MYL2

Summary

Gene Symbol: MYL2
Description: myosin light chain 2
Alias: CMH10, MLC-2s/v, MLC2, myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac muscle isoform, MLC-2, MLC-2v, RLC of myosin, cardiac myosin light chain 2, cardiac ventricular myosin light chain 2, myosin light chain 2, slow skeletal/ventricular muscle isoform, myosin, light chain 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow, myosin, light polypeptide 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow, regulatory light chain of myosin, slow cardiac myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular myosin light chain 2
Species: human
Products:     MYL2

Top Publications

  1. Ueda K, Murata Hori M, Tatsuka M, Hosoya H. Rho-kinase contributes to diphosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain in nonmuscle cells. Oncogene. 2002;21:5852-60 pubmed
    ..Taken together, it is suggested that Rho-kinase contributes to MRLC diphosphorylation and reorganization of actin filaments in nonmuscle cells. ..
  2. Sturge J, Wienke D, Isacke C. Endosomes generate localized Rho-ROCK-MLC2-based contractile signals via Endo180 to promote adhesion disassembly. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:337-47 pubmed
    ..Pivotal in this process is phosphorylation of myosin light chain-2 (MLC2) by Rho kinase (ROCK) downstream of Rho activation, which generates the contractile force necessary to drive ..
  3. Zhang Z, Xiang L, Zhao L, Jiao H, Wang Z, Li Y, et al. The protective effect of Er-Xian decoction against myocardial injury in menopausal rat model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:245 pubmed publisher
    ..EXD could decrease the mRNA expressions of cardiac myosin (Myh7, Myl2) and integrin (Itgb5) in the ventricular myocardium...
  4. Salanova M, Gelfi C, Moriggi M, Vasso M, Viganò A, Minafra L, et al. Disuse deterioration of human skeletal muscle challenged by resistive exercise superimposed with vibration: evidence from structural and proteomic analysis. FASEB J. 2014;28:4748-63 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In VL, the outcomes of both RVE (acting on sarcosin and desmin) and RE (by way of troponinT-slow and MYL2) were similar...
  5. Wang J, Li C, Chen T, Fang Y, Shi X, Pang T, et al. Nafamostat mesilate protects against acute cerebral ischemia via blood-brain barrier protection. Neuropharmacology. 2016;105:398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that NM treatment can preserve BBB integrity through the inhibition of thrombin, which might be correlated with the regulation of PKCα/RhoA/MLC2 pathway components.
  6. Cao J, Yang T, Tang D, Zhou F, Qian Y, Zou X. Increased expression of GEF-H1 promotes colon cancer progression by RhoA signaling. Pathol Res Pract. 2019;215:1012-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that RhoA activation triggered by GEF-H1 overexpression caused phosphorylation of its downstream target, MLC2, in CC cells...
  7. Medjkane S, Perez Sanchez C, Gaggioli C, Sahai E, Treisman R. Myocardin-related transcription factors and SRF are required for cytoskeletal dynamics and experimental metastasis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Only a few genes show MRTF-dependent expression in both cell lines. Two of these, MYH9 (NMHCIIa) and MYL9 (MLC2), are also required for invasion and lung colonization...
  8. Tully G, Nishihama R, Pringle J, Morgan D. The anaphase-promoting complex promotes actomyosin-ring disassembly during cytokinesis in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of CDH1 also exacerbates actomyosin-ring disassembly defects in cells with mutations in the myosin light-chain Mlc2, suggesting that Mlc2 and the APC employ independent mechanisms to promote ring disassembly during cytokinesis.
  9. Liu J, Wang Q, Duan X, Cui X, Kim N, Zhang Y, et al. Profilin 1 plays feedback role in actin-mediated polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the results indicate that a feedback mechanism between profilin, actin and ROCK-MLC2 regulates actin assembly during mouse oocyte maturation.

More Information

Publications172 found, 100 shown here

  1. Petrie M, Suneja M, Faidley E, Shields R. A minimal dose of electrically induced muscle activity regulates distinct gene signaling pathways in humans with spinal cord injury. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115791 pubmed publisher
    ..ACADVL), mitochondrial fission and fusion genes (MFF, MFN1, MFN2), and slow muscle fiber genes (MYH6, MYH7, MYL3, MYL2)...
  2. Rosa A, Moncau C, Poleti M, Fonseca L, Balieiro J, Silva S, et al. Proteome changes of beef in Nellore cattle with different genotypes for tenderness. Meat Sci. 2018;138:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..marker, 11 for UOGCAST, two for both markers, and 19 had interactions between markers, including myosin (MYL1, MYL2, MYLPF and MYL6B), actin (ACTA1 and CAPZ?), troponin (TNNT1 and TNNT3) and heat shock proteins (HSPB6, HSPB1 and ..
