neuropilin 1


Gene Symbol: neuropilin 1
Description: neuropilin 1
Alias: BDCA4, CD304, NP1, NRP, VEGF165R, neuropilin-1, transmembrane receptor, vascular endothelial cell growth factor 165 receptor
Species: human
Products:     neuropilin 1

Top Publications

  1. Pan Q, Chathery Y, Wu Y, Rathore N, Tong R, Peale F, et al. Neuropilin-1 binds to VEGF121 and regulates endothelial cell migration and sprouting. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24049-56 pubmed
    ..VEGFR2 complex. Additionally, we show that VEGFR2 enhances VEGF(165), but not VEGF(121) binding to NRP1. We propose a new model for NRP1 interactions with various VEGF isoforms. ..
  2. Becker P, Waltenberger J, Yachechko R, Mirzapoiazova T, Sham J, Lee C, et al. Neuropilin-1 regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated endothelial permeability. Circ Res. 2005;96:1257-65 pubmed
    ..These data support a critical role for Npn-1 in regulating endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to VEGF and suggest that activation of distinct receptor complexes may determine specificity of cellular response to VEGF. ..
  3. Takahashi T, Fournier A, Nakamura F, Wang L, Murakami Y, Kalb R, et al. Plexin-neuropilin-1 complexes form functional semaphorin-3A receptors. Cell. 1999;99:59-69 pubmed
    ..Sema3A treatment leads to the redistribution of growth cone NP-1 and plexin into clusters. Thus, physiologic Sema3A receptors consist of NP-1/plexin complexes. ..
  4. Murga M, Fernandez Capetillo O, Tosato G. Neuropilin-1 regulates attachment in human endothelial cells independently of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. Blood. 2005;105:1992-9 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a type 1 membrane protein that binds the axon guidance factors belonging to the class-3 semaforin family...
  5. Parikh A, Fan F, Liu W, Ahmad S, Stoeltzing O, Reinmuth N, et al. Neuropilin-1 in human colon cancer: expression, regulation, and role in induction of angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:2139-51 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a recently identified co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor, is expressed by several nongastrointestinal tumor types and enhances prostate cancer angiogenesis and growth in preclinical models...
  6. Peng Y, Liu Y, Li L, Wang L, Wu X. MicroRNA-338 inhibits growth, invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by targeting NRP1 expression. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94422 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-338 can decrease migratory, invasive, proliferative and apoptotic behaviors, as well as gastric cancer EMT, by attenuating the expression of NRP1. ..
  7. Narazaki M, Tosato G. Ligand-induced internalization selects use of common receptor neuropilin-1 by VEGF165 and semaphorin3A. Blood. 2006;107:3892-901 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that preferential receptor binding and internalization by a ligand are mechanisms by which the common receptor Npn-1 can play an essential role in prioritizing conflicting signals. ..
  8. Jubb A, Strickland L, Liu S, Mak J, Schmidt M, Koeppen H. Neuropilin-1 expression in cancer and development. J Pathol. 2012;226:50-60 pubmed publisher
    Neuropilin (NRP)-1 is a co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
  9. Carrer A, Moimas S, Zacchigna S, Pattarini L, Zentilin L, Ruozi G, et al. Neuropilin-1 identifies a subset of bone marrow Gr1- monocytes that can induce tumor vessel normalization and inhibit tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2012;72:6371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NEMs represent a novel, unique population of myeloid cells that, once inoculated into a tumor, induce tumor vessel normalization and inhibit tumor growth. ..

More Information


  1. Chen H, He Z, Bagri A, Tessier Lavigne M. Semaphorin-neuropilin interactions underlying sympathetic axon responses to class III semaphorins. Neuron. 1998;21:1283-90 pubmed
  2. VanVeldhuizen P, Zulfiqar M, Banerjee S, Cherian R, Saxena N, Rabe A, et al. Differential expression of neuropilin-1 in malignant and benign prostatic stromal tissue. Oncol Rep. 2003;10:1067-71 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a co-receptor for VEGF165, is overexpressed in various prostate cancer cell lines and in advanced prostate tumors. However, distribution of the NRP-1 in prostate tumors has not yet been evaluated...
  3. Matsushita A, Götze T, Korc M. Hepatocyte growth factor-mediated cell invasion in pancreatic cancer cells is dependent on neuropilin-1. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10309-16 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Np-1 is required for efficient activation of c-Met-dependent pathways that promote cell invasiveness. ..
