Gene Symbol: MYT1L
Description: myelin transcription factor 1 like
Alias: MRD39, NZF1, ZC2H2C2, ZC2HC4B, myT1-L, myelin transcription factor 1-like protein, neural zinc finger transcription factor 1
Species: human
Products:     MYT1L

Top Publications

  1. Kim J, Armstrong R, v Agoston D, Robinsky A, Wiese C, Nagle J, et al. Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1) of the oligodendrocyte lineage, along with a closely related CCHC zinc finger, is expressed in developing neurons in the mammalian central nervous system. J Neurosci Res. 1997;50:272-90 pubmed
    ..The novel gene, Myt1-like (Myt1l), is highly homologous to the original representative of this class, Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1) (Kim and ..
  2. Li W, Wang X, Zhao J, Lin J, Song X, Yang Y, et al. Association study of myelin transcription factor 1-like polymorphisms with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population. Genes Brain Behav. 2012;11:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The myelin transcription factor 1-like (MYT1L) gene encodes the MYT1L protein that participates in several neurodevelopment pathways...
  3. Vrijenhoek T, Buizer Voskamp J, van der Stelt I, Strengman E, Sabatti C, Geurts van Kessel A, et al. Recurrent CNVs disrupt three candidate genes in schizophrenia patients. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;83:504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the genes disrupted by the remaining rare CNVs are MYT1L, CTNND2, NRXN1, and ASTN2, genes that play an important role in neuronal functioning but--except for NRXN1--have ..
  4. Wang T, Zeng Z, Li T, Liu J, Li J, Li Y, et al. Common SNPs in myelin transcription factor 1-like (MYT1L): association with major depressive disorder in the Chinese Han population. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13662 pubmed publisher
    Myelin transcription factor 1-like (MYT1L) is a member of the myelin transcription factor 1 (MYT1) gene family, and the neural specific, zinc-finger-containing, DNA-binding protein that it encodes plays a role in the development of the ..
  5. Stevens S, van Ravenswaaij Arts C, Janssen J, Klein Wassink Ruiter J, van Essen A, Dijkhuizen T, et al. MYT1L is a candidate gene for intellectual disability in patients with 2p25.3 (2pter) deletions. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:2739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..e., MYT1L. MYT1L is highly transcribed in the mouse embryonic brain where its expression is restricted to postmitotic ..
  6. Yoo A, Sun A, Li L, Shcheglovitov A, Portmann T, Li Y, et al. MicroRNA-mediated conversion of human fibroblasts to neurons. Nature. 2011;476:228-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Further addition of neurogenic transcription factors ASCL1 and MYT1L enhances the rate of conversion and the maturation of the converted neurons, whereas expression of these ..
  7. Fujita H, Rahighi S, Akita M, Kato R, Sasaki Y, Wakatsuki S, et al. Mechanism underlying IκB kinase activation mediated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1322-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In mutational analyses based on the crystal structure of the complex between the HOIP NZF1 and NEMO CC2-LZ domains, which are involved in the HOIP-NEMO interaction, NEMO mutations that impaired linear ..
  8. Wang S, Zhang J, Zhao A, Hipkens S, Magnuson M, Gu G. Loss of Myt1 function partially compromises endocrine islet cell differentiation and pancreatic physiological function in the mouse. Mech Dev. 2007;124:898-910 pubmed
    ..1 (Myt1) is one of the three vertebrate C2HC-type zinc finger transcription factors that include Myt1 (Nzf1), Myt1L (Png1), and Myt3 (Nzf3, St18). All three paralogs are widely expressed in developing neuronal cells...
  9. Alaraudanjoki V, Koivisto S, Pesonen P, Männikkö M, Leinonen J, Tjäderhane L, et al. Genome-Wide Association Study of Erosive Tooth Wear in a Finnish Cohort. Caries Res. 2019;53:49-59 pubmed publisher
    ..identified one genome-wide significant signal (rs11681214) in the GWAS of the whole sample near the genes PXDN and MYT1L. When the sample was stratified by sex, the strongest genome-wide significant signals were observed in or near the ..

More Information


  1. Kulangara K, Adler A, Wang H, Chellappan M, Hammett E, Yasuda R, et al. The effect of substrate topography on direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced neurons. Biomaterials. 2014;35:5327-5336 pubmed publisher
    ..converted into induced neurons (iNs) by overexpression of the neuronal transcription factors Ascl1, Brn2 and Myt1L. Hypothesizing that cell-topography interactions could influence the fibroblast-to-neuron reprogramming process, ..
