Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: MYH9
Description: myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle
Alias: BDPLT6, DFNA17, EPSTS, FTNS, MHA, NMHC-II-A, NMMHC-IIA, NMMHCA, cellular myosin heavy chain, type A, myosin heavy chain 9, myosin heavy chain, non-muscle IIa, myosin-9, non-muscle myosin heavy chain A, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIa, non-muscle myosin heavy polypeptide 9, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-A
Publications193 found, 100 shown here
- Mts1 regulates the assembly of nonmuscle myosin-IIAZhong hua Li
Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
Biochemistry 42:14258-66. 2003..Altogether, these observations are consistent with mts1 regulating myosin IIA assembly by monomer sequestration and suggest that mts1 regulates cell shape and motility through the modulation of myosin-IIA function...
- Missense mutations in the APOL1 gene are highly associated with end stage kidney disease risk previously attributed to the MYH9 geneShay Tzur
Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Hum Genet 128:345-50. 2010b>MYH9 has been proposed as a major genetic risk locus for a spectrum of nondiabetic end stage kidney disease (ESKD)...
- Non-muscle myosin IIA is a functional entry receptor for herpes simplex virus-1Jun Arii
Division of Viral Infection, Department of Infectious Disease Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
Nature 467:859-62. 2010..The identification of NMHC-IIA as an HSV-1 entry receptor and the involvement of NM-IIA regulation in HSV-1 infection provide an insight into HSV-1 entry and identify new targets for antiviral drug development...
- MYH9 is associated with nondiabetic end-stage renal disease in African AmericansW H Linda Kao
Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
Nat Genet 40:1185-92. 2008..2 to 0.6) in the gene encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chain type II isoform A (MYH9) were associated with two to four times greater risk of nondiabetic ESRD and accounted for a large proportion of ..
- African ancestry allelic variation at the MYH9 gene contributes to increased susceptibility to non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease in Hispanic AmericansDoron M Behar
Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa 31096, Israel
Hum Mol Genet 19:1816-27. 2010Recent studies identified MYH9 as a major susceptibility gene for common forms of non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)...
- Position of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) mutations predicts the natural history of MYH9-related diseaseAlessandro Pecci
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS, Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy
Hum Mutat 29:409-17. 2008b>MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene for the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMHC-IIA)...
- Polymorphisms in MYH9 are associated with diabetic nephropathy in European AmericansJessica N Cooke
Program in Molecular Medicine and Translational Science, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
Nephrol Dial Transplant 27:1505-11. 2012Polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin IIA gene (MYH9) are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans and FSGS in European Americans...
- MYH9-related disease: May-Hegglin anomaly, Sebastian syndrome, Fechtner syndrome, and Epstein syndrome are not distinct entities but represent a variable expression of a single illnessMarco Seri
Laboratorio di Genetica Molecolare, Istituto G Gaslini, Genova, Italy
Medicine (Baltimore) 82:203-15. 2003..Mutations in the MYH9 gene encoding for the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) have been identified in all these syndromes...
- Dense mapping of MYH9 localizes the strongest kidney disease associations to the region of introns 13 to 15George W Nelson
Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, SAIC Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA
Hum Mol Genet 19:1805-15. 2010Admixture mapping recently identified MYH9 as a susceptibility gene for idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and end-stage kidney disease attributed to hypertension (H-ESKD) in African ..
- Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA mediates integrin LFA-1 de-adhesion during T lymphocyte migrationNicole A Morin
Department of Surgery, Rhode Island Hospital and Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02903, USA
J Exp Med 205:195-205. 2008..Here, we show that nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MyH9) is recruited to LFA-1 at the uropod of migrating T lymphocytes, and inhibition of the association of MyH9 with LFA-..
- Expression of the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA in the human kidney and screening for MYH9 mutations in Epstein and Fechtner syndromesChristelle Arrondel
INSERM U 423, Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
J Am Soc Nephrol 13:65-74. 2002Mutations in the MYH9 gene, which encodes the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA, have been recently reported in three syndromes that share the association of macrothrombocytopenia (MTCP) and leukocyte inclusions: the May-Hegglin anomaly ..