  4. Giger R, Urquhart E, Gillespie S, Levengood D, Ginty D, Kolodkin A. Neuropilin-2 is a receptor for semaphorin IV: insight into the structural basis of receptor function and specificity. Neuron. 1998;21:1079-92 pubmed
    ..These results provide insight into how interactions between neuropilins and secreted semaphorins function to coordinate repulsive axon guidance during neurodevelopment. ..
  5. Broholm H, Laursen H. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor neuropilin-1's distribution in astrocytic tumors. APMIS. 2004;112:257-63 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a correlation between neuropilin-1 and vascularity in human astrocytic tumors and a possible role for neuropilin-1 as a receptor for VEGF-induced angiogenesis. ..
  6. Lanahan A, Zhang X, Fantin A, Zhuang Z, Rivera Molina F, Speichinger K, et al. The neuropilin 1 cytoplasmic domain is required for VEGF-A-dependent arteriogenesis. Dev Cell. 2013;25:156-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) plays an important but ill-defined role in VEGF-A signaling and vascular morphogenesis...
  7. Robinson S, Reynolds L, Kostourou V, Reynolds A, da Silva R, Tavora B, et al. Alphav beta3 integrin limits the contribution of neuropilin-1 to vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33966-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that beta3 integrin may, in part, negatively regulate VEGF signaling by sequestering NRP1 and preventing it from interacting with VEGFR2. ..
  8. von Wronski M, Raju N, Pillai R, Bogdan N, Marinelli E, Nanjappan P, et al. Tuftsin binds neuropilin-1 through a sequence similar to that encoded by exon 8 of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5702-10 pubmed
    ..Given the overlap between processes involving neuropilin-1 and tuftsin, we propose that at least some of the previously reported effects of tuftsin are mediated through neuropilin-1. ..
  9. Frankel P, Pellet Many C, Lehtolainen P, D Abaco G, Tickner M, Cheng L, et al. Chondroitin sulphate-modified neuropilin 1 is expressed in human tumour cells and modulates 3D invasion in the U87MG human glioblastoma cell line through a p130Cas-mediated pathway. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:983-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a non-tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor and class 3 Semaphorins, is highly expressed in many human tumour cell lines, but its function is poorly understood...
  10. Zhang Y, He X, Liu Y, Ye Y, Zhang H, He P, et al. microRNA-320a inhibits tumor invasion by targeting neuropilin 1 and is associated with liver metastasis in colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-320a directly binds to the 3'UTR of neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), a protein that functions as a co-receptor of vascular epithelial growth factor...
  11. Lambert S, Bouttier M, Vassy R, Seigneuret M, Petrow Sadowski C, Janvier S, et al. HTLV-1 uses HSPG and neuropilin-1 for entry by molecular mimicry of VEGF165. Blood. 2009;113:5176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, our laboratories demonstrated that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a receptor of VEGF(165), are essential for HTLV-1 entry...
  12. Mamluk R, Gechtman Z, Kutcher M, Gasiunas N, Gallagher J, Klagsbrun M. Neuropilin-1 binds vascular endothelial growth factor 165, placenta growth factor-2, and heparin via its b1b2 domain. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24818-25 pubmed
  13. Cao Y, Wang L, Nandy D, Zhang Y, Basu A, Radisky D, et al. Neuropilin-1 upholds dedifferentiation and propagation phenotypes of renal cell carcinoma cells by activating Akt and sonic hedgehog axes. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8667-72 pubmed publisher
    Expression of neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown in many cancer cells, but its molecular effect on tumorigenesis is largely unknown...
  14. Fantin A, Herzog B, Mahmoud M, Yamaji M, Plein A, Denti L, et al. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) hypomorphism combined with defective VEGF-A binding reveals novel roles for NRP1 in developmental and pathological angiogenesis. Development. 2014;141:556-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a receptor for class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and is essential for cardiovascular development...
  15. Fuh G, Garcia K, de Vos A. The interaction of neuropilin-1 with vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor flt-1. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:26690-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Flt-1 may function as a negative regulator of angiogenesis by competing for NP-1. ..
  16. Fantin A, Schwarz Q, Davidson K, Normando E, Denti L, Ruhrberg C. The cytoplasmic domain of neuropilin 1 is dispensable for angiogenesis, but promotes the spatial separation of retinal arteries and veins. Development. 2011;138:4185-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is essential for blood vessel development in vertebrates...