  3. LaFlamme A, Young K, Lang I, Weiser D. Alternative splicing of (ppp1r12a/mypt1) in zebrafish produces a novel myosin phosphatase targeting subunit. Gene. 2018;675:15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that Mypt1-202 plays an important role in maintaining baseline Mlc2 dephosphorylation and actomyosin relaxation during early zebrafish development.
  4. Barabutis N, Dimitropoulou C, Birmpas C, Joshi A, Thangjam G, Catravas J. p53 protects against LPS-induced lung endothelial barrier dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L776-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemically induced p53 overexpression resulted in the suppression of LPS-induced RhoA activation and MLC2 phosphorylation, whereas p53 suppression caused the opposite effects...
  5. Latour S, Mahouche I, Cherrier F, Azzi Martin L, Velasco V, Soubeyran P, et al. Calcium Independent Effect of Orai1 and STIM1 in Non-Hodgkin B Cell Lymphoma Dissemination. Cancers (Basel). 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..We identify that they act as effectors coupling RhoA and ROCK dependent signaling pathway to MLC2 phosphorylation and actin polymerization...
  6. Zhou P, Li Y, Li B, Zhang M, Liu Y, Yao Y, et al. NMIIA promotes tumor growth and metastasis by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and EMT in pancreatic cancer. Oncogene. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, MEK/ERK signaling is critical in MLC2 (Ser19) phosphorylation, which can mediate NMIIA activity and regulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
  7. Della Malva A, Marino R, Santillo A, Annicchiarico G, Caroprese M, Sevi A, et al. Proteomic approach to investigate the impact of different dietary supplementation on lamb meat tenderness. Meat Sci. 2017;131:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..a degradation of desmin and TnT proteins complex and a major number of spots and phosphorylation isoforms of fast MLC2 patterns...
  8. Liang J, Fan J, Wang M, Niu Z, Zhang Z, Yuan L, et al. CDKN2A inhibits formation of homotypic cell-in-cell structures. Oncogenesis. 2018;7:50 pubmed publisher
    ..redistribution of E-cadherin, F-actin rearrangement and reduced phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC2), consistent with which, CDKN2A expression imparted cells winner/outer identity in competition assay...
  9. Tie S, McCarthy D, Kendrick T, Louw A, Le C, Satiaputra J, et al. Regulation of sarcoma cell migration, invasion and invadopodia formation by AFAP1L1 through a phosphotyrosine-dependent pathway. Oncogene. 2016;35:2098-111 pubmed publisher
    ..and downstream control of PAK1/2/3 (p21-activated kinases) phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) kinase and MLC2. AFAP1L1 interaction with Nck2 recruits actin-nucleating complexes...
  10. Maina E, Morris M, Zatyka M, Raval R, Banks R, Richards F, et al. Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways. Oncogene. 2005;24:4549-58 pubmed
    ..initially unclear, but re-expression of GNG4 (G protein gamma-4 subunit/guanine nucleotide-binding protein-4) and MLC2 (myosin light chain) in a RCC cell line suppressed tumour cell growth...
  11. Belian E, Noseda M, Abreu Paiva M, Leja T, Sampson R, Schneider M. Forward Programming of Cardiac Stem Cells by Homogeneous Transduction with MYOCD plus TBX5. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0125384 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no protein was detected for the induced sarcomeric genes Actc1, Myh6, and Myl2. Adding MYOCD to GMT affected only slightly the breadth and level of gene induction, but, importantly, triggered ..
  12. Kim G, Jeong J, Yang H, Hur S. Differential abundance of proteome associated with intramuscular variation of meat quality in porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Meat Sci. 2019;149:85-95 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in the anterior region, where myosin-1 and -2, TPM2, MLC1f, MLC2, Hsp27, and TPI1 were highly (P < 0.05) abundant...
  13. Birch J, Strathdee K, Gilmour L, Vallatos A, McDonald L, Kouzeli A, et al. A Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitor of MRCK Prevents Radiation-Driven Invasion in Glioblastoma. Cancer Res. 2018;78:6509-6522 pubmed publisher
    ..MRCK-mediated invasion occurred via downstream signaling to effector molecules MYPT1 and MLC2. MRCK was activated by clinically relevant doses per fraction of radiation, and this activation was concomitant ..
  14. Roblek M, Protsyuk D, Becker P, Stefanescu C, Gorzelanny C, Glaus Garzon J, et al. CCL2 Is a Vascular Permeability Factor Inducing CCR2-Dependent Endothelial Retraction during Lung Metastasis. Mol Cancer Res. 2019;17:783-793 pubmed publisher
    ..CCL2 stimulation of pulmonary endothelial cells resulted in increased phosphorylation of MLC2, endothelial cell retraction, and vascular leakiness that was blocked by an addition of a CCR2 inhibitor...
