Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: nef
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Publications105 found, 100 shown here
- Proline-rich (PxxP) motifs in HIV-1 Nef bind to SH3 domains of a subset of Src kinases and are required for the enhanced growth of Nef+ viruses but not for down-regulation of CD4K Saksela
Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
EMBO J 14:484-91. 1995Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus Nef proteins contain a conserved motif with the minimal consensus (PxxP) site for Src homology region 3 (SH3)-mediated protein-protein interactions...
- Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules is induced by the HIV-1 Nef proteinO Schwartz
Laboratoire Rétrovirus et Transfert Génétique, Unité de Recherche Associée CNRS 1157, Paris, France
Nat Med 2:338-42. 1996..We have observed that this phenomenon depends on the expression of Nef. nef is an early gene of primate lentiviruses, which is necessary for maintaining high virus loads and inducing ..
- HIV-1 Nef selectively activates Src family kinases Hck, Lyn, and c-Src through direct SH3 domain interactionRonald P Trible
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
J Biol Chem 281:27029-38. 2006b>Nef is an HIV-1 virulence factor that promotes viral pathogenicity by altering host cell signaling pathways. Nef binds several members of the Src kinase family, and these interactions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS...
- Nef triggers a transcriptional program in T cells imitating single-signal T cell activation and inducing HIV virulence mediatorsA Simmons
MRC Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
Immunity 14:763-77. 2001Gene expression profiling was used to explore the role of Nef in HIV. Nef induces a transcriptional program in T cells that is 97% identical to that of anti-CD3 T cell activation. This program is inhibited in the presence of cyclosporin...
- The crystal structure of HIV-1 Nef protein bound to the Fyn kinase SH3 domain suggests a role for this complex in altered T cell receptor signalingS Arold
Centre de Biochimie Structurale, UMR C9955 CNRS, U414 INSERM, Universite Montpellier I, Faculte de Pharmacie, France
Structure 5:1361-72. 1997Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Nef protein accelerates virulent progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by its interaction with specific cellular proteins involved in signal transduction and host cell activation...
- Protein protein interaction inhibition (2P2I) combining high throughput and virtual screening: Application to the HIV-1 Nef proteinStephane Betzi
Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines Laboratory, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut de Biologie Structurale et Microbiologie, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19256-61. 2007..used as starting point in a structure-based research program that targets an SH3 binding surface of the HIV type I Nef protein...
- HIV-1 Nef upregulates CCL2/MCP-1 expression in astrocytes in a myristoylation- and calmodulin-dependent mannerMichael H Lehmann
Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstadter Landstr 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
J Cell Sci 119:4520-30. 2006..The accessory HIV-1 negative factor (Nef) protein, which modulates several signaling pathways, is constitutively present in persistently infected astroctyes...
- HIV-Nef enhances interleukin-2 production and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in a human T cell lineS D Schibeci
Department of Clinical Immunology, Westmead Hospital, NSW, Australia
AIDS 14:1701-7. 2000The Nef protein has a major influence on disease pathogenesis in HIV-infected individuals. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of Nef on T lymphocyte activation and associated signalling events.
- Nef-mediated suppression of T cell activation was lost in a lentiviral lineage that gave rise to HIV-1Michael Schindler
Department of Virology, University of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Cell 125:1055-67. 2006..The mechanisms causing these varying levels of immune activation are not understood. Here, we report that nef alleles from the great majority of primate lentiviruses, including HIV-2, downmodulate TCR-CD3 from infected T ..
- Nef induces CD4 endocytosis: requirement for a critical dileucine motif in the membrane-proximal CD4 cytoplasmic domainC Aiken
Infectious Disease Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 1099
Cell 76:853-64. 1994..The HIV early protein Nef causes a loss of CD4 from cell surfaces through a previously undefined posttranscriptional mechanism...
- Activation of Vav by Nef induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and downstream effector functionsO T Fackler
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco 94143 0703, USA
Mol Cell 3:729-39. 1999b>Nef of primate lentiviruses is critical for high levels of viremia and the progression to AIDS. Nef associates with and activates a serine/threonine kinase (Nef-associated kinase [NAK]) via the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42...
- Association of Nef with p21-activated kinase 2 is dispensable for efficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and cytopathicity in ex vivo-infected human lymphoid tissueMichael Schindler
Institute of Virology, Universitatsklinikum, 89081 Ulm, Germany
J Virol 81:13005-14. 2007Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein with p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) has been proposed to play a role in T-cell activation, viral replication, apoptosis, and progression to AIDS...
- A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4M Greenberg
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724, USA
Curr Biol 8:1239-42. 1998b>Nef, a approximately 200 residue multifunctional regulatory protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), interacts with components of host cell signal transduction and clathrin-dependent protein ..