  17. Wey J, Gray M, Fan F, Belcheva A, McCarty M, Stoeltzing O, et al. Overexpression of neuropilin-1 promotes constitutive MAPK signalling and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:233-41 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a novel co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Neuropilin-1 is expressed in pancreatic cancer, but not in nonmalignant pancreatic tissue...
  18. Wu Y, Chen Y, Jao Y, Hsieh I, Chang K, Hong T. miR-320 regulates tumor angiogenesis driven by vascular endothelial cells in oral cancer by silencing neuropilin 1. Angiogenesis. 2014;17:247-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Neuropilin 1 (NRP1), an important regulator of angiogenesis, was found to be a target of miR-320...
  19. Stephenson J, Banerjee S, Saxena N, Cherian R, Banerjee S. Neuropilin-1 is differentially expressed in myoepithelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells in preneoplastic and neoplastic human breast: a possible marker for the progression of breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2002;101:409-14 pubmed
    The expression and distribution of neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was examined in the samples of normal human breast tissues and in non-neoplastic and neoplastic areas of breast tissue removed for carcinoma using RT-PCR as well as conventional and ..
  20. Jia H, Bagherzadeh A, Hartzoulakis B, Jarvis A, Löhr M, Shaikh S, et al. Characterization of a bicyclic peptide neuropilin-1 (NP-1) antagonist (EG3287) reveals importance of vascular endothelial growth factor exon 8 for NP-1 binding and role of NP-1 in KDR signaling. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13493-502 pubmed
    ..The results also identify a key role for the C-terminal exon 8 domain in VEGF-A165 binding to NP-1. ..
  21. Ballmer Hofer K, Andersson A, Ratcliffe L, Berger P. Neuropilin-1 promotes VEGFR-2 trafficking through Rab11 vesicles thereby specifying signal output. Blood. 2011;118:816-26 pubmed publisher
    ..3 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), VEGFR-1, -2, and -3, and by binding to coreceptors such as neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)...
  22. Wang L, Dutta S, Kojima T, Xu X, Khosravi Far R, Ekker S, et al. Neuropilin-1 modulates p53/caspases axis to promote endothelial cell survival. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1161 pubmed
    ..Here, we seek to define the function of NRP-1 in VPF/VEGF-induced survival signaling in EC and to elucidate the concomitant molecular signaling events that are ..
  23. Banerjee S, Sengupta K, Dhar K, Mehta S, D Amore P, Dhar G, et al. Breast cancer cells secreted platelet-derived growth factor-induced motility of vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated through neuropilin-1. Mol Carcinog. 2006;45:871-80 pubmed
    ..PDGF significantly upregulates neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) mRNA expression and protein production in aortic smooth muscle cells (AOSMCs) and depletion of NRP-1 production ..
  24. Raimondi C, Fantin A, Lampropoulou A, Denti L, Chikh A, Ruhrberg C. Imatinib inhibits VEGF-independent angiogenesis by targeting neuropilin 1-dependent ABL1 activation in endothelial cells. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1167-83 pubmed publisher
    To enable new blood vessel growth, endothelial cells (ECs) express neuropilin 1 (NRP1), and NRP1 associates with the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 after binding the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) to enhance arteriogenesis...
  25. Wang L, Zeng H, Wang P, Soker S, Mukhopadhyay D. Neuropilin-1-mediated vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent endothelial cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48848-60 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been found to be expressed by endothelial cells and tumor cells as an isoform-specific receptor for vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
  26. Zhang S, Zhau H, Osunkoya A, Iqbal S, Yang X, Fan S, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates myeloid cell leukemia-1 expression through neuropilin-1-dependent activation of c-MET signaling in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that Mcl-1 overexpression is associated with PCa bone metastasis. Activation of VEGF165-NRP1-c-MET signaling could confer PCa cells survival advantages by up-regulating Mcl-1, contributing to PCa progression. ..
  27. Ruffini F, D Atri S, Lacal P. Neuropilin-1 expression promotes invasiveness of melanoma cells through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and expresses its receptors VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and neuropilin-1 (NRP?1), a co-receptor for VEGF-A that amplifies the signalling through VEGFR-2...
  28. Chen L, Miao W, Tang X, Zhang H, Wang S, Luo F, et al. The expression and significance of neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) on glioma cell lines and glioma tissues. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2013;9:559-63 pubmed
    We detected the expressions of neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) on glioma cell lines and glioma tissues by neuropilin-1 monoclonal antibody (NRP-1 MAb)...