- Worldwide distribution of the MYH9 kidney disease susceptibility alleles and haplotypes: evidence of historical selection in AfricaTaras K Oleksyk
Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
PLoS ONE 5:e11474. 2010b>MYH9 was recently identified as renal susceptibility gene (OR 3-8, p < 10(-8)) for major forms of kidney disease disproportionately affecting individuals of African descent...
- MYH9 is a major-effect risk gene for focal segmental glomerulosclerosisJeffrey B Kopp
Kidney Disease Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Genet 40:1175-84. 2008..2 and a peak lod of 12.4 centered on MYH9, a functional candidate gene expressed in kidney podocytes...
- Mutation of MYH9, encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain A, in May-Hegglin anomalyM J Kelley
Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
Nat Genet 26:106-8. 2000..Here we screen a candidate gene in this region, encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain A (MYH9), for mutations in ten families...
- Myosin IIA regulates cell motility and actomyosin-microtubule crosstalkSharona Even-Ram
Craniofacial Developmental Biology and Regeneration Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research NIDCR, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Nat Cell Biol 9:299-309. 2007..We conclude that myosin IIA negatively regulates cell migration and suggest that it maintains a balance between the actomyosin and microtubule systems by regulating microtubule dynamics...
- Renal manifestations of patients with MYH9-related disordersKyoung Hee Han
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children s Hospital, 101 Daehang no, Jongno gu, Seoul, 110 744, South Korea
Pediatr Nephrol 26:549-55. 2011b>MYH9-related disorders are a group of autosomal, dominantly inherited disorders caused by mutations of the MYH9 gene, which encodes the non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA)...
- Glomerular MYH9 expression is reduced by HIV-1Thomas Hays
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
AIDS 26:797-803. 2012..Given that loss of MYH9 function causes a Mendelian renal disease, we hypothesized that renal expression of MYH9 is down-regulated by HIV-1 ..
- Two functional S100A4 monomers are necessary for regulating nonmuscle myosin-IIA and HCT116 cell invasionReniqua P House
Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, United States
Biochemistry 50:6920-32. 2011....
- Mechanism of the Ca²+-dependent interaction between S100A4 and tail fragments of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIASandip K Badyal
Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Henry Wellcome Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
J Mol Biol 405:1004-26. 2011....
- Identification of three in-frame deletion mutations in MYH9 disorders suggesting an important hot spot for small rearrangements in MYH9 exon 24Koji Miyazaki
Department of Hematology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1 15 1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, 228 8555 Kanagawa, Japan
Eur J Haematol 83:230-4. 2009b>MYH9 disorders include hereditary macrothrombocytopenias with leukocyte inclusion bodies...
- Heavy chain myosin 9-related disease (MYH9 -RD): neutrophil inclusions of myosin-9 as a pathognomonic sign of the disorderAnna Savoia
Medical Genetics, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
Thromb Haemost 103:826-32. 2010b>MYH9-related disease ( MYH9-RD) is an autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia with giant platelets variably associated with young-adult onset of progressive sensorineural hearing loss, presenile cataract, and renal damage...
- Multiple regulatory steps control mammalian nonmuscle myosin II assembly in live cellsMark T Breckenridge
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Mol Biol Cell 20:338-47. 2009..This work furthermore offers cellular insights that help explain platelet and leukocyte defects associated with R1933-stop alleles of patients afflicted with human MYH9-related disorder.
- Patients with Epstein-Fechtner syndromes owing to MYH9 R702 mutations develop progressive proteinuric renal diseaseTakashi Sekine
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Kidney Int 78:207-14. 2010..analyses of nondiabetic African-American patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) have identified MYH9, encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA), as a gene having a critical role in this disease...
- Effect of Mts1 on the structure and activity of nonmuscle myosin IIH L Ford
Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Center, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
Biochemistry 36:16321-7. 1997..The data demonstrate an effect of Mts1 on both myosin structure and function, and suggest a route through which Mts1 affects motility as well as metastasis...
- Polymorphisms in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) are associated with the progression of IgA nephropathy in ChineseWenrong Cheng
Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, and Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing 100034, People s Republic of China
Nephrol Dial Transplant 26:2544-9. 2011..A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) indicated that the MYH9 gene was significantly associated with non-diabetic ESRD in African-Americans and also influenced kidney function ..