- Heat shock protein 40 is necessary for human immunodeficiency virus-1 Nef-mediated enhancement of viral gene expression and replicationManish Kumar
National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
J Biol Chem 280:40041-50. 2005The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Nef protein, originally identified as a negative factor, has now emerged as one of the most important viral proteins necessary for viral pathogenesis and disease progression...
- The selective downregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins by HIV-1 protects HIV-infected cells from NK cellsG B Cohen
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
Immunity 10:661-71. 1999..These results suggest that subpopulations of CTL and NK cells may be uniquely suited for combating HIV...
- Activation of PAK by HIV and SIV Nef: importance for AIDS in rhesus macaquesE T Sawai
Department of Medical Pathology, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
Curr Biol 6:1519-27. 1996..types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), encode a conserved accessory gene product, Nef. In vivo, Nef is important for the maintenance of high virus loads and progression to AIDS in SIV-infected adult ..
- A natural variability in the proline-rich motif of Nef modulates HIV-1 replication in primary T cellsO T Fackler
Institute for Hygiene, Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, D 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
Curr Biol 11:1294-9. 2001In the infected host, the Nef protein of HIV/SIV is required for high viral loads and thus disease progression...
- Proline 78 is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef to down-regulate class I human leukocyte antigenTakeshi Yamada
Division of Infectious Diseases, Advanced Clinical Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Japan
J Virol 77:1589-94. 2003Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef down-regulates human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) in T lymphocytes, and the down-regulation involves the Nef proline-rich domain (PRD) containing four prolines at positions 69, 72, 75, and 78...
- Activation of NFAT-dependent gene expression by Nef: conservation among divergent Nef alleles, dependence on SH3 binding and membrane association, and cooperation with protein kinase C-thetaA Manninen
Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, FIN 33014 Tampere, Finland
J Virol 75:3034-7. 2001Here we show that the potential to regulate NFAT is a conserved property of different Nef alleles and that Nef residues involved in membrane targeting and SH3 binding are critical for this function...
- Subunit H of the V-ATPase involved in endocytosis shows homology to beta-adaptinsMatthias Geyer
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, California 94143 0703, USA
Mol Biol Cell 13:2045-56. 2002..For beta-adaptins, this fragment binds to cytoplasmic di-leucine-based sorting motifs such as in HIV-1 Nef that mediate endocytic trafficking...
- HIV type 1 nef gene inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation through the action of MAPK and JNK in human glial cellsG A Robichaud
Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Pavillon CHUL, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16:1959-65. 2000..Whereas the HIV-1 nef gene is overexpressed during restricted HIV-1 infection of human astrocytes, our previous results have demonstrated ..
- Stable expression of HIV-1 Nef induces changes in growth properties and activation state of human astrocytesB Kohleisen
GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Molecular Virology, Neuherberg, Germany
AIDS 13:2331-41. 1999b>Nef was shown to be the predominant viral protein expressed in HIV-1-infected astrocytes in vivo and in vitro suggesting a distinct role of Nef in this cell type...
- Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus Nef protein by phosphorylationJ C Bandres
Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri
Virology 201:157-61. 1994Human immunodeficiency virus isolates express a Nef protein with either an alanine or a threonine at amino acid residue 15. The threonine residue is a site for phosphorylation by protein kinase C...
- Molecular analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of CD4: overlapping but noncompetitive requirement for lck association and down-regulation by NefS Gratton
Laboratory of Immunology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
J Immunol 157:3305-11. 1996Expression of the HIV Nef protein results in the down-regulation of cell surface expression of CD4, with a di-leucine motif in the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 being required for this effect...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef associates with a member of the p21-activated kinase familyM F Nunn
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Virol 70:6157-61. 1996Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Nef is essential for the induction of AIDS, its biochemical function has remained an enigma...
- Separable functions of Nef disrupt two aspects of T cell receptor machinery: CD4 expression and CD3 signalingA J Iafrate
Department in Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
EMBO J 16:673-84. 1997The Nef protein alters T cell receptor (TCR) signaling in T cells and is critical for the pathogenesis of AIDS. We used a transient expression assay in a human CD4+ T cell line to analyze the interaction of Nef with the TCR machinery...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef induces programmed death 1 expression through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanismKaruppiah Muthumani
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Virol 82:11536-44. 2008..Here, we provide evidence that the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Nef can transcriptionally induce the expression of PD-1 during infection in vitro...
- Nef-induced major histocompatibility complex class I down-regulation is functionally dissociated from its virion incorporation, enhancement of viral infectivity, and CD4 down-regulationH Akari
Department of Virology, The University of Tokushima School of Medicine, Tokushima, Tokushima 770 8503, Japan
J Virol 74:2907-12. 2000The N-terminal alpha-helix domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein plays important roles in enhancement of viral infectivity, virion incorporation of Nef, and the down-regulation of major histocompatibility ..