  15. Inoue Mochita M, Inoue T, Kojima S, Futakuchi A, Fujimoto T, Sato Ohira S, et al. Interleukin-6-mediated trans-signaling inhibits transforming growth factor-β signaling in trabecular meshwork cells. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:10975-10984 pubmed publisher
    ..IL6/sIL-6R also suppressed TGF-β-mediated activation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2), Smad2, and p38...
  16. Wang J, Yu L, Huang X, Wang Y, Zhao J. Comparative proteome analysis of saccular intracranial aneurysms with iTRAQ quantitative proteomics. J Proteomics. 2016;130:120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ITGB3, ACTN1 and MYL2 play a role in aneurysm formation via focal adhesion pathway...
  17. Assunção R, Alvito P, Kleiveland C, Lea T. Characterization of in vitro effects of patulin on intestinal epithelial and immune cells. Toxicol Lett. 2016;250-251:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) declined. Also, levels of phospho-MLC2 (p-MLC2) increased after 24h of exposure to 50?M of PAT...
  18. Rodriguez Teja M, Gronau J, Breit C, Zhang Y, Minamidate A, Caley M, et al. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival. J Pathol. 2015;235:581-92 pubmed publisher
    ..uPARAP) that can recognize glycosylated collagens, reversed actinomyosin-based contractility [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion ..
  19. Zhang C, Wang G, Ji Z, Liu Z, Hou L, Liu G, et al. Molecular cloning, characterisation and mRNA expression analysis of the sheep myosin light chain 1 gene. Gene. 2015;569:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More than half of the secondary structure of these proteins was predicted to be α-helical. The human MYL2 protein (1m8q.1.C) is the most similar in tertiary structure...
  20. Lu K, Chen P, Hsieh Y, Lin C, Cheng F, Chiu P, et al. 3-Hydroxyflavone inhibits human osteosarcoma U2OS and 143B cells metastasis by affecting EMT and repressing u-PA/MMP-2 via FAK-Src to MEK/ERK and RhoA/MLC2 pathways and reduces 143B tumor growth in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016;97:177-186 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of U2OS and 143B cells by affecting EMT and repressing u-PA/MMP-2 via FAK-Src to MEK/ERK and RhoA/MLC2 pathways and suppresses 143B tumor growth in vivo...
  21. Dhabaan A, Elder E, Schreibmann E, Crocker I, Curran W, Oyesiku N, et al. Dosimetric performance of the new high-definition multileaf collimator for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2010;11:3040 pubmed
    The objective was to evaluate the performance of a high-definition multileaf collimator (MLC) of 2.5 mm leaf width (MLC2.5) and compare to standard 5 mm leaf width MLC (MLC5) for the treatment of intracranial lesions using dynamic ..
  22. Shi J, Wu X, Surma M, Vemula S, Zhang L, Yang Y, et al. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of cell detachment. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e483 pubmed publisher
    ..actomyosin ring formation and preserved central stress fibers, associated with decreased myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) phosphorylation but preserved cofilin phosphorylation...
  23. Kaski J, Syrris P, Esteban M, Jenkins S, Pantazis A, Deanfield J, et al. Prevalence of sarcomere protein gene mutations in preadolescent children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein-coding sequences of 9 sarcomere protein genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, MYL2, MYL3, ACTC, and TNNC1), the genes encoding desmin (DES), and the gamma-2 subunit of AMP kinase (PRKAG2) were ..
  24. Della Gaspera B, Chesneau A, Weill L, Charbonnier F, Chanoine C. Xenopus SOX5 enhances myogenic transcription indirectly through transrepression. Dev Biol. 2018;442:262-275 pubmed publisher
    ..and indirectly stimulates myogenic transcription except for the slow muscle-specific genes Myh7L, Myh7S, Myl2 and Tnnc1...
  25. Zeng Y, Zhang X, Kang K, Chen J, Wu Z, Huang J, et al. MicroRNA-223 Attenuates Hypoxia-induced Vascular Remodeling by Targeting RhoB/MLC2 in Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24900 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit (MYPT1) and the expression of myosin light chain of myosin II (MLC2), which was identified as another target of miR-223...
  26. Li L, Bainbridge M, Tan Y, Willerson J, Marian A. A Potential Oligogenic Etiology of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Classic Single-Gene Disorder. Circ Res. 2017;120:1084-1090 pubmed publisher
    ..The siblings also had the pathogenic variant p.Ala13Thr variant in MYL2, a known gene for HCM. The sibling's father also carried the p...
