Gene Symbol: NAT1
Description: N-acetyltransferase 1
Alias: AAC1, MNAT, NAT-1, NATI, arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1, N-acetyltransferase 1 (arylamine N-acetyltransferase), N-acetyltransferase type 1, arylamide acetylase 1, monomorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase
Species: human
Products:     NAT1

Top Publications

  1. Ricart E, Taylor W, Loftus E, O Kane D, Weinshilboum R, Tremaine W, et al. N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 genotypes do not predict response or toxicity to treatment with mesalamine and sulfasalazine in patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1763-8 pubmed
    5-Aminosalicylate is metabolized in colonic mucosa by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), and sulfapyridine is metabolized in the liver by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2)...
  2. Vatsis K, Weber W, Bell D, Dupret J, Evans D, Grant D, et al. Nomenclature for N-acetyltransferases. Pharmacogenetics. 1995;5:1-17 pubmed
    ..For designation of genotypes at a single NAT* locus, a slash serves to separate the alleles; in phenotype designations, which are not italicized, alleles are separated by a comma. ..
  3. Hughes N, Janezic S, McQueen K, Jewett M, Castranio T, Bell D, et al. Identification and characterization of variant alleles of human acetyltransferase NAT1 with defective function using p-aminosalicylate as an in-vivo and in-vitro probe. Pharmacogenetics. 1998;8:55-66 pubmed
    Although several variant alleles at the human NAT1 gene locus have been reported, their relationship to phenotypic variations in NAT1 function remains unclear...
  4. Johansson I, Nilsson C, Berglund P, Lauss M, Ringner M, Olsson H, et al. Gene expression profiling of primary male breast cancers reveals two unique subgroups and identifies N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) as a novel prognostic biomarker. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R31 pubmed
    ..expressed genes, class 1 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and the metabolizing gene N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1), respectively, revealed significantly better survival associated with high expression of both markers (HLA, hazard ..
  5. Brockton N, Little J, Sharp L, Cotton S. N-acetyltransferase polymorphisms and colorectal cancer: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:846-61 pubmed
    The two expressed genes coding for N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, NAT1 and NAT2, are located on chromosome 8 at 8p21.3-23.1 and are polymorphic...
  6. Butcher N, Arulpragasam A, Minchin R. Proteasomal degradation of N-acetyltransferase 1 is prevented by acetylation of the active site cysteine: a mechanism for the slow acetylator phenotype and substrate-dependent down-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22131-7 pubmed
    Many drugs and chemicals found in the environment are either detoxified by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1, EC and eliminated from the body or bioactivated to metabolites that have the potential to cause toxicity and/or cancer...
  7. Tiang J, Butcher N, Minchin R. Small molecule inhibition of arylamine N-acetyltransferase Type I inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..To address the possible importance of NAT1 in breast cancer, we have used a novel small molecule inhibitor (Rhod-o-hp) of the enzyme to examine growth and ..
  8. Hein D. N-acetyltransferase SNPs: emerging concepts serve as a paradigm for understanding complexities of personalized medicine. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009;5:353-66 pubmed
    ..As medical care moves to a more personalized approach, the implications of these confounding factors will be important in understanding the complexities of personalized medicine. ..
  9. Wikman H, Piirilä P, Rosenberg C, Luukkonen R, Kääriä K, Nordman H, et al. N-Acetyltransferase genotypes as modifiers of diisocyanate exposure-associated asthma risk. Pharmacogenetics. 2002;12:227-33 pubmed
    ..genotype did not have any significant effect on the risk of developing asthma, but the putative slow acetylator NAT1 genotypes posed a 2.54-fold risk of diisocyanate-induced asthma (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 4.91)...

More Information


  1. Bell D, Stephens E, Castranio T, Umbach D, Watson M, Deakin M, et al. Polyadenylation polymorphism in the acetyltransferase 1 gene (NAT1) increases risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1995;55:3537-42 pubmed
    ..These compounds can be N- or O-acetylated by the NAT1 or NAT2 enzymes, resulting in activation or in some cases detoxification...
