Lin H, et al. BRAP Activates Inflammatory Cascades and Increases the Risk for Carotid Atherosclerosis. Mol Med. 2011;17:1065-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, BRAP conferred a risk for carotid plaque and IMT. Inflammatory stimuli upregulated BRAP expression, and BRAP activated inflammatory cascades by regulating NF-?B nuclear translocation. ..
  11. Pringle L, Young R, Quick L, Riquelme D, Oliveira A, May M, et al. Atypical mechanism of NF-?B activation by TRE17/ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6) oncogene and its requirement in tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2012;31:3525-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They further reveal a critical role for NF-?B in TRE17-mediated tumorigenesis, and suggest that NF-?B inhibitors may function as effective therapeutic agents in the treatment of ABC. ..
  12. Kumar A, Dhawan S, Mukhopadhyay A, Aggarwal B. Human immunodeficiency virus-1-tat induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 in monocytes through protein tyrosine phosphatase-mediated activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB. FEBS Lett. 1999;462:140-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HIV-tat induces MMP-9 in human monocytes through activation of PTPase and NF-kappaB. ..
  13. DiDonato J, Hayakawa M, Rothwarf D, Zandi E, Karin M. A cytokine-responsive IkappaB kinase that activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Nature. 1997;388:548-54 pubmed
    ..A component of IKK was molecularly cloned and identified as a serine kinase. IKK turns out to be the long-sought-after protein kinase that mediates the critical regulatory step in NF-kappaB activation. ..
  14. Wu C, Ghosh S. beta-TrCP mediates the signal-induced ubiquitination of IkappaBbeta. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29591-4 pubmed
    ..the role of beta-TrCP (beta-transducin repeat-containing protein) in the ubiquitination and degradation of IkappaBbeta, one of the two major IkappaB isoforms in mammalian cells...
  15. Yang J, Hori M, Takahashi N, Kawabe T, Kato H, Okamoto T. NF-kappaB subunit p65 binds to 53BP2 and inhibits cell death induced by 53BP2. Oncogene. 1999;18:5177-86 pubmed
    ..The previous findings that 53BP2 bound to p53 and Bcl-2 together with our present observations suggest that 53BP2 may play a central role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell growth. ..
  16. Shirane M, Hatakeyama S, Hattori K, Nakayama K. Common pathway for the ubiquitination of IkappaBalpha, IkappaBbeta, and IkappaBepsilon mediated by the F-box protein FWD1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:28169-74 pubmed
    ..This protein has now been shown also to bind to IkappaBbeta and IkappaBepsilon as well as to induce their ubiquitination and proteolysis...
  17. McKinsey T, Chu Z, Ballard D. Phosphorylation of the PEST domain of IkappaBbeta regulates the function of NF-kappaB/IkappaBbeta complexes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:22377-80 pubmed
    ..involves the signal-dependent degradation of basally phosphorylated inhibitors such as IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta. The gene encoding IkappaBalpha is under NF-kappaB control, which provides a negative feedback loop to ..
  18. Woronicz J, Gao X, Cao Z, Rothe M, Goeddel D. IkappaB kinase-beta: NF-kappaB activation and complex formation with IkappaB kinase-alpha and NIK. Science. 1997;278:866-9 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of IKK-beta blocked cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation. Thus, an active IkappaB kinase complex may require three distinct protein kinases. ..
  19. Abid M, Schoots I, Spokes K, Wu S, Mawhinney C, Aird W. Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated induction of manganese superoxide dismutase occurs through redox-dependent regulation of forkhead and IkappaB/NF-kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44030-8 pubmed
  20. Whiteside S, Epinat J, Rice N, Israel A. I kappa B epsilon, a novel member of the I kappa B family, controls RelA and cRel NF-kappa B activity. EMBO J. 1997;16:1413-26 pubmed
    ..I kappa B-epsilon would, therefore, appear to regulate a late, transient activation of a subset of genes, regulated by RelA/cRel NF-kappa B complexes, distinct from those regulated by other I kappa B proteins. ..