  29. Teesalu T, Sugahara K, Kotamraju V, Ruoslahti E. C-end rule peptides mediate neuropilin-1-dependent cell, vascular, and tissue penetration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Affinity chromatography showed that the CendR peptides bind to neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) on the target cells...
  30. Rossignol M, Beggs A, Pierce E, Klagsbrun M. Human neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 map to 10p12 and 2q34, respectively. Genomics. 1999;57:459-60 pubmed
  31. Kreuter M, Woelke K, Bieker R, Schliemann C, Steins M, Buechner T, et al. Correlation of neuropilin-1 overexpression to survival in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 2006;20:1950-4 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a vascular endothelial growth factors and semaphorin receptor functioning as mediator of angiogenesis and neuronal guidance, is expressed by various solid tumors...
  32. Snuderl M, Batista A, Kirkpatrick N, Ruiz de Almodovar C, Riedemann L, Walsh E, et al. Targeting placental growth factor/neuropilin 1 pathway inhibits growth and spread of medulloblastoma. Cell. 2013;152:1065-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, high expression of PlGF receptor neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) correlates with poor overall survival in patients...
  33. Gagnon M, Bielenberg D, Gechtman Z, Miao H, Takashima S, Soker S, et al. Identification of a natural soluble neuropilin-1 that binds vascular endothelial growth factor: In vivo expression and antitumor activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2573-8 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a 130-kDa transmembrane receptor for semaphorins, mediators of neuronal guidance, and for vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)), an angiogenesis factor. A 2...
  34. Karjalainen K, Jaalouk D, Bueso Ramos C, Zurita A, Kuniyasu A, Eckhardt B, et al. Targeting neuropilin-1 in human leukemia and lymphoma. Blood. 2011;117:920-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway, and we next identified the corresponding receptor as the transmembrane glycoprotein neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)...
  35. Shintani Y, Takashima S, Asano Y, Kato H, Liao Y, Yamazaki S, et al. Glycosaminoglycan modification of neuropilin-1 modulates VEGFR2 signaling. EMBO J. 2006;25:3045-55 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that GAG modification of NRP1 plays a critical role in modulating VEGF signaling, and may provide new insights into physiological and pathological angiogenesis. ..
  36. Pan Q, Chanthery Y, Liang W, Stawicki S, Mak J, Rathore N, et al. Blocking neuropilin-1 function has an additive effect with anti-VEGF to inhibit tumor growth. Cancer Cell. 2007;11:53-67 pubmed
    ..We propose that blocking NRP1 function inhibits vascular remodeling, rendering vessels more susceptible to anti-VEGF therapy. ..
  37. Schwarz Q, Ruhrberg C. Neuropilin, you gotta let me know: should I stay or should I go?. Cell Adh Migr. 2010;4:61-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we review how the developmental functions of the neuropilins are influenced by such different contexts. ..
  38. Prahst C, Heroult M, Lanahan A, Uziel N, Kessler O, Shraga Heled N, et al. Neuropilin-1-VEGFR-2 complexing requires the PDZ-binding domain of neuropilin-1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the experiments have identified a novel mechanism of NP-1 interaction with VEGFR-2, which involves the cytoplasmic domain of NP-1. ..
  39. He Z, Tessier Lavigne M. Neuropilin is a receptor for the axonal chemorepellent Semaphorin III. Cell. 1997;90:739-51 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that neuropilin is a receptor or a component of a receptor complex that mediates the effects of Sema III on these axons. ..
  40. Staton C, Koay I, Wu J, Hoh L, Reed M, Brown N. Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 expression in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer. Histopathology. 2013;62:908-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that an increase in NRP1 and NRP2 epithelial/tumour expression, as well as in NRP1 vascular expression, may be associated with disease progression in colorectal cancer. ..
  41. Lee C, Kreusch A, McMullan D, Ng K, Spraggon G. Crystal structure of the human neuropilin-1 b1 domain. Structure. 2003;11:99-108 pubmed
    ..The nature of the cell adhesion binding site of the b1 domain can be visualized in context of the structure. ..
  42. Ghez D, Lepelletier Y, Lambert S, Fourneau J, Blot V, Janvier S, et al. Neuropilin-1 is involved in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 entry. J Virol. 2006;80:6844-54 pubmed
    ..These data show that NRP1 is involved in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 entry, suggesting that the HTLV receptor has a multicomponent nature...