  2. Adam P, Berry J, Loader J, Tyson K, Craggs G, Smith P, et al. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 is highly expressed in breast cancers and conveys enhanced growth and resistance to etoposide in vitro. Mol Cancer Res. 2003;1:826-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, NAT-1 may not only play a role in the development of cancers through enhanced mutagenesis but may also contribute to the resistance of some cancers to cytotoxic drugs. ..
  3. Moslehi R, Chatterjee N, Church T, Chen J, Yeager M, Weissfeld J, et al. Cigarette smoking, N-acetyltransferase genes and the risk of advanced colorectal adenoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2006;7:819-29 pubmed
    ..N-acetyltransferases, NAT1 and NAT2, are important enzymes involved in the metabolism of aromatic amine carcinogens present in cigarette smoke...
  4. Gu J, Liang D, Wang Y, Lu C, Wu X. Effects of N-acetyl transferase 1 and 2 polymorphisms on bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. Mutat Res. 2005;581:97-104 pubmed
    ..Two distinct N-acetyl transferase (NAT) enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2, play important roles in the bio-activation and detoxification of these carcinogens...
  5. Li D, Jiao L, Li Y, Doll M, Hein D, Bondy M, et al. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P4501A2 and N-acetyltransferase genes, smoking, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:103-11 pubmed
    ..e. cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2), in a hospital-based case-control study of 365 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 379 frequency-..
  6. Garcia Closas M, Malats N, Silverman D, Dosemeci M, Kogevinas M, Hein D, et al. NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and risk of bladder cancer: results from the Spanish Bladder Cancer Study and meta-analyses. Lancet. 2005;366:649-59 pubmed
    ..We investigated polymorphisms in NAT2, GSTM1, NAT1, GSTT1, GSTM3, and GSTP1 in 1150 patients with transitional-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 1149 controls ..
  7. Chen K, Jin M, Fan C, Song L, Jiang Q, Yu W, et al. [A case-control study on the association between genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and the risk of colorectal cancer]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2005;26:659-64 pubmed
    ..the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 6235T/C, CYP1A2 734C/A, CYP2E1 -1259G/C, CYP2E1 -1019C/T, GSTM1 and T1 null type, NAT1 and NAT2 alleles among 140 cases and 343 cancer-free controls...
  8. Mahid S, Colliver D, Crawford N, Martini B, Doll M, Hein D, et al. Characterization of N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 polymorphisms and haplotype analysis for inflammatory bowel disease and sporadic colorectal carcinoma. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:28 pubmed
    N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) are polymorphic isoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of numerous drugs and carcinogens...
  9. Shin A, Shrubsole M, Rice J, Cai Q, Doll M, Long J, et al. Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in heterocyclic amine (HCA) metabolism, including N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)...
  10. Sørensen M, Autrup H, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou Nielsen O. Prospective study of NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms, tobacco smoking and meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Lett. 2008;266:186-93 pubmed publisher
    Heterocyclic amines in tobacco smoke and fried meat are activated or detoxified by N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2). We identified 379 cases with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 769 sub-cohort members among a cohort of 57,000 members...
  11. Cotterchio M, Boucher B, Manno M, Gallinger S, Okey A, Harper P. Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:3098-107 pubmed publisher
  12. Wang D, Para M, Koletar S, Sadee W. Human N-acetyltransferase 1 *10 and *11 alleles increase protein expression through distinct mechanisms and associate with sulfamethoxazole-induced hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:652-64 pubmed publisher
    N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) metabolizes drugs and environmental carcinogens...
  13. Endo Y, Toyama T, Takahashi S, Yoshimoto N, Iwasa M, Asano T, et al. miR-1290 and its potential targets are associated with characteristics of estrogen receptor ?-positive breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..breast cancer samples by immunohistochemistry: miR-1290 and its putative targets, BCL2, FOXA1, MAPT, and NAT1, were identified...