  21. Shibata Y, Tanaka Y, Gohda J, Inoue J. Activation of the I?B kinase complex by HTLV-1 Tax requires cytosolic factors involved in Tax-induced polyubiquitination. J Biochem. 2011;150:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results obtained through our cell-free assay suggest that K63-linked polyubiquitination is critical, but linear polyubiquitination is dispensable or insufficient for Tax-induced IKK activation. ..
  22. Romani B, Glashoff R, Engelbrecht S. Functional integrity of naturally occurring mutants of HIV-1 subtype C Vpr. Virus Res. 2010;153:288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The natural mutations of Vpr may thus not always be regarded as defective mutations. The study suggests the adaptive role of the natural mutations commonly found in subtype C Vpr. ..
  23. Lin J, Lin S, Chen W, Yen Y, Lai C, Tao M, et al. Dengue viral protease interaction with NF-?B inhibitor ?/? results in endothelial cell apoptosis and hemorrhage development. J Immunol. 2014;193:1258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that DENV protease participates in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhage and discover I?B? and I?B? to be the new cellular targets that are cleaved by DENV protease. ..
  24. Dieguez Gonzalez R, Akar S, Calaza M, Perez Pampin E, Costas J, Torres M, et al. Genetic variation in the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in relation to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:579-83 pubmed publisher
    ..along the genomic sequences of 17 core genes of the NFkappaB pathway (REL, RELA, RELB, NFKB1, NFKB2, NFKBIA, NFKBIB, NFKBIE, IKBKA, IKBKB, IKBKE, IKBKAP, KBRAS1, KBRAS2, MAP3K1, MAP3K14, TAX1BP1) were studied by mass spectrometry ..
  25. Esposito S, Ierardi V, Daleno C, Scala A, Terranova L, Tagliabue C, et al. Genetic polymorphisms and risk of recurrent wheezing in pediatric age. BMC Pulm Med. 2014;14:162 pubmed publisher
    ..02, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.0018), whereas CTLA4-rs3087243AG and NFKBIB-rs3136641TT were associated with a significantly reduced risk (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04)...
  26. Chu Z, McKinsey T, Liu L, Qi X, Ballard D. Basal phosphorylation of the PEST domain in the I(kappa)B(beta) regulates its functional interaction with the c-rel proto-oncogene product. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5974-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that basal phosphorylation of the PEST domain of I(kappa)B(beta) at consensus CKII sites is required for the efficient formation of latent I(kappa)B(beta)-c-Rel complexes. ..
  27. SuYang H, Phillips R, Douglas I, Ghosh S. Role of unphosphorylated, newly synthesized I kappa B beta in persistent activation of NF-kappa B. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:5444-9 pubmed
    ..activation of NF-kappa B results in the degradation of the NF-kappa B inhibitors, I kappa B alpha and I kappa B beta. Despite the rapid resynthesis and accumulation of I kappa B alpha, NF-kappa B remains induced under these ..
  28. Zandi E, Chen Y, Karin M. Direct phosphorylation of IkappaB by IKKalpha and IKKbeta: discrimination between free and NF-kappaB-bound substrate. Science. 1998;281:1360-3 pubmed
    ..This result explains how free IkappaB can accumulate in cells in which IKK is still active and thus can contribute to the termination of NF-kappaB activation. ..
  29. Okamoto T, Ono T, Hori M, Yang J, Tetsuka T, Kawabe T, et al. Assignment of the IkappaB-beta gene NFKBIB to human chromosome band 19q13.1 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;82:105-6 pubmed
  30. Chen Y, Vallee S, Wu J, Vu D, Sondek J, Ghosh G. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by IkappaBbeta in association with kappaB-Ras. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3048-56 pubmed
    b>IkappaBbeta, one of the major IkappaB proteins, is only partially degraded in response to most extracellular signals. However, the molecular mechanism of this event is unknown...