- Nef induces multiple genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cellsAngélique B van 't Wout
Department of Microbiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, 98195, USA
J Virol 79:10053-8. 2005..demonstrate that changes in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are only observed in the presence of functional Nef, suggesting that increased cholesterol synthesis may contribute to Nef-mediated enhancement of virion infectivity ..
- HIV-1 Nef mediates lymphocyte chemotaxis and activation by infected macrophagesS Swingler
University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Program in Molecular Medicine, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Nat Med 5:997-103. 1999..Here we demonstrate that the accessory gene product Nef induces the production of two CC-chemokines, macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha and 1beta, by HIV-1-infected ..
- HIV-1 Nef inhibits ASK1-dependent death signalling providing a potential mechanism for protecting the infected host cellR Geleziunas
Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, PO Box 419100, San Francisco, California 94141 9100, USA
Nature 410:834-8. 2001..Increased killing of such bystander cells is mediated in part through Nef induction of Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of the virally infected T cells...
- A diacidic motif in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef is a novel determinant of binding to AP-2O Wolf Lindwasser
Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 18T, Room 101, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Virol 82:1166-74. 2008A key function of the Nef protein of immunodeficiency viruses is the downregulation of the T-cell and macrophage coreceptor, CD4, from the surfaces of infected cells...
- HIV-1 Nef downregulates MHC-I by a PACS-1- and PI3K-regulated ARF6 endocytic pathwayAnastassia D Blagoveshchenskaya
Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Cell 111:853-66. 2002The HIV-1 Nef-mediated downregulation of cell surface MHC-I molecules to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) enables HIV-1 to escape immune surveillance. However, the cellular pathway used by Nef to downregulate MHC-I is unknown...
- Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef alleles show major differences in pathogenicity in transgenic miceElena Priceputu
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec H2W 1R7, Canada
J Virol 81:4677-93. 2007We previously reported that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NL4-3 Nef is necessary and sufficient to induce a severe AIDS-like disease in transgenic (Tg) mice when the protein is expressed under the regulatory sequences of the ..
- Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef potently induces apoptosis in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells via the activation of caspasesEdward A Acheampong
Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
J Virol 79:4257-69. 2005The lentiviral protein Nef plays a major role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection...
- Oligomerization is required for HIV-1 Nef-induced activation of the Src family protein-tyrosine kinase, HckHuihui Ye
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E1240 Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
Biochemistry 43:15775-84. 2004..Previous studies have shown that Nef, an HIV-1 accessory protein essential for AIDS progression, binds and activates Hck through its SH3 domain...
- Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexesScott H Coleman
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
J Virol 79:2066-78. 2005The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virulence protein Nef interacts with the endosomal sorting machinery via a leucine-based motif...
- HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expressionP Stumptner-Cuvelette
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U520 and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR144, Institut Curie, 75005 Paris, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12144-9. 2001HIV-1-infected cells can avoid cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing by Nef-mediated down-regulation of surface MHC I...
- Modulation of specific surface receptors and activation sensitization in primary resting CD4+ T lymphocytes by the Nef protein of HIV-1Oliver T Keppler
Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
J Leukoc Biol 79:616-27. 2006The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenicity factor Nef increases viral replication in vivo. In immortalized cell lines, Nef affects the cell surface levels of multiple receptors and signal transduction pathways...
- Multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef functions contribute to efficient replication in primary human macrophagesAmanda Brown
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA
J Gen Virol 85:1463-9. 2004The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein has been shown to accelerate viral growth kinetics in primary human T-lymphocytes and macrophages; however, the specific function(s) of Nef responsible for this phenotype in ..
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef activates p21-activated kinase via recruitment into lipid raftsEllen Krautkrämer
Abteilung Virologie, Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
J Virol 78:4085-97. 2004The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is an important factor in AIDS pathogenesis...
- HIV-1 Nef interacts with inositol trisphosphate receptor to activate calcium signaling in T cellsAki Manninen
Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere FIN 33014, Finland
J Exp Med 195:1023-32. 2002HIV-1 pathogenicity factor Nef has been shown to modulate calcium signaling in host cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unclear...
- HIV-1 Nef enhances both membrane expression and virion incorporation of Env products. A model for the Nef-dependent increase of HIV-1 infectivityIlaria Schiavoni
Laboratory of Virology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, 00161 Italy
J Biol Chem 279:22996-3006. 2004The expression of human immunodeficiency virus Nef increases the viral infectivity through mechanisms still not fully elucidated...