  14. Wikman H, Thiel S, Jager B, Schmezer P, Spiegelhalder B, Edler L, et al. Relevance of N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1, NAT2) genetic polymorphisms in non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility. Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11:157-68 pubmed
    The highly polymorphic N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2) are involved in both activation and inactivation reactions of numerous carcinogens, such as tobacco derived aromatic amines...
  15. Butcher N, Arulpragasam A, Pope C, Minchin R. Identification of a minimal promoter sequence for the human N-acetyltransferase Type I gene that binds AP-1 (activator protein 1) and YY-1 (Yin and Yang 1). Biochem J. 2003;376:441-8 pubmed
    Human N -acetyltransferase Type I (NAT1) catalyses the acetylation of many aromatic amine and hydrazine compounds and it has been implicated in the catabolism of folic acid...
  16. Tiang J, Butcher N, Cullinane C, Humbert P, Minchin R. RNAi-mediated knock-down of arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 expression induces E-cadherin up-regulation and cell-cell contact growth inhibition. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17031 pubmed publisher
    Arylamine N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biotransformation of arylamine and hydrazine substrates. It also has a role in the catabolism of the folate metabolite p-aminobenzoyl glutamate...
  17. Kim S, Kang H, Jung S, Min S, Lee S, Kim S, et al. Methylation patterns of genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer tissues. J Mol Med (Berl). 2010;88:1123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..pattern and expression of the selected genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes, including COMT, CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1, and SULT1A1 in tamoxifen-resistant and control breast cancers...
  18. Cascorbi I, Roots I, Brockmoller J. Association of NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms to urinary bladder cancer: significantly reduced risk in subjects with NAT1*10. Cancer Res. 2001;61:5051-6 pubmed
    The role of hereditary polymorphisms of the arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) gene in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer is controversial...
  19. Demokan S, Suoglu Y, Gözeler M, Demir D, Dalay N. N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 gene sequence variants and risk of head and neck cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:3217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study the role of genetically determined individual NAT1 and NAT2 genotypes, haplotypes and haplotype combinations in the predisposition to head and neck cancer was ..
  20. Nöthlings U, Yamamoto J, Wilkens L, Murphy S, Park S, Henderson B, et al. Meat and heterocyclic amine intake, smoking, NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:2098-106 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the modifying effects of NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms on the association of meat consumption, heterocyclic amine intake, and smoking with ..
  21. Yeh C, Sung F, Tang R, Chang Chieh C, Hsieh L. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase genes, meat consumption, and risk of colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:104-11 pubmed publisher
  22. Roemer H, Weistenhofer W, Lohlein D, Geller F, Blomeke B, Golka K. N-acetyltransferase 1 in colon and rectal cancer cases from an industrialized area. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:902-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The polymorphic enzyme N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) contributes to heterocyclic amine metabolism in the human colon...
  23. Jiao L, Doll M, Hein D, Bondy M, Hassan M, Hixson J, et al. Haplotype of N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:2379-86 pubmed
    We examined the association between N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) haplotype and risk of pancreatic cancer by genotyping eight NAT1 and seven NAT2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 532 patients and in 581 healthy controls (..
  24. Wakefield L, Robinson J, Long H, Ibbitt J, Cooke S, Hurst H, et al. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 expression in breast cancer cell lines: a potential marker in estrogen receptor-positive tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008;47:118-26 pubmed
    ..a positive correlation between overexpression of the drug metabolizing enzyme arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 (NAT1) and ER positivity, and increasing evidence supports a biological role for NAT1 in breast cancer progression...
  25. Loktionov A, Moore W, Spencer S, Vorster H, Nell T, O Neill I, et al. Differences in N-acetylation genotypes between Caucasians and Black South Africans: implications for cancer prevention. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002;26:15-22 pubmed
    Polymorphic N-acetyltransferase genes (NAT1 and NAT2) determine rapid or slow acetylation phenotypes, which are believed to affect cancer risk related to environmental exposure...