  27. Zhang Y, Liu B, Luo X, Li T, Zhang J, Peng J, et al. Nuclear cardiac myosin light chain 2 modulates NADPH oxidase 2 expression in myocardium: a novel function beyond muscle contraction. Basic Res Cardiol. 2015;110:38 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study aims to determine if nuclear cardiac myosin light chain 2 (MYL2), a well-known regulatory subunit of myosin, functions as a transcription factor to promote NOX2 ..
  28. Zhang L, Xu Y, Xu J, Wei Y, Xu X. Protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, enhances survival and clonogenicity of dissociated human embryonic stem cells through Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..of PKA and two substrates of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), myosin light chain (MLC2) and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), significantly increases cell survival and colony formation, and ..
  29. Yu H, Chakravorty S, Song W, Ferenczi M. Phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin in striated muscle: methodological perspectives. Eur Biophys J. 2016;45:779-805 pubmed
    ..The physiological role of RLC phosphorylation and novel pathways are discussed to highlight the differences between muscle types and to gain insights into disease processes. ..
  30. Gomez J, Lorca R, Reguero J, Moris C, Martin M, Tranche S, et al. Screening of the Filamin C Gene in a Large Cohort of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patients. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..chip technology) for the MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, ACTC1, TNNC1, MYL2, MYL3, TPM1, and FLNC genes...
  31. Li L, Zhi D, Shen Y, Liu K, Li H, Chen J. Effects of CC-chemokine receptor 5 on ROCK2 and P-MLC2 expression after focal cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Brain Inj. 2016;30:468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein expressions of ROCK2 and P-MLC2(Ser19) were determined by western blot...
  32. Li B, Yang H, Wang X, Zhan Y, Sheng W, Cai H, et al. Engineering human ventricular heart muscles based on a highly efficient system for purification of human pluripotent stem cell-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:202 pubmed publisher
    ..genomic editing techniques to insert the neomycin or EGFP selection marker directly after the myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) locus in human pluripotent stem cells...
  33. Bongini C, Ferrantini C, Girolami F, Coppini R, Arretini A, Targetti M, et al. Impact of Genotype on the Occurrence of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117:1151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic subgroups: (1) MYBPC3 (58%), (2) MYH7 (28%), and (3) "other genotypes" (14%; comprising TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1, MYL2, complex genotypes, Z-line, and E-C coupling genes). Left atrial size was similar in the 3 subsets...
  34. Veevers J, Farah E, Corselli M, Witty A, Palomares K, Vidal J, et al. Cell-Surface Marker Signature for Enrichment of Ventricular Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports. 2018;11:828-841 pubmed publisher
    ..transgenic H9 hESC line in which GFP expression was driven by the human ventricular-specific myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) promoter was generated, and screened to identify cell-surface markers specific for MYL2-GFP-expressing VCMs...
  35. Amann R, Wyder S, Slavotinek A, Trueb B. The FgfrL1 receptor is required for development of slow muscle fibers. Dev Biol. 2014;394:228-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5 as indicated by the absence of slow fiber markers Myh7, Myl2 and Myl3...
  36. Zhao T, Huang X, Xia Y. Human heart cell proteins interacting with a C-terminally truncated 2A protein of coxsackie B3 virus: identification by the yeast two-hybrid system. Virus Genes. 2016;52:172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..at the C-terminus as the bait protein, four interactive cellular proteins were identified, including TIMP4, MYL2, COX7C, and ENO1. These proteins are mostly related to protein degradation and metabolism...
  37. Cong X, Zhang Y, Yang N, Li J, Ding C, Ding Q, et al. Occludin is required for TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability in the submandibular gland. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, TRPV1 activation increased ERK1/2 and MLC2 phosphorylation...
  38. Glotov A, Kazakov S, Zhukova E, Alexandrov A, Glotov O, Pakin V, et al. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of nine candidate genes with custom AmpliSeq in patients and a cardiomyopathy risk group. Clin Chim Acta. 2015;446:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a custom AmpliSeq panel for NGS sequencing of the coding sequences of ACTC1, MYBPC3, MYH7, MYL2, MYL3, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, and CASQ2...
  39. Zhao Y, Cao H, Song Y, Feng Y, Ding X, Pang M, et al. Identification of novel mutations including a double mutation in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy by a targeted sequencing approach using the Ion Torrent PGM system. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:1511-20 pubmed publisher
    ..sodium channel, voltage gated, type V alpha subunit (SCN5A); myosin, light chain 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow (MYL2); myosin, heavy chain 6, cardiac muscle, ? (MYH6); myosin, light chain 3, alkali, ventricular, skeletal, slow (..