- Extracellular Nef protein targets CD4+ T cells for apoptosis by interacting with CXCR4 surface receptorsCleve O James
Department of Microbiology Immunology Biochemistry Cardiovascular Research Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
J Virol 78:3099-109. 2004The effects of soluble Nef protein on CD4(+) T cells were examined...
- Nef-mediated lipid raft exclusion of UbcH7 inhibits Cbl activity in T cells to positively regulate signalingAlison Simmons
MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom
Immunity 23:621-34. 2005Lentiviral Nef increases T cell signaling activity, but the molecular nature of the stimulus involved is incompletely described. We explored CD4 T cell lipid raft composition in the presence and absence of Nef...
- HIV-1 Nef mimics an integrin receptor signal that recruits the polycomb group protein Eed to the plasma membraneVanessa Witte
Department of Dermatology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
Mol Cell 13:179-90. 2004The Nef protein of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) is believed to interfere with T cell activation signals by forming a signaling complex at the plasma membrane...
- Nef-mediated downregulation of CD4 enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary T lymphocytesChristopher A Lundquist
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 2363, USA
J Virol 76:4625-33. 2002The accessory protein Nef plays a crucial role in primate lentivirus pathogenesis. Nef enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in culture and stimulates viral replication in primary T cells...
- HIV-1 Nef blocks transport of MHC class I molecules to the cell surface via a PI 3-kinase-dependent pathwayS A Swann
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
Virology 282:267-77. 2001HIV causes a chronic infection by evading immune eradication. A key element of HIV immune escape is the HIV-1 Nef protein...
- Inhibition of HIV-1 progeny virion release by cell-surface CD4 is relieved by expression of the viral Nef proteinT M Ross
Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
Curr Biol 9:613-21. 1999The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein is required for efficient virus replication in vivo and displays a number of distinct and apparently unrelated biological activities in vitro...
- A basic patch on alpha-adaptin is required for binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and cooperative assembly of a CD4-Nef-AP-2 complexRittik Chaudhuri
Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 18T, Room 101, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Virol 83:2518-30. 2009A critical function of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein is the downregulation of CD4 from the surfaces of infected cells...
- CD4 down-modulation by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef correlates with the efficiency of viral replication and with CD4(+) T-cell depletion in human lymphoid tissue ex vivoS Glushakova
The Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biophysics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Virol 75:10113-7. 2001The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein is an important virulence factor...
- Mechanism of Nef-induced CD4 endocytosis: Nef connects CD4 with the mu chain of adaptor complexesV Piguet
Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Centre Medical Universitaire, 1, rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneve 4, Switzerland
EMBO J 17:2472-81. 1998The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses down-regulates the cell surface expression of CD4 and probably MHC I by connecting these receptors with the endocytic machinery...
- Nef interacts with the mu subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes and reveals a cryptic sorting signal in MHC I moleculesS Le Gall
Laboratoire Rétrovirus et Transfert Génétique Unité de Recherche Associée CNRS 1157, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Immunity 8:483-95. 1998The surface expression of MHC I is reduced in HIV-infected cells. We show that the Nef protein affects the intracellular sorting of HLA-A and -B molecules...
- Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with the cellular dileucine-based sorting pathway is required for CD4 down-regulation and optimal viral infectivityH M Craig
Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:11229-34. 1998The HIV-1 Nef protein is important for pathogenesis, enhances viral infectivity, and regulates the sorting of at least two cellular transmembrane proteins, CD4 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I...
- RT loop flexibility enhances the specificity of Src family SH3 domains for HIV-1 NefS Arold
Centre de Biochimie Structurale, UMR C9955 CNRS, U414 INSERM, Universite Montpellier 1, France
Biochemistry 37:14683-91. 1998..The RT loop has been shown to form a major part of the binding interface between SH3 domains and HIV-1 Nef. Thermodynamic data, derived from isothermal titration calorimetry, for the binding of Hck SH3 to HIV-1 Nef show ..
- Allosteric loss-of-function mutations in HIV-1 Nef from a long-term non-progressorRonald P Trible
Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
J Mol Biol 374:121-9. 2007Activation of Src family kinases by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS...
- The dileucine-based sorting motif in HIV-1 Nef is not required for down-regulation of class I MHCN L Riggs
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
Virology 258:203-7. 1999..protein sorting motif has recently been identified within the C-terminal, solvent-exposed loop of HIV-1 Nef and has been shown to be required for Nef-mediated down-regulation of CD4 and for optimal viral infectivity...
- Novel (n)PKC kinases phosphorylate Nef for increased HIV transcription, replication and perinuclear targetingDietlinde Wolf
University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, BCRI 739, Miami, FL 33136, USA
Virology 370:45-54. 2008The N-terminus of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenicity factor Nef associates with a protein complex (NAKC for Nef-associated kinase complex) that contains at least two kinases: the tyrosine kinase Lck and a serine kinase ..