- Identification of the first duplication in MYH9-related disease: a hot spot for unequal crossing-over within exon 24 of the MYH9 geneDaniela De Rocco
Medical Genetics, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, University of Trieste, Via dell Istria 65 1, 34137 Trieste, Italy
Eur J Med Genet 52:191-4. 2009b>MYH9-related disease (MYH9RD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene encoding the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA...
- Identification of six novel MYH9 mutations and genotype-phenotype relationships in autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia with leukocyte inclusionsS Kunishima
First Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Japan
J Hum Genet 46:722-9. 2001..3-q13.2 and the disease gene was recently identified as MYH9, the gene encoding the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-A...
- Nonmuscle myosin IIA is required for lamellipodia formation through binding to WAVE2 and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphateShigeru Morimura
Molecular Cell Biology Division, Kanagawa Cancer Center Research Institute, Yokohama 241 0815, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 404:834-40. 2011..We identified p250 as nonmuscle myosin IIA heavy chain (MYH9) by mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis using anti-MYH9 antibody...
- Identification and characterization of the first large deletion of the MYH9 gene associated with MYH9 disordersShinji Kunishima
Department of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan
Eur J Haematol 80:540-4. 2008b>MYH9 disorders are autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenias with leukocyte inclusion bodies. Single point mutations in the protein-coding sequence of the MYH9 gene are the most common cause...
- Application of a diagnostic algorithm for inherited thrombocytopenias to 46 consecutive patientsPatrizia Noris
Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo University of Pavia, Italy
Haematologica 89:1219-25. 2004..The aim of the present study was to validate this diagnostic algorithm by applying it to a case series of genetic thrombocytopenias...
- Non-muscle myosin IIA differentially regulates intestinal epithelial cell restitution and matrix invasionBrian A Babbin
Epithelial Pathobiology Research Unit, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Am J Pathol 174:436-48. 2009..These observations indicate multiple functions for NM IIA, which, along with the regulation of the F-actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions, involve previously unrecognized control of intracellular signaling and protein expression...
- Human nonmuscle myosin heavy chains are encoded by two genes located on different chromosomesM Simons
Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
Circ Res 69:530-9. 1991..Comparison of this sequence to cDNA clones encoding the amino-terminal one third of the NMMHC-B sequence (amino acids 58-718) shows them to be 89% identical at the amino acid level and 74% identical at the nucleotide level...
- Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA mutations define a spectrum of autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenias: May-Hegglin anomaly and Fechtner, Sebastian, Epstein, and Alport-like syndromesK E Heath
Department of Human Genetics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
Am J Hum Genet 69:1033-45. 2001..Previously, mutations in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9), which encodes nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYHIIA), were identified in all three ..
- Rho kinase differentially regulates phosphorylation of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms A and B during cell rounding and migrationJoshua C Sandquist
Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
J Biol Chem 281:35873-83. 2006..Our data suggest that the myosin IIA and IIB isoforms are regulated by different signaling pathways to perform distinct cellular activities and that myosin IIA is preferentially required for Rho-mediated contractile functions...
- Myosin-IIA heavy-chain phosphorylation regulates the motility of MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cellsNatalya G Dulyaninova
Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Mol Biol Cell 18:3144-55. 2007..In contrast, cells expressing the S1943A mutant exhibited reduced migration and lamellipod extension. These observations support a direct role for myosin-IIA heavy-chain phosphorylation in mediating motility and chemotaxis...
- Regulation of myosin-IIA assembly and Mts1 binding by heavy chain phosphorylationNatalya G Dulyaninova
Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
Biochemistry 44:6867-76. 2005....
- Immunofluorescence analysis of neutrophil nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-A in MYH9 disorders: association of subcellular localization with MYH9 mutationsShinji Kunishima
Japanese Red Cross Aichi Blood Center, Seto, Japan
Lab Invest 83:115-22. 2003..disorders are caused by mutations in the same gene, the MYH9, which encodes the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-A (NMMHCA)...
- Mutations in MYH9 result in the May-Hegglin anomaly, and Fechtner and Sebastian syndromes. The May-Heggllin/Fechtner Syndrome ConsortiumM Seri
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute G Gaslini, Genoa, Italy
Nat Genet 26:103-5. 2000..Among the identified candidate genes is the gene encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9; refs 8-10), which is expressed in platelets and upregulated during granulocyte differentiation...
- Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in HIV-associated nephropathy: A focus on the MYH9 nephropathy susceptibility geneMarina Nunez
Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1053, USA
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 17:44-51. 2010..Although polymorphisms in the MYH9 gene on chromosome 22 are strongly associated with HIVAN, as well as with idiopathic focal segmental ..
- Polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) are strongly associated with end-stage renal disease historically attributed to hypertension in African AmericansBarry I Freedman
Internal Medicine Nephrology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1053, USA
Kidney Int 75:736-45. 2009..showed strong association with idiopathic and HIV-related focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene polymorphisms in this ethnic group, we tested for MYH9 associations in a variety of kidney ..
- Differential expression of wild-type and mutant NMMHC-IIA polypeptides in blood cells suggests cell-specific regulation mechanisms in MYH9 disordersShinji Kunishima
Department of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan
Blood 111:3015-23. 2008b>MYH9 disorders such as May-Hegglin anomaly are characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and cytoplasmic granulocyte inclusion bodies that result from mutations in MYH9, the gene for nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-IIA (NMMHC-IIA)...
- Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin, myosin, and tropomyosinR L Shoeman
Max Planck Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg, Federal Republic of Germany
Am J Pathol 142:221-30. 1993..Nonmuscle myosin heavy chains were also cleaved by this enzyme in vitro. These data demonstrate that this protease can cause alterations in muscle cell ultrastructure in vitro that may be of clinical relevance in infected individuals...
- Interaction of metastasis-inducing S100A4 protein in vivo by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopyShu Zhang
Cancer and Polio Research Fund Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZB, UK
Eur Biophys J 34:19-27. 2005....
- Cloning of the murine non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA gene ortholog of human MYH9 responsible for May-Hegglin, Sebastian, Fechtner, and Epstein syndromesMaria D'Apolito
Servizio di Genetica Medica, IRCCS Ospedale CSS, I 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy
Gene 286:215-22. 2002Mutations in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA gene (MYH9) are responsible for May-Hegglin anomaly, Sebastian, Fechtner and Epstein syndromes...
- A single class II myosin modulates T cell motility and stopping, but not synapse formationJordan Jacobelli
Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, California 93143, USA
Nat Immunol 5:531-8. 2004..Here we show that nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA, or MyH9, is the only class II myosin expressed in T cells and is associated with the uropod during crawling...
- Genome-wide linkage analysis of serum creatinine in three isolated European populationsCristian Pattaro
Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen Bolzano EURAC, Bolzano, Italy
Kidney Int 76:297-306. 2009..and hypertension, was detected over a region containing the non-muscle myosin heavy chain type II isoform A (MYH9) gene (LOD score=3.52)...
- Non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene MYH9 associations in African Americans with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated ESRDBarry I Freedman
1Internal Medicine Nephrology, 2Biochemistry, 3Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
Nephrol Dial Transplant 24:3366-71. 2009Although MYH9 is strongly associated with biopsy-proven idiopathic and HIV-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and clinically diagnosed 'hypertension-associated' end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans, its ..
- Non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA and IIB interact and co-localize in living cells: relevance for MYH9-related diseaseMonica Marini
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, G Gaslini Institute, 16147 Genova, Italy
Int J Mol Med 17:729-36. 2006..This argument is relevant not only to cell physiology, but also to human pathology since mutations of the MYH9 gene encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain II A (NMMHC-A) cause MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD), an autosomal ..
- Myosin is an in vivo substrate of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1) after mIgM cross-linkingTakeshi Baba
Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2669 Yamazaki, Noda, 278 0022, Chiba, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 304:67-72. 2003..Thus, myosin is a direct SHP-1 substrate in B cells. The results suggest that SHP-1 plays a critical role in the reorganization of cytoskeletal architecture mediated via BCR stimulation...
- Polymorphisms in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) are associated with albuminuria in hypertensive African Americans: the HyperGEN studyBarry I Freedman
Section on Nephrology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1053, USA
Am J Nephrol 29:626-32. 2009b>MYH9 is a podocyte-expressed gene encoding nonmuscle myosin IIA that is associated with idiopathic and human immunodeficiency virus-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertensive end-stage renal disease in African ..