  2. Moritsugu K, Nishi H, Inariyama K, Kobayashi M, Kidera A. Dynamic recognition and linkage specificity in K63 di-ubiquitin and TAB2 NZF domain complex. Sci Rep. 2018;8:16478 pubmed publisher
    ..linear di-Ub/TAB2 NZF and K33 di-Ub/TAB2 NZF, that were modeled from linear di-Ub/HOIL-1L NZF and K33 di-Ub/TRABID NZF1, respectively...
  3. Barbagiovanni G, Germain P, Zech M, Atashpaz S, Lo Riso P, D Antonio Chronowska A, et al. KMT2B Is Selectively Required for Neuronal Transdifferentiation, and Its Loss Exposes Dystonia Candidate Genes. Cell Rep. 2018;25:988-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..of fibroblasts into induced neuronal cells (iNs) by the neuron-specific transcription factors Brn2, Myt1l, and Ascl1 is a paradigmatic example of inter-lineage conversion across epigenetically distant cells...
  4. Melhuish T, Kowalczyk I, Manukyan A, Zhang Y, Shah A, Abounader R, et al. Myt1 and Myt1l transcription factors limit proliferation in GBM cells by repressing YAP1 expression. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2018;1861:983-995 pubmed publisher
    Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1) and Myt1l (Myt1-like) are zinc finger transcription factors that regulate neuronal differentiation...
  5. Black J, Adler A, Wang H, D Ippolito A, Hutchinson H, Reddy T, et al. Targeted Epigenetic Remodeling of Endogenous Loci by CRISPR/Cas9-Based Transcriptional Activators Directly Converts Fibroblasts to Neuronal Cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We use this approach to induce activation of the endogenous Brn2, Ascl1, and Myt1l genes (BAM factors) to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced neuronal cells...
  6. Lim M, Chang M, Kim S, Yi S, Suh Kim H, Jung S, et al. Generation of Dopamine Neurons from Rodent Fibroblasts through the Expandable Neural Precursor Cell Stage. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:17401-14 pubmed publisher
    Recent groundbreaking work has demonstrated that combined expression of the transcription factors Brn2, Ascl1, and Myt1L (BAM; also known as Wernig factors) convert mouse fibroblasts into postmitotic neuronal cells...
  7. Chuang W, Sharma A, Shukla P, Li G, Mall M, Rajarajan K, et al. Partial Reprogramming of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes into Neurons. Sci Rep. 2017;7:44840 pubmed publisher
    ..pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs (PSC-CMs) were transduced with the neurogenic transcription factors Brn2, Ascl1, Myt1l and NeuroD...
  8. Tu X, Zeng J, Cong X, Yan A, Lin Y, Zhang X, et al. [Genetic diagnosis and analysis of related genes for a pedigree with 2p25 and 12p13 cryptic rearrangements]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2014;31:444-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mental abnormalities and retardation of the child may be attributed to heterozygous deletion of SNTG2, MYT1L genes and duplication of SLC6A12 gene...
  9. Chanda S, Ang C, Davila J, Pak C, Mall M, Lee Q, et al. Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1. Stem Cell Reports. 2014;3:282-96 pubmed publisher
    ..MEFs) into mature induced neuronal (iN) cells by forced expression of three transcription factors: ASCL1, MYT1L, and BRN2...
  10. Gainous T, Wagner E, Levine M. Diverse ETS transcription factors mediate FGF signaling in the Ciona anterior neural plate. Dev Biol. 2015;399:218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..promotes pigment cell formation in lateral lineages, both Ets1/2 and Elk1/3/4 are involved in the activation of Myt1L in medial lineages and the restriction of Six3/6 expression to the anterior-most regions of the neural tube...
  11. Kristariyanto Y, Abdul Rehman S, Campbell D, Morrice N, Johnson C, Toth R, et al. K29-selective ubiquitin binding domain reveals structural basis of specificity and heterotypic nature of k29 polyubiquitin. Mol Cell. 2015;58:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the crystal structure of the NZF1 domain of TRABID in complex with K29 chains reveals a binding mode that involves the hydrophobic patch on only one ..
  12. Miskinyte G, Devaraju K, Grønning Hansen M, Monni E, Tornero D, Woods N, et al. Direct conversion of human fibroblasts to functional excitatory cortical neurons integrating into human neural networks. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:207 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a combination of three transcription factors, BRN2, MYT1L, and FEZF2, have the ability to directly convert human fibroblasts to functional excitatory cortical neurons...