- HIV-1 Nef increases T cell activation in a stimulus-dependent mannerJ A Schrager
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Mental Health, 36 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 4034, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8167-72. 1999Lentiviral Nef increases viral replication in vivo, plays a direct role in pathogenesis, and increases viral particle infectivity...
- CD4 down-modulation during infection of human T cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves independent activities of vpu, env, and nefB K Chen
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
J Virol 70:6044-53. 1996The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genes vpu, env, and nef have all been implicated in modulating the levels of cell surface CD4 on infected cells...
- The human thioesterase II protein binds to a site on HIV-1 Nef critical for CD4 down-regulationG B Cohen
AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
J Biol Chem 275:23097-105. 2000A HIV-1 Nef affinity column was used to purify a 35-kDa Nef-interacting protein from T-cell lysates...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef selectively associates with a catalytically active subpopulation of p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) independently of PAK2 binding to Nck or beta-PIXG H Renkema
Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
J Virol 75:2154-60. 2001We have recently identified the Nef-associated serine-threonine kinase (NAK) as the p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2)...
- Nef mutations in long-term non-progressors from former plasma donors infected with HIV-1 subtype B in ChinaShu Hua Wang
State Key Laboratory for Infection Diseases Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
Biomed Environ Sci 21:485-91. 2008To study the specific amino acid variation in Nef that may be related to disease progression after infection with HIV-1 subtype B, a predominant strain circulating in China, and to determine whether changes in Nef secondary structure may ..
- Lentivirus vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs against the U3-overlapping region of HIV nef inhibit HIV replication and infectivity in primary macrophagesTakuya Yamamoto
Department of Immunology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1 23 1, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
Blood 108:3305-12. 2006..In this study, we identified a putative RNAi target of HIV, consisting of the portion of the nef gene overlapping the U3 region (Nef366), and generated a lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression ..
- Nef induces apoptosis by activating JNK signaling pathway and inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent immune responses in DrosophilaSung Bae Lee
National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305 701, Korea
J Cell Sci 118:1851-9. 2005The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nef gene encodes a 27-kDa protein that plays a crucial role during AIDS pathogenesis, but its exact functional mechanism has not been fully elucidated and remains controversial...
- Constitutive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway down-regulates TLR4-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in alveolar macrophages from asymptomatic HIV-positive persons in vitroSouvenir D Tachado
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
J Biol Chem 283:33191-8. 2008..Incubation of human macrophages with exogenous HIV Nef protein induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta (whereas phosphorylation was reduced by PI3K inhibition) and ..
- HIV-1 Nef-induced FasL induction and bystander killing requires p38 MAPK activationKaruppiah Muthumani
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 422 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Blood 106:2059-68. 2005..is manifested in part through up-regulation of the death receptor Fas ligand (FasL) by HIV-1 negative factor (Nef), leading to bystander damage...
- Functional characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef acidic domainLaura L Baugh
Y9 206, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
J Virol 82:9657-67. 2008The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Nef downregulates major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) from the cell surface...
- Alterations in intracellular potassium concentration by HIV-1 and SIV NefBongkun Choi
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Virol J 5:60. 2008..Xenopus laevis oocytes have few functional endogenous ion channels, and have proven useful as a system to examine direct effects of exogenously added proteins on ion transport...
- Genetic characterization of HIV type 1 Nef-induced vesicle secretionSyed A Ali
Department of Microbiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:173-92. 2010The HIV-1 Nef protein is known to be secreted, and our group has shown that Nef is secreted from nef-transfected and HIV-1-infected cells in small exosome-like vesicles (d. 40-100 nm)...
- The cell biology of HIV-1 and other retrovirusesEric O Freed
Virus Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
Retrovirology 3:77. 2006..MEETING REPORT: The conference began with a keynote address from W. Sundquist on the biochemistry of HIV-1 budding. This presentation will be described in the section on Assembly and Release of Retroviruses...
- Mapping the binding site of full length HIV-1 Nef on human Lck SH3 by NMR spectroscopyLars Briese
Institut fur Molekulare Biotechnologie, 07745, Jena, Germany
J Biomed Sci 12:451-6. 2005The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to directly bind to the SH3 domain of human lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck) via a proline-rich region located in the amino terminal part of Nef...
- Modelling thymic HIV-1 Nef effectsVeronique Stove
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Curr HIV Res 4:57-64. 2006The nef gene is conserved among primate lentiviruses and is one of the first viral genes that is transcribed following infection...