  26. Lilla C, Verla Tebit E, Risch A, Jäger B, Hoffmeister M, Brenner H, et al. Effect of NAT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk associated with exposure to tobacco smoke and meat consumption. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:99-107 pubmed
    N-Acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2), both being highly polymorphic, are involved in the metabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic amines present in cigarette smoke and red meat cooked by high-temperature cooking techniques...
  27. Tiemersma E, Voskuil D, Bunschoten A, Hogendoorn E, Witteman B, Nagengast F, et al. Risk of colorectal adenomas in relation to meat consumption, meat preparation, and genetic susceptibility in a Dutch population. Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15:225-36 pubmed
    ..6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). In this Dutch population, unfavorable meat consumption and preparation habits did not increase colorectal adenoma risk, and these associations were not influenced by relevant genetic polymorphisms. ..
  28. Kiss I, Németh A, Bogner B, Pajkos G, Orsos Z, Sandor J, et al. Polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase and arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzymes and susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:3965-70 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the effect of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NAT1 and NAT2 enzymes on individual susceptibility to colorectal cancer, with particular attention to possible ..
  29. Boukouvala S, Sim E. Structural analysis of the genes for human arylamine N-acetyltransferases and characterisation of alternative transcripts. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;96:343-51 pubmed
    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases are polymorphic drug-metabolising enzymes. The human isoforms, NAT1 and NAT2, are encoded by two genes with intronless coding regions...
  30. Vatsis K, Weber W. Structural heterogeneity of Caucasian N-acetyltransferase at the NAT1 gene locus. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993;301:71-6 pubmed
    ..There are two highly similar human NAT genes: NAT1 is thought to encode a genetically invariant protein, whereas NAT2 has conclusively been shown to represent a ..
  31. van der Hel O, Bueno de Mesquita H, van Gils C, Roest M, Slothouber B, Grobbee D, et al. Cumulative genetic defects in carcinogen metabolism may increase breast cancer risk (The Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:675-81 pubmed
    Variants in the metabolic genes NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1 or GSTT1, may cause differences in individual detoxifying capacity of possible carcinogens...
  32. Tiemersma E, Kampman E, Bueno de Mesquita H, Bunschoten A, van Schothorst E, Kok F, et al. Meat consumption, cigarette smoking, and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of colorectal cancer: results from a Dutch prospective study. Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13:383-93 pubmed
    We evaluated the effect of meat consumption and cigarette smoking in combination with N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2), and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotypes on colorectal cancer...
  33. Zhu Y, States J, Wang Y, Hein D. Functional effects of genetic polymorphisms in the N-acetyltransferase 1 coding and 3' untranslated regions. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91:77-84 pubmed publisher
    The functional effects of N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) polymorphisms and haplotypes are poorly understood, compromising the validity of associations reported with diseases, including birth defects and numerous cancers...
  34. Butler L, Millikan R, Sinha R, Keku T, Winkel S, Harlan B, et al. Modification by N-acetyltransferase 1 genotype on the association between dietary heterocyclic amines and colon cancer in a multiethnic study. Mutat Res. 2008;638:162-74 pubmed
    ..between meat-derived heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake and colon cancer were modified by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) or 2 (NAT2) genotypes and whether there were differences by race...
  35. Scheitza S, Bonifas J, Blomeke B. Variable NAT1 enzyme activity in long-term cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75:471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the activities of the xenobiotic metabolizing phase II enzyme N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) were higher in the late passages compared to the early passages...
  36. Chennamsetty I, Coronado M, Contrepois K, Keller M, Cárcamo Orive I, Sandin J, et al. Nat1 Deficiency Is Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Exercise Intolerance in Mice. Cell Rep. 2016;17:527-540 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the cellular mechanism linking NAT2 to IR and find that Nat1 (mouse ortholog of NAT2) is co-regulated with key mitochondrial genes...