- Genetics of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and human immunodeficiency virus-associated collapsing glomerulopathy: the role of MYH9 genetic variationCheryl A Winkler
Scientific Applications International Corporation Frederick, Inc, Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, USA
Semin Nephrol 30:111-25. 2010..Admixture mapping identified genetic variants in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) as having a major influence on both FSGS and human immunodeficiency virus-associated collapsing ..
- Identification of the first in cis mutations in MYH9 disorderYuji Miyajima
Department of Pediatrics, Anjo Kosei Hospital, Anjo, Aichi, Japan
Eur J Haematol 82:288-91. 2009Here, we report the first in cis mutations in exon 1 of the MYH9 gene in a patient with MYH9 disorder. The patient was a 5-yr-old girl with macrothrombocytopenia and conspicuous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in neutrophils...
- Differential localization of myosin-II isozymes in human cultured cells and blood cellsP Maupin
Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, MD 21205 2196
J Cell Sci 107:3077-90. 1994..The superimposition of these small spots concentrated in the cleavage furrow produces the intense, uniform staining observed in conventional micrographs of whole cells...
- Inhibition of "self" engulfment through deactivation of myosin-II at the phagocytic synapse between human cellsRichard K Tsai
Biophysical Engineering Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Cell Biol 180:989-1003. 2008..A point mutation turns off this motor's contribution to phagocytosis, suggesting that self-recognition inhibits contractile engulfment...
- Vertebrate nonmuscle myosin II isoforms rescue small interfering RNA-induced defects in COS-7 cell cytokinesisJianjun Bao
Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 280:19594-9. 2005....
- Immunocytochemistry for the heavy chain of the non-muscle myosin IIA as a diagnostic tool for MYH9-related disordersAlessandro Pecci
Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS San Matteo, University of Pavia, Italy
Br J Haematol 117:164-7. 2002..We investigated the NMMHC-A localization in blood cells from eight MHA, SBS or FTNS patients with known MYH9 mutations...
- Pathogenetic mechanisms of hematological abnormalities of patients with MYH9 mutationsAlessandro Pecci
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, Italy
Hum Mol Genet 14:3169-78. 2005Mutations of MYH9, the gene for non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA), cause a complex clinical phenotype characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and granulocyte inclusion bodies, often associated with deafness, cataracts and/or ..
- Conditional expression of a truncated fragment of nonmuscle myosin II-A alters cell shape but not cytokinesis in HeLa cellsQ Wei
Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Mol Biol Cell 11:3617-27. 2000....
- Induction of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-C by butyrate in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophagesDenis B Buxton
Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 278:15449-55. 2003..8-Bromo-cGMP had no effect on nonmuscle myosin heavy chain induction, consistent with a cGMP-independent mechanism for nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-C induction...
- Increased expression of non-muscle myosin heavy chain-B in connective tissue cells of hypertrophic rat urinary bladderR Sjuve
Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Sweden
Cell Tissue Res 304:271-8. 2001..The NM-MHC-B-positive cells could have a role in the production of extracellular matrix and growth factors or be involved in modulation of spontaneous contractile activity...
- Ablation and mutation of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-B results in a defect in cardiac myocyte cytokinesisKazuyo Takeda
Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1762, USA
Circ Res 93:330-7. 2003..Whereas cardiac myocytes completely ablated for NMHC II-B show enlargement and binucleation, mice expressing as little as 6% of the normal amount of wild-type NMHC II-B in the heart do not show these abnormalities...
- Expression of non-muscle myosin heavy chain in rat heart after immunosuppressive treatmentRita Rezzani
Division of Human Anatomy, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnologies, University of Brescia, V le Europa 11, 25123, Brescia, Italy
Int Immunopharmacol 6:962-7. 2006..This could be explained as a tentative of cardiac tissue to maintain the structural integrity of intercalated disks and so the contraction/relaxation process...
- IRF-2 is involved in up-regulation of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-A gene expression during phorbol ester-induced promyelocytic HL-60 differentiationMyung Chul Chung
Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute NIH, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Biol Chem 279:56042-52. 2004..Together, these results indicate that IRF-2 contributes to transcriptional activation of the NMHC-A gene via 32kb-150 during TPA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells...