- Possible role of deep tubular invaginations of the plasma membrane in MHC-I traffickingRamiro H Massol
Department of Cell Biology and The CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Exp Cell Res 306:142-9. 2005..Expression of NefAAAA, a mutant form of HIV Nef, increases the number of cells containing the stable tubules, and is used here as a tool to facilitate their study...
- HIV-1 Nef-mediated inhibition of T cell migration and its molecular determinantsIn Woo Park
Center for AIDS Research and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, R2 302, 950 W Walnut St, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
J Leukoc Biol 86:1171-8. 2009..Previous studies have shown that HIV-1 Nef inhibits T cell chemotaxis in response to the physiological ligand SDF-1alpha [( 1) ]...
- Phosphorylation of HIV Nef by cAMP-dependent protein kinasePei Lin Li
Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Virology 331:367-74. 2005b>Nef, a multifunctional accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), is important for disease progression...
- Affinity of Src family kinase SH3 domains for HIV Nef in vitro does not predict kinase activation by Nef in vivoS D Briggs
Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198, USA
Biochemistry 39:489-95. 2000b>Nef is an HIV accessory protein required for high-titer viral replication and AIDS progression...
- Induction of interleukin-15 production by HIV-1 nef protein: a role in the proliferation of uninfected cellsM G Quaranta
Department of Immunology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
Exp Cell Res 250:112-21. 1999Several recent reports have provided evidence that Nef enhances human immunodeficiency virus HIV infectivity, and in vitro experiments with the nef gene have demonstrated the possible role of Nef in modulating immune responses...
- Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity by the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathwayX Yang
Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Virol 73:3460-6. 1999..The HIV-1 Rev, Tat, p17(Gag), and Nef proteins were directly phosphorylated by MAPK in vitro, suggesting that other HIV-1 proteins are potential ..
- T cells chronically infected with HIV do not contain sufficient Nef to promote CD4 downmodulation in the absence of envelope-mediated effectsM Cucchiarini
Laboratoire de Virologie, Faculte de Medecine, Nice, France
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 17:112-9. 1998Among HIV viral proteins, envelope glycoproteins and Nef have been both suggested to participate in CD4 downregulation during the course of HIV infection...
- The HIV-1 nef protein inhibits extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent DNA synthesis in a human astrocytic cell lineI A Romero
CNRS UPR 0415, Institut Cochin de Genetique Moleculaire, Paris, France
J Neurochem 70:778-85. 1998..infection of astrocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), characterized by the overexpression of nef, in brain disease progression is largely unknown...
- A novel acyl-CoA thioesterase enhances its enzymatic activity by direct binding with HIV NefH Watanabe
Division of Molecular Genetics, Chiba University School of Medicine, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 238:234-9. 1997In addition to playing a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AIDS, HIV nef induces down-regulation of CD4 expression and TCR signaling and also regulates the sorting pathway in host T cells...
- Expression of HIV-1 nef decreases basal phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase activityA Garcia
Groupe de développement cellulaire et unité d immunologie virale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
C R Acad Sci III 320:505-8. 1997CEM lymphoid cells expressing high levels of HIV-1 nef protein displayed a significant decrease in basal phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (P13-kinase) activity associated with immunoprecipitates with anti-p85 regulatory subunit...
- Protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of HIV-I nef in human cell linesK Coates
MRC Retrovirus Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 272:12289-94. 1997Stable human cell lines expressing the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I) Nef protein from inducible promoters were used to analyze the phosphorylation status of Nef in vivo...
- The solution structure of HIV-1 Nef reveals an unexpected fold and permits delineation of the binding surface for the SH3 domain of Hck tyrosine protein kinaseS Grzesiek
Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Struct Biol 3:340-5. 1996The solution structure of HIV-1 Nef has been solved by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy...
- The negative effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef on cell surface CD4 expression is not species specific and requires the cytoplasmic domain of CD4J V Garcia
Department of Virology and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105
J Virol 67:1511-6. 1993The nef gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to induce CD4 downregulation from the surface of human cells...
- Myristoylation-dependent binding of HIV-1 Nef to CD4M P Harris
Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Glasgow, Scotland, U K
J Mol Biol 241:136-42. 1994The nef gene is conserved throughout the primate lentivirus family. Although dispensable in vitro, an important role for nef in vivo is suggested by the failure of SIV nef mutants to establish persistent viraemia...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef induces accumulation of CD4 in early endosomesO Schwartz
Laboratoire Rétrovirus et Transfert Génétique URA CNRS 1157, Paris, France
J Virol 69:528-33. 1995We have studied the fate of CD4 in CEM T cells expressing a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 Nef protein. Nef triggered a rapid endocytosis and a degradation of CD4, while most of the p56lck was upheld at the cell membrane...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef mediates sustained membrane expression of tumor necrosis factor and the related cytokine LIGHT on activated T cellsJ Lama
Division of Molecular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, California 92121, USA
J Virol 74:9396-402. 2000Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Nef downregulates the antigen recognition molecules major histocompatibility complex class I and CD4...