  13. HIGGINS G, Georgoff P, Nikolian V, Allyn Feuer A, Pauls B, Higgins R, et al. Network Reconstruction Reveals that Valproic Acid Activates Neurogenic Transcriptional Programs in Adult Brain Following Traumatic Injury. Pharm Res. 2017;34:1658-1672 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes which encode the transcription factors (TFs) that specify neuronal cell fate, including MEF2D, MYT1L, NEUROD1, PAX6 and TBR1, and their target genes, are induced by VPA...
  14. Gallego Perez D, Otero J, Czeisler C, Ma J, Ortíz C, Gygli P, et al. Deterministic transfection drives efficient nonviral reprogramming and uncovers reprogramming barriers. Nanomedicine. 2016;12:399-409 pubmed publisher neuronal reprogramming paradigm using overexpression of the transcription factors Brn2, Ascl1, and Myt1l (BAM)...
  15. Michel M, Elliott P, Swatek K, Simíček M, Pruneda J, Wagstaff J, et al. Assembly and specific recognition of k29- and k33-linked polyubiquitin. Mol Cell. 2015;58:95-109 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that the N-terminal Npl4-like zinc finger (NZF1) domain of the K29/K33-specific deubiquitinase TRABID specifically binds K29/K33-linked diUb, and a crystal ..
  16. Victor M, Richner M, Hermanstyne T, Ransdell J, Sobieski C, Deng P, et al. Generation of human striatal neurons by microRNA-dependent direct conversion of fibroblasts. Neuron. 2014;84:311-23 pubmed publisher
    ..with transcription factors enriched in the developing striatum, BCL11B (also known as CTIP2), DLX1, DLX2, and MYT1L, can guide the conversion of human postnatal and adult fibroblasts into an enriched population of neurons ..
  17. Wilmot B, FRY R, Smeester L, Musser E, Mill J, Nigg J. Methylomic analysis of salivary DNA in childhood ADHD identifies altered DNA methylation in VIPR2. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016;57:152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene pathways were explored and described. Two genes met the criteria for confirmation testing, VIPR2 and MYT1L; both had multiple probes meeting cutoffs and strong biological relevance...
  18. Shi Y, Shao Q, Li Z, González G, Lu F, Wang D, et al. Myt1L Promotes Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells and is Necessary for Remyelination After Lysolecithin-Induced Demyelination. Neurosci Bull. 2018;34:247-260 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Myt1L (myelin transcription factor 1-like), mainly expressed in neurons, has been associated with intellectual ..
  19. Manukyan A, Kowalczyk I, Melhuish T, Lemiesz A, Wotton D. Analysis of transcriptional activity by the Myt1 and Myt1l transcription factors. J Cell Biochem. 2018;119:4644-4655 pubmed publisher
    Myt1 and Myt1l (Myelin transcription factor 1, and Myt1-like) are members of a small family of closely related zinc finger transcription factors, characterized by two clusters of C2HC zinc fingers...
  20. Mall M, Kareta M, Chanda S, Ahlenius H, Perotti N, Zhou B, et al. Myt1l safeguards neuronal identity by actively repressing many non-neuronal fates. Nature. 2017;544:245-249 pubmed publisher
    ..of mouse fibroblasts to neurons, we found that the pan neuron-specific transcription factor Myt1-like (Myt1l) exerts its pro-neuronal function by direct repression of many different somatic lineage programs except the ..
  21. Keene K, Chen W, Chen F, Williams S, Elkhatib S, Hsu F, et al. Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial. Front Public Health. 2014;2:112 pubmed publisher
  22. Wang T, Guo H, Xiong B, Stessman H, Wu H, Coe B, et al. De novo genic mutations among a Chinese autism spectrum disorder cohort. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13316 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify novel DN LGD recurrences (GIGYF2, MYT1L, CUL3, DOCK8 and ZNF292) and DN mutations in previous ASD candidates (ARHGAP32, NCOR1, PHIP, STXBP1, CDKL5 and ..
  23. de Ligt J, Willemsen M, van Bon B, Kleefstra T, Yntema H, Kroes T, et al. Diagnostic exome sequencing in persons with severe intellectual disability. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1921-9 pubmed publisher
    ..De novo mutations represent an important cause of intellectual disability; exome sequencing was used as an effective diagnostic strategy for their detection. (Funded by the European Union and others.). ..
  24. Hu J, Ho A, Yuan L, Hu B, Hua S, Hwang S, et al. From the Cover: Neutralization of terminal differentiation in gliomagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14520-7 pubmed publisher
    ..GBM profiles to elucidate the A2BP1 pathway and its role in glioma identified myelin transcription factor 1-like (Myt1L) as a direct transcriptional regulator of A2BP1...