  37. Lincz L, Kerridge I, Scorgie F, Bailey M, Enno A, Spencer A. Xenobiotic gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to multiple myeloma. Haematologica. 2004;89:628-9 pubmed
    ..90 Australian Caucasians with MM had significantly higher incidences of GST T1 null, PON1 BB and NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes, but no difference in polymorphism frequencies for GST M1, NAT1, and CYP1A1 when compared to 205 controls.
  38. Nakakura T, Nemoto T, Suzuki T, Asano Hoshino A, Tanaka H, Arisawa K, et al. Adrenalectomy facilitates ATAT1 expression and ?-tubulin acetylation in ACTH-producing corticotrophs. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;366:363-370 pubmed publisher
    ..These results agree with the hypothesis that the acetylation of ?-tubulin by ATAT1 regulates the intracellular transport of secretory granules in corticotrophs. ..
  39. Montazeri Z, Theodoratou E, Nyiraneza C, Timofeeva M, Chen W, Svinti V, et al. Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in colorectal adenomas. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45:186-205 pubmed publisher
    ..677C>T p.A222V (rs1801133), TP53 c.215C>G p.R72P (rs1042522), NQO1 c.559C>T p.P187S (rs1800566), and NAT1 alleles imputed as fast acetylator genotypes...
  40. Hausmann M, Paul G, Menzel K, Brunner Ploss R, Falk W, Scholmerich J, et al. NAT1 genotypes do not predict response to mesalamine in patients with ulcerative colitis. Z Gastroenterol. 2008;46:259-65 pubmed publisher
    5- Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is metabolised in colonic mucosa by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1). Common genetic polymorphisms in this enzyme result in rapid or slow acetylation...
  41. Meisel P. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases and drug response. Pharmacogenomics. 2002;3:349-66 pubmed
    ..As genes of NATs are susceptibility genes for multifactorial adverse effects and xenobiotic-related diseases, risk prediction can only be made possible by taking the complexity of events into consideration. ..
  42. Goode E, Potter J, Bamlet W, Rider D, Bigler J. Inherited variation in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and risk of colorectal polyps. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:328-41 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that genetic variation in the encoding genes NAT1, NAT2, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, CYP1A1 or EPHX1 is associated with risk of colorectal polyps and interacts with cigarette ..
  43. Suzuki H, Morris J, Li Y, Doll M, Hein D, Liu J, et al. Interaction of the cytochrome P4501A2, SULT1A1 and NAT gene polymorphisms with smoking and dietary mutagen intake in modification of the risk of pancreatic cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..risk of pancreatic cancer (PC), we investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP1A2, NAT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1 gene on modification of the risk of PC in a hospital-based study of 755 patients with pancreatic ..
  44. Brockhausen I, Nair D, Chen M, Yang X, Allingham J, Szarek W, et al. Human acetyl-CoA:glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 has a relaxed donor specificity and transfers acyl groups up to four carbons in length. Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;94:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the wild type and mutant enzymes showed activities of both acetyl and butyryl transfer and can therefore be used for the enzymatic synthesis of GlcNBu for biomedical applications. ..
  45. Fronhoffs S, Bruning T, Ortiz Pallardo E, Brode P, Koch B, Harth V, et al. Real-time PCR analysis of the N-acetyltransferase NAT1 allele *3, *4, *10, *11, *14 and *17 polymorphism in squamous cell cancer of head and neck. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1405-12 pubmed
    ..We developed a rapid and reproducible LightCycler-assisted real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for NAT1 genotyping, which allowed the parallel differentiation of NAT1*3, *4, *10 and *11 alleles and separately of NAT1*14 ..
  46. Gemignani F, Neri M, Bottari F, Barale R, Canessa P, Canzian F, et al. Risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma and polymorphisms in genes involved in the genome stability and xenobiotics metabolism. Mutat Res. 2009;671:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..54; 95% CI 1.75-7.16; p=0.0002), reinforcing existing evidences that describe genetic polymorphisms of NAT2 possibly involved in the etiology of the MPM. ..