  43. Cai H, Reed R. Cloning and characterization of neuropilin-1-interacting protein: a PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 domain-containing protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of neuropilin-1. J Neurosci. 1999;19:6519-27 pubmed
    ..We suggest that NIP and GIPC may participate in regulation of Npn-1-mediated signaling as a molecular adapter that couples Npn-1 to membrane trafficking machinery in the dynamic axon growth cone. ..
  44. Rossignol M, Gagnon M, Klagsbrun M. Genomic organization of human neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 genes: identification and distribution of splice variants and soluble isoforms. Genomics. 2000;70:211-22 pubmed
    ..Five of the exons are identical in size in the two genes, suggesting that they arose by gene duplication. Both NRP genes are characterized by multiple alternatively spliced variants. Two NRP2 isoforms, NRP2a and NRP2b, were cloned...
  45. Rossignol M, Pouyssegur J, Klagsbrun M. Characterization of the neuropilin-1 promoter; gene expression is mediated by the transcription factor Sp1. J Cell Biochem. 2003;88:744-57 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that NRP1 expression is regulated by the cooperation of several regulatory elements including AP-1, Sp1, and a CCAAT box. ..
  46. Cao Y, Szabolcs A, Dutta S, Yaqoob U, Jagavelu K, Wang L, et al. Neuropilin-1 mediates divergent R-Smad signaling and the myofibroblast phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was reported to bind and activate the latent form of TGF-?1 (LAP-TGF-?1)...
  47. Sulpice E, Plouet J, Berge M, Allanic D, Tobelem G, Merkulova Rainon T. Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 act as coreceptors, potentiating proangiogenic activity. Blood. 2008;111:2036-45 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that, in endothelial cells, both NRP1 and NRP2 function as proangiogenic coreceptors, potentiating the activity of at least 2 major proangiogenic cytokines, VEGF-A(165) and HGF. ..
  48. Hu B, Guo P, Bar Joseph I, Imanishi Y, Jarzynka M, Bogler O, et al. Neuropilin-1 promotes human glioma progression through potentiating the activity of the HGF/SF autocrine pathway. Oncogene. 2007;26:5577-86 pubmed
  49. Valdembri D, Caswell P, Anderson K, Schwarz J, König I, Astanina E, et al. Neuropilin-1/GIPC1 signaling regulates alpha5beta1 integrin traffic and function in endothelial cells. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e25 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a coreceptor for vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A164 in mice) and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A)...
  50. Bachelder R, Lipscomb E, Lin X, Wendt M, Chadborn N, Eickholt B, et al. Competing autocrine pathways involving alternative neuropilin-1 ligands regulate chemotaxis of carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:5230-3 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NP1), in conjunction with plexins, promotes axon repulsion by binding to semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A)...
  51. Berge M, Allanic D, Bonnin P, De Montrion C, Richard J, Suc M, et al. Neuropilin-1 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and contributes to tumour growth and vascular remodelling. J Hepatol. 2011;55:866-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate a specific role of NRP1 in HCC growth and vascular remodelling and highlight the possibility of therapeutically targeting NRP1 for the treatment of HCC. ..
  52. Gluzman Poltorak Z, Cohen T, Herzog Y, Neufeld G. Neuropilin-2 is a receptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) forms VEGF-145 and VEGF-165 [corrected]. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:18040-5 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, it is possible that VEGF-induced np-2-mediated signaling will take place only in the presence of other VEGF receptors such as VEGF receptor-1 or VEGF receptor-2. ..
  53. Zachary I, Frankel P, Evans I, Pellet Many C. The role of neuropilins in cell signalling. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009;37:1171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Growing evidence indicates, however, that NRP1 plays a selective role in signalling at least in part via its C-terminal domain and interaction with intracellular binding partners. ..
  54. Whitaker G, Limberg B, Rosenbaum J. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and neuropilin-1 form a receptor complex that is responsible for the differential signaling potency of VEGF(165) and VEGF(121). J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25520-31 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a receptor-clustering role for Npn-1, as opposed to Npn-1 behaving as an affinity-converting subunit. ..
  55. Fukasawa M, Matsushita A, Korc M. Neuropilin-1 interacts with integrin beta1 and modulates pancreatic cancer cell growth, survival and invasion. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007;6:1173-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, Np-1 confers a growth and survival advantage to PANC-1 cells, and interacts with integrin beta1 to coordinate signaling events that promote cell adherence and invasiveness. ..