- Lentivirus Nef specifically activates Pak2V K Arora
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
J Virol 74:11081-7. 2000b>Nef proteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have been found to associate with an active cellular serine/threonine kinase designated Nef-associated kinase (Nak)...
- Modulation of CD8 and CD3 by HIV or HIV antigensJ Jason
Mailstop A 25, Immunology Branch, DASTLR NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Scand J Immunol 53:259-67. 2001..phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated, PHA/HIV-inoculated (PHA/HIV), or placed into media with soluble gp120, Rev or Nef. HIV inoculation and Nef had striking modulatory effects on CD8...
- Nef-induced alteration of the early/recycling endosomal compartment correlates with enhancement of HIV-1 infectivityRicardo Madrid
Institut Cochin, Department of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR8104, Universite Paris 5, 75014 Paris, France
J Biol Chem 280:5032-44. 2005human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef interacts with the clathrin-associated AP-1 and AP-3 adaptor complexes, stabilizing their association with endosomal membranes...
- HIV-1 Nef promotes survival of TF-1 macrophages by inducing Bcl-XL expression in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent mannerHyun Jung Choi
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
J Biol Chem 279:51688-96. 2004The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is essential for the progression from human and simian immunodeficiency virus infection to full-blown AIDS...
- ARF1 regulates Nef-induced CD4 degradationJulien Faure
Department of Biochemistry, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Curr Biol 14:1056-64. 2004The HIV Nef protein downregulates CD4 through sequential connection with clathrin-coated pits and the COP1 coatomer, resulting in accelerated endocytosis and lysosomal targeting.
- HIV type 1 Nef increases the association of T cell receptor (TCR)-signaling molecules with T cell rafts and promotes activation-induced raft fusionJulianne T Djordjevic
Institute for Immunology and Allergy Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, NSW 2145, Australia
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:547-55. 2004HIV-1 Nef (Nef) is a myristoylated protein that contributes to HIV disease pathogenesis. Nef has a modulatory effect on T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, resulting in up-regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in stimulated T cells...
- The functional consequences of delivery of HIV-1 Nef to dendritic cells using an adenoviral vectorLuci P MacCormac
Department of Immunology and Molecular Pathology, Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, W1T 4JF London, UK
Vaccine 22:528-35. 2004The Nef gene is a major determinant of HIV-1 pathogenicity...
- Regulation of T cell activation by HIV-1 accessory proteins: Vpr acts via distinct mechanisms to cooperate with Nef in NFAT-directed gene expression and to promote transactivation by CREBAnna L Lahti
Institute of Medical Technology, FIN 33014 University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
Virology 310:190-6. 2003b>Nef and Vpr are lentiviral accessory proteins that have been implicated in regulation of cellular gene expression...
- Coxiella burnetii avoids macrophage phagocytosis by interfering with spatial distribution of complement receptor 3Christian Capo
Unite des Rickettsies, Faculte de Medecine, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 6020, Marseille, France
J Immunol 170:4217-25. 2003..In addition, monocyte activation due to the expression of HIV-1 Nef protein also restored CR3-mediated phagocytosis of C...
- Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus and lipopolysaccharide induce expression of CD14 on human monocytes through differential utilization of interleukin-10David Creery
Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:1212-21. 2002..effects of cytokines, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and/or the HIV regulatory antigens Tat and Nef. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunoregulatory cytokine, as well as LPS enhanced mCD14 expression and the release of ..
- Effects of HIV-1 Nef on cellular gene expression profilesSyed Shaheduzzaman
HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Biomed Sci 9:82-96. 2002The early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accessory protein Nef makes an important contribution to virulence, but the mechanisms by which Nef influences pathogenesis remain unclear...
- Activation of the Src-family tyrosine kinase Hck by SH3 domain displacementI Moarefi
Laboratories of Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York 10021, USA
Nature 385:650-3. 1997..We show that addition of the HIV-1 Nef protein, which is a high-affinity ligand for the Hck SH3 domain, to either the downregulated or activated form of ..
- The MHC-I, HIV-1 Nef, AP-1 ComplexJohn Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2007Immune evasion by HIV-1 involves modulation of class I MHC glycoproteins by Nef. Antigen presentation by infected cells is inhibited due to misrouting of MHC-I from the cell surface to the endo-lysosomal system...