  47. Bacqueville D, Jacques C, Duprat L, Jamin E, Guiraud B, Perdu E, et al. Characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes of a reconstructed human epidermal model from adult hair follicles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;329:190-201 pubmed publisher
    ..levels were generally higher than those of Phase I XMEs, the highest levels were GSTs and transferases, including NAT1. The presence of functional CYPs, UGTs and SULTs was confirmed by incubating the models with 7-ethoxycoumarin, ..
  48. Morton L, Schenk M, Hein D, Davis S, Zahm S, Cozen W, et al. Genetic variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006;16:537-45 pubmed
    ..enzymes, in the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we examined NHL risk in relation to genetic variation in NAT1 and NAT2 and exposure to cigarette smoke and dietary heterocyclic amines and mutagens...
  49. Wang C, Jones R, Debiec Rychter M, Soos G, Haas G. Correlation of the genotypes for N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 with double bladder and prostate cancers in a case-comparison study. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:3529-35 pubmed
    ..Genotyping of NAT1 and NAT2 alleles was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or sequencing of NAT genes amplified from ..
  50. van der Hel O, Peeters P, Hein D, Doll M, Grobbee D, Kromhout D, et al. NAT2 slow acetylation and GSTM1 null genotypes may increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk in long-term smoking women. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:399-407 pubmed
    ..17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-4.51]. Neither NAT1 slow genotype, or GSTT1 null genotype, alone or in combination with smoking, affected breast cancer risk...
  51. Feki Tounsi M, Khlifi R, Louati I, Fourati M, Mhiri M, Hamza Chaffai A, et al. Polymorphisms in XRCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC3 DNA repair genes, CYP1A1 xenobiotic metabolism gene, and tobacco are associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in Tunisian population. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:22476-22484 pubmed publisher
    ..of BC with environmental agents and polymorphisms in XRCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC3 DNA repair genes and CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1, and NAT2 xenobiotic metabolism genes through a hospital-based case-control study in Tunisia...
  52. Barker D, Husain A, Neale J, Martini B, Zhang X, Doll M, et al. Functional properties of an alternative, tissue-specific promoter for human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006;16:515-25 pubmed
    Variable expression of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) due to genetic polymorphism, gene regulation or environmental influences is associated with individual susceptibility to various cancers...
  53. Matejcic M, Vogelsang M, Wang Y, Iqbal Parker M, Parker I. NAT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and environmental exposure as risk factors for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:150 pubmed publisher
    ..N-acetytransferases (NAT1 and NAT2) play a key role in metabolism of carcinogenic arylamines present in tobacco smoke and overcooked red meat...
  54. Majumder M, Ghosh S, Roy B. Association between polymorphisms at N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) & risk of oral leukoplakia & cancer. Indian J Med Res. 2012;136:605-13 pubmed
    N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) are important enzymes for metabolism of tobacco carcinogens...
  55. Hernández González O, Ortiz Zamudio J, Rodríguez Pinal C, Alvarado Morales I, Martínez Jiménez V, Salazar González R, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of arylamine N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 and the likelihood of developing pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2017;:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes encoding the arylamine N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) isoenzymes are highly polymorphic among populations...
  56. Mortensen H, Froment A, Lema G, Bodo J, Ibrahim M, Nyambo T, et al. Characterization of genetic variation and natural selection at the arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes in global human populations. Pharmacogenomics. 2011;12:1545-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We have characterized nucleotide variation at the NAT1 and NAT2 genes, and at the NATP1 pseudogene in global human populations, including many previously under-..
  57. Hein D, Leff M, Ishibe N, Sinha R, Frazier H, Doll M, et al. Association of prostate cancer with rapid N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1*10) in combination with slow N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylator genotypes in a pilot case-control study. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2002;40:161-7 pubmed
    N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) and N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) are important in the metabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens that induce prostate tumors in the rat...