  31. Beauparlant P, Kwon H, Clarke M, Lin R, Sonenberg N, Wainberg M, et al. Transdominant mutants of I kappa B alpha block Tat-tumor necrosis factor synergistic activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression and virus multiplication. J Virol. 1996;70:5777-85 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest a strategy that may contribute to inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by interfering with the NF-kappa B/Rel signaling pathway. ..
  32. Chen Y, Wu J, Ghosh G. KappaB-Ras binds to the unique insert within the ankyrin repeat domain of IkappaBbeta and regulates cytoplasmic retention of IkappaBbeta x NF-kappaB complexes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23101-6 pubmed
    The IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta proteins inhibit the transcriptional potential of active NF-kappaB dimers through stable complex formation...
  33. Lee Y, Allport V, Sykes A, Lindstrom T, Slater D, Bennett P. The effects of labour and of interleukin 1 beta upon the expression of nuclear factor kappa B related proteins in human amnion. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003;9:213-8 pubmed
    ..05), and of the NF-kB binding proteins IkBa, IkBb-1 and IkBb-2 (P < 0.05)...
  34. Othumpangat S, Bryan N, Beezhold D, Noti J. Upregulation of miRNA-4776 in Influenza Virus Infected Bronchial Epithelial Cells Is Associated with Downregulation of NFKBIB and Increased Viral Survival. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..NF-?B regulation involves the inhibitor proteins NF-?B inhibitor beta (NFKBIB), (also known as I?B ?), which form complexes with NF-?B to sequester it in the cytoplasm...
  35. Iannone M, Consler T, Pearce K, Stimmel J, Parks D, Gray J. Multiplexed molecular interactions of nuclear receptors using fluorescent microspheres. Cytometry. 2001;44:326-37 pubmed
    ..In addition, the system offers a powerful approach to study small molecule modulation of nuclear receptor binding. ..
  36. Le Page C, Popescu O, Genin P, Lian J, Paquin A, Galipeau J, et al. Disruption of NF-kappa B signaling and chemokine gene activation by retroviral mediated expression of IKK gamma/NEMO mutants. Virology. 2001;286:422-33 pubmed
    ..known as IKK1 and IKK2, are the catalytic subunits of the kinase complex and phosphorylate I kappa B alpha and I kappa B beta. The third component, NEMO/IKK gamma, does not exhibit kinase activity, but rather constitutes a regulatory ..
  37. Phoon Y, Cheung A, Cheung F, Chan K, Wong S, Wong B, et al. IKBB tumor suppressive role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via NF-κB-mediated signalling. Int J Cancer. 2016;138:160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional complementation studies using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer helped to identify IKBB as a putative TSG in NPC...
  38. Chapman S, Khor C, Vannberg F, Frodsham A, Walley A, Maskell N, et al. IkappaB genetic polymorphisms and invasive pneumococcal disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176:181-7 pubmed
    ..activity is achieved through interactions with the IkappaB family of inhibitors, encoded by the genes NFKBIA, NFKBIB, and NFKBIE...
  39. Xi P, Ding D, Zhou J, Wang M, Cong Y. DDRGK1 regulates NF-?B activity by modulating I?B? stability. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64231 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrated that DDRGK1 interacts with I?B? and regulates its stability, thereby regulates the NF-?B transcriptional activity. Our findings identify DDRGK1 as an important regulator of the NF-?B pathway. ..
  40. Didonato J, Mercurio F, Rosette C, Wu Li J, SuYang H, Ghosh S, et al. Mapping of the inducible IkappaB phosphorylation sites that signal its ubiquitination and degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1295-304 pubmed
    ..Substitutions of the homologous sites in IkappaBbeta, serines 19 and 23, also prevent inducible IkappaBbeta degradation...
  41. Lee J, Choi H, Gyuris J, Brent R, Moore D. Two classes of proteins dependent on either the presence or absence of thyroid hormone for interaction with the thyroid hormone receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 1995;9:243-54 pubmed
    ..Similar LexA fusions to Trip9 and Trip10 had no transcriptional activity on their own but, when coexpressed with both TR and RXR, conferred T3-..