  25. Do C, Lang C, Lin J, Darbary H, Krupska I, Gaba A, et al. Mechanisms and Disease Associations of Haplotype-Dependent Allele-Specific DNA Methylation. Am J Hum Genet. 2016;98:934-955 pubmed publisher
    ..loci tested, including CCDC155, CD69, FRMD1, IRF1, KBTBD11, and S100A(?)-ILF2, associated with immune phenotypes, MYT1L, PTPRN2, CMTM8 and CELF2, associated with neurological disorders, NGFR and HLA-DRB6, associated with both ..
  26. Meyer K, Axelsen M, Sheffield V, Patil S, Wassink T. Germline mosaic transmission of a novel duplication of PXDN and MYT1L to two male half-siblings with autism. Psychiatr Genet. 2012;22:137-40 pubmed publisher
    ..refined and showed that PXDN is fully duplicated, whereas seven exons of the terminal portion of the 25 exon gene MYT1L are within the duplicated region...
  27. Scott E, Woolard K, Finno C, Penedo M, Murray J. Variation in MUTYH expression in Arabian horses with Cerebellar Abiotrophy. Brain Res. 2018;1678:330-336 pubmed publisher
    ..SNP introduces a new binding site for a novel transcription factor (Myelin Transcription Factor-1 Like protein, MYT1L)...
  28. Blanchet P, Bebin M, Bruet S, Cooper G, Thompson M, Duban Bedu B, et al. MYT1L mutations cause intellectual disability and variable obesity by dysregulating gene expression and development of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006957 pubmed publisher
    ..The smallest region of overlap for deletions at 2p25.3 contains PXDN and MYT1L. MYT1L is expressed only within the brain in humans...
  29. De Rocker N, Vergult S, Koolen D, Jacobs E, Hoischen A, Zeesman S, et al. Refinement of the critical 2p25.3 deletion region: the role of MYT1L in intellectual disability and obesity. Genet Med. 2015;17:460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3 are associated with intellectual disability and/or central obesity. Although MYT1L is believed to be a critical gene responsible for intellectual disability, so far no unequivocal data have ..
  30. Besold A, Amick D, Michel S. A role for hydrogen bonding in DNA recognition by the non-classical CCHHC type zinc finger, NZF-1. Mol Biosyst. 2014;10:1753-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a combination of mutagenesis, metal coordination and DNA binding studies, we report that the first histidine is involved in a functionally important hydrogen bonding interaction. ..
  31. Bugeon S, de Chevigny A, Boutin C, Coré N, Wild S, Bosio A, et al. Direct and efficient transfection of mouse neural stem cells and mature neurons by in vivo mRNA electroporation. Development. 2017;144:3968-3977 pubmed publisher efficiently used for functional studies, as exemplified by transient overexpression of the neurogenic factor Myt1l and by stably inactivating Dicer nuclease in vivo in adult born olfactory bulb interneurons and in fully ..
  32. Lee Y, Mattai A, Long R, Rapoport J, Gogtay N, Addington A. Microduplications disrupting the MYT1L gene (2p25.3) are associated with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet. 2012;22:206-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported two patients with COS who carried a microduplication disrupting the PXDN and MYT1L genes at 2p25.3...
  33. Pang Z, Yang N, Vierbuchen T, Ostermeier A, Fuentes D, Yang T, et al. Induction of human neuronal cells by defined transcription factors. Nature. 2011;476:220-3 pubmed publisher
    ..that forced expression of a combination of three transcription factors, Brn2 (also known as Pou3f2), Ascl1 and Myt1l, can efficiently convert mouse fibroblasts into functional induced neuronal (iN) cells...
  34. Hao L, Xu Z, Sun H, Luo W, Yan Y, Wang J, et al. Direct induction of functional neuronal cells from fibroblast-like cells derived from adult human retina. Stem Cell Res. 2017;23:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the combination of Ascl1, Brn2, Myt1l, and NeuroD1 transcription factors, which has been demonstrated to be sufficient to reprogram human embryonic and ..
  35. Rio M, Royer G, Gobin S, De Blois M, Ozilou C, Bernheim A, et al. Monozygotic twins discordant for submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies in 2p25.3 region detected by array CGH. Clin Genet. 2013;84:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss that the MYTL1L and the SNTG2 genes within the reported region could probably relate to the phenotypic discordance of the monozygotic twins. ..
  36. Zhang Y, Zhu H, Zhang X, Gu D, Zhou X, Wang M, et al. Clinical significance of MYT1L gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with gastric cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71979 pubmed publisher
    Myelin transcription factor 1 (MYT1) and its homologue MYT1-like (MYT1L) are the two main members of MYT/NZF family transcription factors, which are highly related, share a high degree of identity and show similar regulatory functions in ..