  58. Iovannisci D, Kupperman S, Lloyd E, Lammer E. The READIT assay as a method for genotyping NAT1*10 polymorphisms. Genet Test. 2002;6:245-53 pubmed
    ..The NAT1*10 allele, for example, has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of colon and urinary bladder ..
  59. Jensen L, Hoess K, Whitehead A, Mitchell L. The NAT1 C1095A polymorphism, maternal multivitamin use and smoking, and the risk of spina bifida. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:512-6 pubmed
    ..Hence, functional polymorphisms in NAT1, the gene encoding N-acetyltransferase 1, are plausible risk factors for NTDs...
  60. Zhang Y, Hughes K, Zahm S, Zhang Y, Holford T, Dai L, et al. Genetic variations in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes, personal hair dye use, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:1222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible role of genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolism in the carcinogenicity of hair dye use needs to be confirmed in larger studies. ..
  61. Mitchell R, Farrington S, Dunlop M, Campbell H. Mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 and colorectal cancer: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:885-902 pubmed
    ..Population screening for mutation carriers is not currently a feasible option, and mutation analysis remains restricted to either relatives of mutation carriers or colorectal cancer cases selected on the basis of phenotype. ..
  62. Xu Z, Li X, Qin Z, Xue J, Wang J, Liu Z, et al. Association of N-acetyltransferase 1 polymorphism and bladder cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Int J Biol Markers. 2017;32:e297-e304 pubmed publisher
    Individual studies of the association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1)*10 allele and bladder cancer susceptibility have shown inconclusive results...
  63. Camporez J, Wang Y, Faarkrog K, Chukijrungroat N, Petersen K, Shulman G. Mechanism by which arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 ablation causes insulin resistance in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E11285-E11292 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms by which alterations in Nat2 activity might cause insulin resistance, we examined murine ortholog Nat1 knockout (KO) mice...
  64. Butcher N, Ilett K, Minchin R. Functional polymorphism of the human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 gene caused by C190T and G560A mutations. Pharmacogenetics. 1998;8:67-72 pubmed
    Human N-acetyltransferase type 1 (NAT1) catalyses the N- or O-acetylation of various arylamine and heterocyclic amine substrates and is able to bioactivate several known carcinogens...
  65. Han X, Zheng T, Foss F, Lan Q, Holford T, Rothman N, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic pathway and non-Hodgkin lymphoma survival. Am J Hematol. 2010;85:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified six SNPs from four metabolism genes (CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTT1, and NAT1) that were associated with NHL survival...
  66. Hsia T, Chung J, Lu H, Ho H, Yang C, Lu K, et al. The effect of paclitaxel on 2-aminofluorene-DNA adducts formation and arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression in human lung tumor cells (A549). Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:697-703 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that NAT activity, gene expression (NAT1 mRNA) and 2-AF-DNA adduct formation in human lung tumor cells were inhibited and decreased by paclitaxel in a dose-..
  67. Varzim G, Monteiro E, Silva R, Pinheiro C, Lopes C. Polymorphisms of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT1 and NAT2) and larynx cancer susceptibility. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2002;64:206-12 pubmed
    Our aim was to examine the role of NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms in human larynx cancer susceptibility...
  68. Sanderson S, Salanti G, Higgins J. Joint effects of the N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) genes and smoking on bladder carcinogenesis: a literature-based systematic HuGE review and evidence synthesis. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:741-51 pubmed and evidence synthesis, the authors investigated the joint effects of the N-acetyltransferase genes NAT1 and NAT2 and cigarette smoking on bladder carcinogenesis...
  69. Kerridge I, Lincz L, Scorgie F, Hickey D, Granter N, Spencer A. Association between xenobiotic gene polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk. Br J Haematol. 2002;118:477-81 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms of six xenobiotic genes (CYP1A1, GSTT1, GSTM1, PON1, NAT1, NAT2) were characterized in 169 individuals with NHL and 205 normal controls using polymerase chain reaction-based ..