  40. Ulu A, Oh W, Zuo Y, Frost J. Stress-activated MAPKs and CRM1 regulate the subcellular localization of Net1A to control cell motility and invasion. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    ..Net1A relocalization and results in elevated RhoA signaling to stimulate myosin light chain 2 (MLC2, also known as MYL2) phosphorylation and F-actin accumulation...
  41. Jiang Y, Wang Y, Wang T, Hawke D, Zheng Y, Li X, et al. PKM2 phosphorylates MLC2 and regulates cytokinesis of tumour cells. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5566 pubmed publisher
    ..PKM1, at T45; this phosphorylation is required for PKM2's localization and interaction with myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) in the contractile ring region of mitotic cells during cytokinesis...
  42. Jimeno D, Gómez C, Calzada N, de la Villa P, Lillo C, Santos E. RASGRF2 controls nuclear migration in postnatal retinal cone photoreceptors. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:729-42 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear migration and cytoskeletal reorganization, such as PAR3, PAR6 and activated, phosphorylated forms of PAK, MLC2 and VASP...
  43. Bhattacharya S, Burridge P, Kropp E, Chuppa S, Kwok W, Wu J, et al. High efficiency differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to cardiomyocytes and characterization by flow cytometry. J Vis Exp. 2014;:52010 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, optimized staining protocols for the analysis of IRX4, MLC2v, MLC2a, TNNI3, and TNNT2 by flow cytometry are described. ..
  44. Gao K, Tang W, Li Y, Zhang P, Wang D, Yu L, et al. Front-signal-dependent accumulation of the RHOA inhibitor FAM65B at leading edges polarizes neutrophils. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:992-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..polarization is the back localization of active RHOA and phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC, also known as MYL2). However, the mechanism for the polarization is not entirely clear...
  45. Sawicki G. Synergistic effect of inhibitors of MMPs and ROS-dependent modifications of contractile proteins on protection hearts subjected to oxidative stress. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20:1345-8 pubmed
    ..Cardiac contractile proteins such as myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) and troponin I, play a significant role in the regulation of force development...
  46. Matsumoto Y, Inden M, Tamura A, Hatano R, Tsukita S, Asano S. Ezrin mediates neuritogenesis via down-regulation of RhoA activity in cultured cortical neurons. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105435 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we observed increased RhoA activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2), as a downstream effector of RhoA in the Vil2(kd/kd) neurons...
  47. Yi R, Xiao Ping G, Hui L. Atorvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced high permeability of human arterial endothelial cell monolayers via ROCK signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;459:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Ang II-induced phosphorylations of MYPT1, LIMK and MLC2 were significantly inhibited with atorvastatin or Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (H1152) pretreatment...
  48. Hortemo K, Aronsen J, Lunde I, Sjaastad I, Lunde P, Sejersted O. Exhausting treadmill running causes dephosphorylation of sMLC2 and reduced level of myofilament MLCK2 in slow twitch rat soleus muscle. Physiol Rep. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    Myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) is a small protein in the myosin complex, regulating muscle contractile function by modulating Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilaments...
  49. Lee H, Kim Y, Park T. New Common and Rare Variants Influencing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components in a Korean Population. Sci Rep. 2018;8:5701 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these 21, four were previously unreported to associate with any MetS components: rs765547 near LPL; rs3782889 in MYL2; and rs11065756 and rs10849915 in CCDC63...
  50. Künzel L, Dohm O, Alber M, Zips D, Thorwarth D. Automatic replanning of VMAT plans for different treatment machines: A template-based approach using constrained optimization. Strahlenther Onkol. 2018;194:921-928 pubmed publisher
    ..Automatic replanning was performed for 16 PC cases, initially planned for MLC1 (4 mm MLC) and reoptimized for MLC2 (5 mm) and MLC3 (10 mm) and for 19 HNC cases, replanned from MLC2 to MLC3...
  51. Jaafar N, Gomez J, Kammoun I, Zairi I, Amara W, Kachboura S, et al. Spectrum of Mutations in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Genes Among Tunisian Patients. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2016;20:674-679 pubmed
    ..PGM) next generation sequencing of the nine main sarcomeric genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, ACTC1, TNNC1, MYL2, MYL3, TPM1) as well as the recently identified as an HCM gene, FLNC, in 45 Tunisian HCM patients...
  52. Miao W, Wu X, Wang K, Wang W, Wang Y, Li Z, et al. Sodium Butyrate Promotes Reassembly of Tight Junctions in Caco-2 Monolayers Involving Inhibition of MLCK/MLC2 Pathway and Phosphorylation of PKC?2. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..the reassembly of tight junctions (TJs) based on reducing the phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC2) at Ser19 and increasing phosphorylation of protein kinase C ?2 (PKC?2) at Ser660...