- Transforming growth factor-beta1 regulates cell growth and causes downregulation of SMemb/non-muscle myosin heavy chain B mRNA in human prostate stromal cellsKenji Obara
Department of Regenerative and Transplant Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
Scand J Urol Nephrol 39:366-71. 2005..The expression of the SM2 isoform of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) mRNA was also examined...
- Differential expression of non-muscle myosin heavy chain genes during Xenopus embryogenesisN Bhatia-Dey
Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
Mech Dev 78:33-6. 1998....
- Minor histocompatibility antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated with dendritic cells from DLA-identical littermatesGeorge E Georges
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109 1024, USA
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 9:234-42. 2003Donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA) mediate the graft-versus-host effect whereas host mHA-specific CTL mediate graft rejection in the setting of major histocompatibility complex ..
- MYH9 genetic variants associated with glomerular disease: what is the role for genetic testing?Jeffrey B Kopp
Kidney Disease Section, Kidney Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1268, USA
Semin Nephrol 30:409-17. 2010Genetic variation in MYH9, encoding nonmuscle myosin IIA heavy chain, has been associated recently with increased risk for kidney disease...
- Cloning and developmental expression of nonmuscle myosin IIA (Myh9) in the mammalian inner earAnand N Mhatre
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
J Neurosci Res 76:296-305. 2004b>MYH9 encoding a nonmuscle myosin heavy chain has been linked to nonsyndromic and syndromic forms of autosomal dominant hereditary hearing loss, suggesting a critical biological role of this motor protein in the auditory organ...
- The May-Hegglin anomaly gene MYH9 is a negative regulator of platelet biogenesis modulated by the Rho-ROCK pathwayZhao Chen
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA
Blood 110:171-9. 2007The gene implicated in the May-Hegglin anomaly and related macrothrombocytopenias, MYH9, encodes myosin-IIA, a protein that enables morphogenesis in diverse cell types...
- [A non-familial May-Hegglin anomaly accompanying with MYH9 gene R1933X mutation and I1626V polymorphism]Ying Li
Department of Hematology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 30:577-81. 2009To identify the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene mutation site in a May-Hegglin anomaly(MHA) patient, and to analyze the genotype of her relatives to exclude the inherit correlation between the proband and her family members.
- [Usefulness of immunofluorescence analysis of neutrophil nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-A for diagnosing in two sisters with May-Hegglin anomaly]Noriko Kimura
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nara City Hospital, Japan
Rinsho Ketsueki 49:1614-8. 2008..MHA is caused by mutations in the MYH9 gene, which encodes the nonmuscle mysosin heavy chain-A (NMMCH-A)...
- A notable case report of May-Hegglin anomaly with immune complex-related nephropathy: a genetic and histological analysisY Ohtsuka
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga City, Japan
Clin Nephrol 75:255-62. 2011..Mutations in the MYH9 gene, encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) have been identified in patients with MHA and other ..
- Kappa immunoglobulin light chain polymorphisms and survival after allogeneic transplantation for B-cell malignancies: a potential graft-vs-leukaemia targetT L Etto
Bone Marrow Transplant Programme, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
Tissue Antigens 69:56-61. 2007..antigen (HLA)-matched haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) setting, minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) disparities between recipient and donor can lead to graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) or graft rejection...
- Expression of Myh9 in the mammalian cochlea: localization within the stereociliaAnand N Mhatre
Laboratory of Molecular Otology, Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
J Neurosci Res 84:809-18. 2006Mutations of non-muscle myosin Type IIA or MYH9 are linked to syndromic or nonsyndromic hearing loss. The biologic function of MYH9 in the auditory organ and the pathophysiology of its dysfunction remain to be determined...
- Plasma from a case of recurrent idiopathic FSGS perturbs non-muscle myosin IIA (MYH9 protein) in human podocytesSima Babayeva
Department of Medicine, McGill University, 3775 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A2B4, Canada
Pediatr Nephrol 26:1071-81. 2011The MYH9 gene encodes a non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain (NMMHC-IIA) expressed in podocytes...
- Regulated proteolysis of nonmuscle myosin IIA stimulates osteoclast fusionBrooke K McMichael
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
J Biol Chem 284:12266-75. 2009The nonmuscle myosin IIA heavy chain (Myh9) is strongly associated with adhesion structures of osteoclasts...