  42. Liu R, Tan J, Lin Y, Jia R, Yang W, Liang C, et al. HIV-1 Vpr activates both canonical and noncanonical NF-?B pathway by enhancing the phosphorylation of IKK?/?. Virology. 2013;439:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Knock down of endogenous IKK?/? result in a decrease in Vpr-mediated NF-?B and HIV-1 LTR activation. Given that Vpr is present in HIV-1 particles, our data suggest that Vpr activates the NF-?B pathway immediately after HIV-1 entry. ..
  43. Potter C, Cordell H, Barton A, Daly A, Hyrich K, Mann D, et al. Association between anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment response and genetic variants within the TLR and NF{kappa}B signalling pathways. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Validation of these findings in an independent cohort is now warranted. ..
  44. White K, Vierkant R, Phelan C, Fridley B, Anderson S, Knutson K, et al. Polymorphisms in NF-kappaB inhibitors and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:170 pubmed publisher
    ..between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NFKBIA and NFKBIB (the genes encoding IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, respectively) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer...
  45. Fenwick C, Na S, Voll R, Zhong H, Im S, Lee J, et al. A subclass of Ras proteins that regulate the degradation of IkappaB. Science. 2000;287:869-73 pubmed
    ..These proteins, kappaB-Ras1 and kappaB-Ras2, interact with the PEST domains of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta [inhibitors of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)] and decrease their rate of ..
  46. Na S, Kim H, Lee S, Choi H, Na D, Lee M, et al. IkappaBbeta interacts with the retinoid X receptor and inhibits retinoid-dependent transactivation in lipopolysaccharide-treated cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:3212-5 pubmed
    To elucidate the molecular action of the NFkappaB inhibitor IkappaBbeta, we isolated a number of IkappaBbeta interactors using the yeast two-hybrid system...
  47. Lee F, Peters R, Dang L, Maniatis T. MEKK1 activates both IkappaB kinase alpha and IkappaB kinase beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:9319-24 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IKK-alpha and IKK-beta can mediate the NF-kappaB-inducing activity of MEKK1. ..
  48. Cheng H, Cenciarelli C, Nelkin G, Tsan R, Fan D, Cheng Mayer C, et al. Molecular mechanism of hTid-1, the human homolog of Drosophila tumor suppressor l(2)Tid, in the regulation of NF-kappaB activity and suppression of tumor growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:44-59 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the data suggest that hTid-1 represses the activity of NF-kappaB through physical and functional interactions with the IKK complex and IkappaB and, in doing so, it modulates cell growth and death. ..
  49. Blazquez M, Macho A, Ortiz C, Lucena C, Lopez Cabrera M, Sanchez Madrid F, et al. Extracellular HIV type 1 Tat protein induces CD69 expression through NF-kappaB activation: possible correlation with cell surface Tat-binding proteins. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999;15:1209-18 pubmed
  50. Hoffmann A, Levchenko A, Scott M, Baltimore D. The IkappaB-NF-kappaB signaling module: temporal control and selective gene activation. Science. 2002;298:1241-5 pubmed responsible for strong negative feedback that allows for a fast turn-off of the NF-kappaB response, whereas IkappaBbeta and - epsilon function to reduce the system's oscillatory potential and stabilize NF-kappaB responses during ..
  51. Page M, Tuckerman E, Li T, Laird S. Expression of nuclear factor kappa B components in human endometrium. J Reprod Immunol. 2002;54:1-13 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used immunocytochemistry to investigate the in vivo expression of the p50, IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta NFkappaB components in endometrium obtained from normal fertile women throughout the menstrual cycle...
  52. Gil J, Alcami J, Esteban M. Activation of NF-kappa B by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR involves the I kappa B kinase complex. Oncogene. 2000;19:1369-78 pubmed
    ..Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that PKR interacts with the IKK complex. Our findings demonstrate that physiological function(s) of PKR involve activation of the I kappa B kinase complex. Oncogene (2000) 19,1369 - 1378. ..