  53. Morita H, Rehm H, Menesses A, McDonough B, Roberts A, Kucherlapati R, et al. Shared genetic causes of cardiac hypertrophy in children and adults. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..99+/-6.12 years). We sequenced eight genes: MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1, MYL3, MYL2, and ACTC. These genes encode sarcomere proteins that, when mutated, cause adult-onset cardiomyopathies...
  54. Kazmierczak K, Muthu P, Huang W, Jones M, Wang Y, Szczesna Cordary D. Myosin regulatory light chain mutation found in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients increases isometric force production in transgenic mice. Biochem J. 2012;442:95-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The significant functional changes observed, despite a low level of A13T mutant incorporation into myofilaments, suggest a 'poison-peptide' mechanism of disease. ..
  55. McLeod C, Bos J, Theis J, Edwards W, Gersh B, Ommen S, et al. Histologic characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with and without myofilament mutations. Am Heart J. 2009;158:799-805 pubmed publisher
    ..6). Myofilament-positive HC does not appear to represent a distinct clinical phenotypic entity as evidenced by specific histologic characteristics and septal shape. ..
  56. Selvi Rani D, Nallari P, Dhandapany P, Rani J, Meraj K, Ganesan M, et al. Coexistence of Digenic Mutations in Both Thin (TPM1) and Thick (MYH7) Filaments of Sarcomeric Genes Leads to Severe Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a South Indian FHCM. DNA Cell Biol. 2015;34:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and the family members positive for S215L were further screened for variations in MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, MYL2, MYL3, and ACTC...
  57. Lee E, Jan A, Baig M, Ashraf J, Nahm S, Kim Y, et al. Fibromodulin: a master regulator of myostatin controlling progression of satellite cells through a myogenic program. FASEB J. 2016;30:2708-19 pubmed publisher
    ..to having a pronounced effect on the expression of myogenic marker genes [myogenin (MYOG) and myosin light chain 2 (MYL2)], FMOD was found to maintain the transcriptional activity of MSTN Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation and in silico ..
  58. Yamamoto T, Ugawa Y, Yamashiro K, Shimoe M, Tomikawa K, Hongo S, et al. Osteogenic differentiation regulated by Rho-kinase in periodontal ligament cells. Differentiation. 2014;88:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..ROCK-induced cytoskeletal changes were examined by immunofluorescence analysis of F-actin and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) expression. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the kinetics of osteogenic gene expression...
  59. García de la serrana D, Mareco E, LA Vieira V, Power D, Johnston I. Comparison of the transcriptional responses of skeletal muscle and bone to a flooding dose of leucine in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;199:50-57 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in gene expression following leucine injection including the tissue-specific markers sparc, bglap (bone), mlc2 and myod2 (muscle) and gene transcripts associated with Pi3k/Akt/mTor signalling, p70sk6, akt2, ampka and mtor...
  60. Tripathi A, Vana P, Chavan T, Brueggemann L, Byron K, Tarasova N, et al. Heteromerization of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 with ?1A/B-adrenergic receptors controls ?1-adrenergic receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E1659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced ?1A/B-AR:CXCR4 heteromeric complexes in VSMC and abolished phenylephrine-induced Ca(2+) fluxes and MLC2 phosphorylation...
  61. Gregorich Z, Peng Y, Lane N, Wolff J, Wang S, Guo W, et al. Comprehensive assessment of chamber-specific and transmural heterogeneity in myofilament protein phosphorylation by top-down mass spectrometry. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;87:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), tropomyosin (Tpm), and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2)...
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    ..Our study would facilitate subtype-specific cardiac development and functional analysis using the hPSC-derived sources. ..
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    ..The entire coding sequences of 9 genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNI3, TNNT2, MYL2, MYL3, TPM1, ACTC, andTNNC1) were analyzed in 197 unrelated index cases with familial or sporadic hypertrophic ..
  66. Suhaeri M, Subbiah R, Van S, Du P, Kim I, Lee K, et al. Cardiomyoblast (h9c2) differentiation on tunable extracellular matrix microenvironment. Tissue Eng Part A. 2015;21:1940-51 pubmed publisher
    ..identified by stronger positive markers, such as α-actinin and cTnT, along with more elevated gene expression of Myl2 and Tnnt compared to the cells on gelatin and fibronectin...
  67. Nguyen C, Senfter D, Basílio J, Holzner S, Stadler S, Krieger S, et al. NF-κB contributes to MMP1 expression in breast cancer spheroids causing paracrine PAR1 activation and disintegrations in the lymph endothelial barrier in vitro. Oncotarget. 2015;6:39262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant MMP1 induced PAR1-dependent phosphorylation of MLC2 and FAK in LECs, which is indicative for their activity and for directional cell migration such as observed during ..