- Role of specific Nef functions in AIDS pathogenesisFrank Kirchhoff; Fiscal Year: 2007We propose that the inability of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein to inhibit T cell activation and apoptosis contributes to the high levels of immune activation and accelerates progression to AIDS...
- HIV 1 NEF AND VIRAL INFECTIVITYJohn Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2007HIV-1 Nef is an important virulence factor that down-regulates CD4 and class I MHC from the cell surface and enhances viral infectivity and replication...
- PROTEIN PROFILING OF ORAL MUCOSA OF HIV TRANSGENIC MICEPaul Jolicoeur; Fiscal Year: 2007..Aim 5-To identify the specific Nef-expressing cells of CD4C/HIV Tg mice associated with specific changes in protein profiles of oral mucosa...
- STRUCTURE BASED THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF HIV-1 PROTEASEErnesto Freire; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Factors/HIV-1 Nef's Ability to Direct Immune EvasionMartha Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2007..The plan focuses on investigating factors influencing the HIV-1 accessory protein Nef's ability to mediate evasion of CTL immune responses. Previous studies by Dr...
- Role of HIPK2 in Kidney Tubulointerstitial InjuryAVI MA apos AYAN; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- HIV-1 Vpu and BST-2/CD317John Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2011..The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts this host defense. This research is designed to explore how BST-2 retains virus particles, how Vpu antagonizes this activity, and how BST-2 is regulated within primary cells of the immune system. ..
- HIV 1 NEF AND VIRAL INFECTIVITYJohn Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2010HIV-1 Nef enhances the infectivity of cell-free virions by an incompletely understood process. The research proposed here is designed to continue an ongoing investigation of how Nef enhances viral infectivity...
- Structure Based Themodynamic Studies of HIV-1 ProteaseErnesto Freire; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- HIV-1 Vpu and BST-2/CD317John Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2009..The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts this host defense. This research is designed to explore how BST-2 retains virus particles, how Vpu antagonizes this activity, and how BST-2 is regulated within primary cells of the immune system. ..
- Cellular and molecular mechanism of retinoids in podocytesJohn C He; Fiscal Year: 2010..Our study may lead to discover new targets of intervention for glomerular diseases and identify new therapy regimes of retinoids by enhancing its beneficial effects and reducing its side effects in patients with kidney diseases. ..
- HIV-1 Nef's Role in Pathogenesis in vivoMartha J Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2010The projects proposed in this application aim to expand our understanding of how the Nef protein of HIV functions in vivo to promote viral persistence...
- HIV Compromises Lung Macrophage TLR Host Defense FunctionSouvenir D Tachado; Fiscal Year: 2010..3) To identify HIV-derived (Nef, gp120, ssRNA) and host-derived (IL-10) factors that contribute to HIV-mediated immune dysregulation in response to ..
- PROTEIN PROFILING OF ORAL MUCOSA OF HIV TRANSGENIC MICEPaul Jolicoeur; Fiscal Year: 2010..Aim 5-To identify the specific Nef-expressing cells of CD4C/HIV Tg mice associated with specific changes in protein profiles of oral mucosa...
- Cellular and molecular mechanism of retinoids in podocytesJOHN HE; Fiscal Year: 2009..Our study may lead to discover new targets of intervention for glomerular diseases and identify new therapy regimes of retinoids by enhancing its beneficial effects and reducing its side effects in patients with kidney diseases. ..
- HIV-1 Vpu and BST-2/CD317John Guatelli; Fiscal Year: 2010..The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts this host defense. This research is designed to explore how BST-2 retains virus particles, how Vpu antagonizes this activity, and how BST-2 is regulated within primary cells of the immune system. ..
- STUDIES OF LUNG DISEASES OF HIV TRANSGENIC MICEPaul Jolicoeur; Fiscal Year: 2009..1- To determine whether the development of the lung disease of CD4C/HIV Tg mice is caused by expression of HIV-1 Nef in cells of the immune system or in other cells...
- CARDIAC LESIONS IN HIV1 TRANSGENIC MICEPaul Jolicoeur; Fiscal Year: 2001..End of Abstract) ..
- STRUCTURE BASED THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF HIV-1 PROTEASEErnesto Freire; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- STRUCTURE BASED THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF HIV-1 PROTEASEErnesto Freire; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- CHEMOKINES IN LUNG DISEASE OF HIV1 TRANSGENIC MICEPaul Jolicoeur; Fiscal Year: 2003..4- To determine whether blocking or deleting specific chemokines or their receptors and overexpressing some chemokine receptors alter the development of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. ..
- PATHOGENIC CONVERSION OF ATTENUATED SIV VACCINESEarl Sawai; Fiscal Year: 2003..Such studies in juvenile and adult macaques revealed that viral accessory genes, including nef, are important for pathogenesis...