  56. Glinka Y, Stoilova S, Mohammed N, Prud homme G. Neuropilin-1 exerts co-receptor function for TGF-beta-1 on the membrane of cancer cells and enhances responses to both latent and active TGF-beta. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:613-21 pubmed publisher
    Neuropilin (Nrp)-1 and Nrp-2 are multifunctional proteins frequently expressed by cancer cells and contribute to tumor progression by mechanisms that are not well understood...
  57. Makinen T, Olofsson B, Karpanen T, Hellman U, Soker S, Klagsbrun M, et al. Differential binding of vascular endothelial growth factor B splice and proteolytic isoforms to neuropilin-1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:21217-22 pubmed
  58. Kurschat P, Bielenberg D, Rossignol Tallandier M, Stahl A, Klagsbrun M. Neuron restrictive silencer factor NRSF/REST is a transcriptional repressor of neuropilin-1 and diminishes the ability of semaphorin 3A to inhibit keratinocyte migration. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2721-9 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that NRSF is a transcription factor that silences NRP1 expression and thereby diminishes the Sema3A mediated inhibition of HaCaT keratinocyte migration. ..
  59. Cheng W, Fu D, Wei Z, Xu F, Xu X, Liu Y, et al. NRP-1 expression in bladder cancer and its implications for tumor progression. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:6089-94 pubmed publisher
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) overexpression has been reported in a variety of human cancers. However, the role of NRP-1 in bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear...
  60. Soker S, Takashima S, Miao H, Neufeld G, Klagsbrun M. Neuropilin-1 is expressed by endothelial and tumor cells as an isoform-specific receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. Cell. 1998;92:735-45 pubmed
    ..This isoform-specific VEGF receptor (VEGF165R) is identical to human neuropilin-1, a receptor for the collapsin/semaphorin family that mediates neuronal cell ..
  61. Takahashi T, Strittmatter S. Plexina1 autoinhibition by the plexin sema domain. Neuron. 2001;29:429-39 pubmed
    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) binds to neuropilin-1 (NP1) and activates the transmembrane Plexin to transduce a repulsive axon guidance signal...
  62. Younan S, Elhoseiny S, Hammam A, Gawdat R, El Wakil M, Fawzy M. Role of neuropilin-1 and its expression in Egyptian acute myeloid and acute lymphoid leukemia patients. Leuk Res. 2012;36:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Their expression is thought to be correlated with tumor angiogenesis and progression. In this study, we analyzed NRP-1 expression level in 40 acute leukemia patients [20 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 20 acute lymphoblastic ..
  63. Baba T, Kariya M, Higuchi T, Mandai M, Matsumura N, Kondoh E, et al. Neuropilin-1 promotes unlimited growth of ovarian cancer by evading contact inhibition. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:703-11 pubmed
    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a receptor for both semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor and is up-regulated in a variety of human cancers...
  64. Evans I, Yamaji M, Britton G, Pellet Many C, Lockie C, Zachary I, et al. Neuropilin-1 signaling through p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for growth factor-dependent migration of glioma and endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1174-85 pubmed publisher
  65. Glinka Y, Mohammed N, Subramaniam V, Jothy S, Prud homme G. Neuropilin-1 is expressed by breast cancer stem-like cells and is linked to NF-?B activation and tumor sphere formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Nrp1 plays a key role in mammosphere formation and this activity is linked to NF-?B activation. Thus, Nrp1 might be a target for therapy against breast CSCs, and the anticancer drug tranilast suppresses its expression. ..
  66. Takahashi T, Nakamura F, Jin Z, Kalb R, Strittmatter S. Semaphorins A and E act as antagonists of neuropilin-1 and agonists of neuropilin-2 receptors. Nat Neurosci. 1998;1:487-93 pubmed
    ..SemA and SemE seem to have a newly discovered protein antagonist capacity at NP-1 receptors, whereas they act as agonists at receptors containing NP-2. ..
  67. Piechnik A, Dmoszynska A, Omiotek M, Mlak R, Kowal M, Stilgenbauer S, et al. The VEGF receptor, neuropilin-1, represents a promising novel target for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:1489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, NRP1 might represent an interesting link between angiogenesis and tolerance mechanisms and represents interesting target for therapy. ..