  68. Yuan X, Cao J, He X, Serra R, Qu J, Cao X, et al. Ciliary IFT80 balances canonical versus non-canonical hedgehog signalling for osteoblast differentiation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11024 pubmed publisher
    ..partially restores osteogenic differentiation of IFT80-deficient OPCs by inhibiting non-canonical Hh-RhoA-Cofilin/MLC2 signalling...
  69. Kim S, Zhang L, Yoon J, Lee J, Min J, Li W, et al. Truncated Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation Induces Asef-Activated Golgi Fragmentation. Mol Cell Biol. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..downstream signaling events, including the induction of Golgi fragmentation through the activation of the Asef-ROCK-MLC2. Truncated APC also disrupts protein trafficking and cholesterol homeostasis by inhibition of SREBP2 activity in a ..
  70. Iguchi Y, Ishihara S, Uchida Y, Tajima K, Mizutani T, Kawabata K, et al. Filamin B Enhances the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells into 3D Collagen Matrices. Cell Struct Funct. 2015;40:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that FLNb enhances invasion of cancer cells through phosphorylation of MRLC and FAK. Therefore, FLNb may be a new therapeutic target for invasive cancers. ..
  71. Duan X, Liu J, Zhu C, Wang Q, Cui X, Kim N, et al. RhoA-mediated MLC2 regulates actin dynamics for cytokinesis in meiosis. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Myosin light chain2 (MLC2) phosphorylation plays pivotal roles in smooth muscle contraction, stress fiber formation, cell motility and ..
  72. Tocci P, Caprara V, Cianfrocca R, Sestito R, Di Castro V, Bagnato A, et al. Endothelin-1/endothelin A receptor axis activates RhoA GTPase in epithelial ovarian cancer. Life Sci. 2016;159:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Pseudopodia formation was evaluated by a pseudopodia kit assay...
  73. Oh M, Zhang C, LeMaster E, Adamos C, Berdyshev E, Bogachkov Y, et al. Oxidized LDL signals through Rho-GTPase to induce endothelial cell stiffening and promote capillary formation. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:791-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly to oxLDL, 7KC induces RhoA activation, MLCP inhibition, and MLC2 phosphorylation resulting in endothelial stiffening...
  74. Yadav S, Szczesna Cordary D. Pseudophosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain: a promising new tool for treatment of cardiomyopathy. Biophys Rev. 2017;9:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic mutations in sarcomeric proteins, including the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) encoded by the MYL2 gene, have been implicated in familial cardiomyopathies...
  75. Morita H, Larson M, Barr S, Vasan R, O Donnell C, Hirschhorn J, et al. Single-gene mutations and increased left ventricular wall thickness in the community: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2006;113:2697-705 pubmed
    ..Increased LVWT in the community is a very heterogeneous condition, which sometimes may arise from single-gene variants in one of a number of genes. ..
  76. Gerrits L, Overheul G, Derks R, Wieringa B, Hendriks W, Wansink D. Gene duplication and conversion events shaped three homologous, differentially expressed myosin regulatory light chain (MLC2) genes. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the evolutionary origin, expression pattern and function of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC2) isoforms...
  77. Serizawa N, Tian J, Fukada H, Baghy K, Scott F, Chen X, et al. Galectin 3 regulates HCC cell invasion by RhoA and MLCK activation. Lab Invest. 2015;95:1145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, RhoA GTPase activity and the phosphorylation of MLC2 (myosin light chain 2) were decreased in the galectin 3 siRNA-transfected cells...
  78. Sharanek A, Burban A, Burbank M, Le Guevel R, Li R, Guillouzo A, et al. Rho-kinase/myosin light chain kinase pathway plays a key role in the impairment of bile canaliculi dynamics induced by cholestatic drugs. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24709 pubmed publisher
    ..contractions, which are essential for bile acid (BA) efflux and require alternations in myosin light chain (MLC2) phosphorylation/dephosphorylation...
  79. Stadler S, Nguyen C, Schachner H, Milovanovic D, Holzner S, Brenner S, et al. Colon cancer cell-derived 12(S)-HETE induces the retraction of cancer-associated fibroblast via MLC2, RHO/ROCK and Ca2+ signalling. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:1907-1921 pubmed publisher
    ..The elucidation of signalling pathways and identification of approved inhibitory drugs warrant development of intervention strategies targeting tumour-stroma interaction. ..
  80. Hoeppner L, Sinha S, Wang Y, Bhattacharya R, Dutta S, Gong X, et al. RhoC maintains vascular homeostasis by regulating VEGF-induced signaling in endothelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:3556-68 pubmed publisher
    ..RhoC negatively regulates endothelial cell migration through MAPKs and downstream MLC2 signaling, and decreases vascular permeability through downregulation of the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)-Ca(2+)-..
  81. Del Coso J, Valero M, Lara B, Salinero J, Gallo Salazar C, Areces F. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160053 pubmed publisher
    ..7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. ..
  82. Bottje W, Kong B, Reverter A, Waardenberg A, Lassiter K, Hudson N. Progesterone signalling in broiler skeletal muscle is associated with divergent feed efficiency. BMC Syst Biol. 2017;11:29 pubmed publisher
    ..to a coordinated reduction in slow twitch muscle isoforms of the contractile apparatus (MYH15, TPM3, MYOZ2, TNNI1, MYL2, MYOM3, CSRP3, TNNT2), consistent with diminishment in associated slow machinery (myoglobin and phospholamban) in ..
  83. Zhang Y, Chen H, Maleki S, Cao M, Zhang L, Su W, et al. Purification, Characterization, and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkii. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63:6271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Two isoforms of the MLC gene (MLC1 and MLC2) were cloned, and the purified MLC was identified as MLC1...
  84. Sakiyama M, Matsuo H, Nakaoka H, Yamamoto K, Nakayama A, Nakamura T, et al. Identification of rs671, a common variant of ALDH2, as a gout susceptibility locus. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25360 pubmed publisher
    ..between gout and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2188380, located on an intergenic region between MYL2 and CUX2 on chromosome 12. However, other genes around rs2188380 could possibly be gout susceptibility genes...
  85. Yuan C, Kazmierczak K, Liang J, Zhou Z, Yadav S, Gomes A, et al. Sarcomeric perturbations of myosin motors lead to dilated cardiomyopathy in genetically modified MYL2 mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E2338-E2347 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine the biomechanical and structural causes of DCM in transgenic mice carrying a novel mutation in the MYL2 gene, encoding the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain...
  86. Morano I, Haase H. Different actin affinities of human cardiac essential myosin light chain isoforms. FEBS Lett. 1997;408:71-4 pubmed
    ..Weak binding of ALC-1 to actin could explain the higher cycling kinetics of cross-bridges with ALC-1 compared to those with VLC-1. ..
  87. Chen M, Tsai F, Lee M, Lin Y. Antipsychotic drugs induce cell cytoskeleton reorganization in glial and neuronal cells via Rho/Cdc42 signal pathway. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016;71:14-26 pubmed publisher
    ..cell functions in rat brain by affecting RhoGDI1, RhoGDI1 regulation, RhoGDI1-related Rho family protein, and also MLC2 in brain of 7-day APD treatment rat were examined...
  88. Warren N, Voloudakis G, Yoon Y, Robakis N, Georgakopoulos A. The product of the γ-secretase processing of ephrinB2 regulates VE-cadherin complexes and angiogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018;75:2813-2826 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulates the formation of angiogenic complexes that include VE-cadherin, Raf-1 and Rok-α, and increases MLC2 phosphorylation. These functions are mediated by the PDZ-binding domain of efnB2...
  89. Wang W, Niu Z, Wang Y, Li Y, Zou H, Yang L, et al. Comparative transcriptome analysis of atrial septal defect identifies dysregulated genes during heart septum morphogenesis. Gene. 2016;575:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..factors (GATA4 and NKX2-5), extracellular signal molecules (VEGFA and BMP10) and cardiac sarcomeric proteins (MYL2, MYL3, MYH7, TNNT1 and TNNT3) were downregulated in ASD which may affect heart atrial septum formation, ..
  90. Schubert C, Raparelli V, Westphal C, Dworatzek E, Petrov G, Kararigas G, et al. Reduction of apoptosis and preservation of mitochondrial integrity under ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by estrogen receptor ?. Biol Sex Differ. 2016;7:53 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found a significant increase of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) phosphorylation together with ERK1/2 activation in E2, but not in ER?A treated groups...
  91. Hiroyasu S, Stimac G, Hopkinson S, Jones J. Loss of ?-PIX inhibits focal adhesion disassembly and promotes keratinocyte motility via myosin light chain activation. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:2329-2343 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, in the ?-PIX knockdown cells, phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC; also known as MYL2) is present not only in the leading edge of cells at the wound front, but also in the cells following the front, ..
  92. Renaudin P, Janin A, Millat G, Chevalier P. A Novel Missense Mutation p.Gly162Glu of the Gene MYL2 Involved in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Pedigree Analysis of a Proband. Mol Diagn Ther. 2018;22:219-223 pubmed publisher
    ..Segregation analysis was performed on the woman's family. A novel myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) missense variant, NM_000432.3:c485G>A, p...