  68. Lepelletier Y, Smaniotto S, Hadj Slimane R, Villa Verde D, Nogueira A, Dardenne M, et al. Control of human thymocyte migration by Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A-mediated interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5545-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we show here that NP-1/Sema-3A-mediated interactions participate in the control of human thymocyte development. ..
  69. Cao S, Yaqoob U, Das A, Shergill U, Jagavelu K, Huebert R, et al. Neuropilin-1 promotes cirrhosis of the rodent and human liver by enhancing PDGF/TGF-beta signaling in hepatic stellate cells. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2379-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that in two rat models of liver fibrosis, the axonal guidance molecule neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) was upregulated in activated HSCs, which exhibit the highly motile myofibroblast phenotype...
  70. Chen H, Chedotal A, He Z, Goodman C, Tessier Lavigne M. Neuropilin-2, a novel member of the neuropilin family, is a high affinity receptor for the semaphorins Sema E and Sema IV but not Sema III. Neuron. 1997;19:547-59 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that the specificity of action of different members of this subfamily may be determined by the complement of neuropilins expressed by responsive cells. ..
  71. Fukahi K, Fukasawa M, Neufeld G, Itakura J, Korc M. Aberrant expression of neuropilin-1 and -2 in human pancreatic cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:581-90 pubmed
    ..The aberrant localization of Np-1 and Np-2 in the cancer cells in PDAC suggests that in addition to exerting proangiogenic effects, these coreceptors may contribute to novel autocrine-paracrine interactions in this malignancy. ..
  72. Tordjman R, Lepelletier Y, Lemarchandel V, Cambot M, Gaulard P, Hermine O, et al. A neuronal receptor, neuropilin-1, is essential for the initiation of the primary immune response. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:477-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that neuropilin-1 mediates interactions between DCs and T cells that are essential for initiation of the primary immune response and show parallels between the nervous and immune systems. ..
  73. Man X, Yang X, Cai S, Yao Y, Zheng M. Immunolocalization and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and neuropilins (NRPs) on keratinocytes in human epidermis. Mol Med. 2006;12:127-36 pubmed
    ..VEGF receptors (VEGFRs, including VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3) and neuropilins (NRPs, including NRP-1 and NRP-2) are high-affinity receptors for VEGF and are typically considered to be specific for endothelial cells...
  74. Pellet Many C, Frankel P, Evans I, Herzog B, Junemann Ramirez M, Zachary I. Neuropilin-1 mediates PDGF stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and signalling via p130Cas. Biochem J. 2011;435:609-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a role for NRP1 and NRP1 glycosylation in mediating PDGF-induced VSMC migration, possibly by acting as a co-receptor for PDGFR? and via selective mobilization of a novel p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation pathway. ..
  75. Holmes D, Zachary I. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates stanniocalcin-1 expression via neuropilin-1-dependent regulation of KDR and synergism with fibroblast growth factor-2. Cell Signal. 2008;20:569-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a role for NP-1 in mediating synergistic effects between VEGF-A(165) and FGF-2, which may occur in part through a contribution of NP-1 to KDR stability. ..
  76. Milpied P, Renand A, Bruneau J, Mendes da Cruz D, Jacquelin S, Asnafi V, et al. Neuropilin-1 is not a marker of human Foxp3+ Treg. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1466-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1), a membrane protein primarily involved in the nervous system, was identified as a specific marker of murine Treg,..
  77. Herzog B, Pellet Many C, Britton G, Hartzoulakis B, Zachary I. VEGF binding to NRP1 is essential for VEGF stimulation of endothelial cell migration, complex formation between NRP1 and VEGFR2, and signaling via FAK Tyr407 phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2766-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of key residues essential for VEGF binding and biological functions provides the basis for a rational design of antagonists of VEGF binding to NRP1. ..
  78. Yu D, Waby J, Chirakkal H, Staton C, Corfe B. Butyrate suppresses expression of neuropilin I in colorectal cell lines through inhibition of Sp1 transactivation. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:276 pubmed publisher
    Neuropilin is a transmembrane receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is expressed in normal endothelial cells and upregulated in cancer cells...
  79. Tamagnone L, Artigiani S, Chen H, He Z, Ming G, Song H, et al. Plexins are a large family of receptors for transmembrane, secreted, and GPI-anchored semaphorins in vertebrates. Cell. 1999;99:71-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that plexins are receptors for multiple (and perhaps all) classes of semaphorins, either alone or in combination with neuropilins, and trigger a novel signal transduction pathway controlling cell repulsion. ..