- MeniÃ¨re's disease as a late manifestation of congenital syphilisF Indesteege
ENT Department, Middelheim General Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 43:327-33. 1989..The value of a positive serological test (FTA - ABS or MHA - T.P.) in the presence of inner-ear symptoms is discussed.
- Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay technique for detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidumRita Castro
Unidade de Doenças Sexualmente Transmitidas, Centro de Malaria e Outras Doencas Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Lisbon, Portugal
J Clin Microbiol 41:250-3. 2003..were 100 and 93%, respectively, compared with the results of a microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) and 99...
- Of mice and men: Relevance of cellular and molecular characterizations of myosin IIA to MYH9-related human diseaseSharona Even-Ram
The Stem Cell Center, Goldyn Savad Institute of Gene Therapy, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
Cell Adh Migr 1:152-5. 2007..In humans, various mutations in the MYH9 gene that encodes the myosin IIA heavy chain cause autosomal dominant disease, whereas in mice, the complete ..
- Floccular modulation of vestibuloocular pathways and cerebellum-related plasticity: An in vitro whole brain studyA L Babalian
Laboratoire de la Neurobiologie des Réseaux Sensorimoteures, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
J Neurophysiol 84:2514-28. 2000..responses in abducens and oculomotor nerves and abducens nucleus; for identification of flocculus target neurons (FTNs) in the vestibular nuclei and intracellular study of some of their physiological properties; to search for possible ..
- Use of a novel serum ELISA method and the tonsil-carrier state for evaluation of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae distributions in pig herds with or without clinical arthritisElisabeth Okholm Nielsen
The National Committee for Pig Production, Danish Bacon and Meat Council, Axeltorv 3, 1609 Copenhagen V, Denmark
Vet Microbiol 111:41-50. 2005..hyosynoviae arthritis (MhA herds, n = 4) and in herds with M...
- MYH9 related disease: four novel mutations of the tail domain of myosin-9 correlating with a mild clinical phenotypeAlessandro Pecci
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia
Eur J Haematol 84:291-7. 2010b>MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene encoding the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA...
- [Expression and function of non-muscle myosin-IIA in Fechtner syndrome]Hai yan Yang
Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Hospital of Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006, Jiagnsu Province, China
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 16:871-4. 2008..IIA and IIB show obvious interaction, IIB partly compensates the IIA defect derived from MYH9 mutations, and may delay or prevent the development of clinically relevant abnormalities.
- MicroRNA let-7f inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting MYH9 in human gastric cancerShuli Liang
State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xi an, China
PLoS ONE 6:e18409. 2011..In this study, we investigate whether let-7f acts as a tumor suppressor to inhibit invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers...
- [Performance of different methods of oxacillin resistance detection in atypic strains of Staphylococcus aureus]F Hamdad
Service de Bacteriologie Hygiene, CHU d Amiens, France
Pathol Biol (Paris) 54:447-52. 2006..The diffusion method using the 5 microg oxacillin and 30 microg cefoxitin discs on Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) with and without NaCl, the incubation at 35 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 24 or 48 hours respectively, and the ..
- Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibodies in untreated early syphilisC M Marra
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle
Arch Neurol 52:68-72. 1995..cell count, protein, VDRL test, and antibodies to Treponema pallidum by microhemagglutination test for T pallidum (MHA-TP) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS); albumin ratio; and IgG index...
- On-column derivatization-capillary electrochromatography with o-phthalaldehyde/alkylthiol for assay of biogenic aminesShigeyuki Oguri
Laboratory of Food Science, Department of Home Economics, Aichi Gakusen University, 28 Kamikawanari, Hegoshi cho, Okazaki City 444 8520, Japan
J Chromatogr A 1044:271-6. 2004The elution behaviors of the biogenic amines, histamine (HA) and its metabolite methyl histamine (MHA), were evaluated by means of on-column derivatization (OCD)-capillary electrochromatography (CEC) which employed a monolithic ..
- The degradation of haem by carbon tetrachloride: metabolic activation requires a free axial coordination site on the haem iron and electron donationM Manno
Biochemical Pharmacology Section, Toxicology Unit, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Surrey, UK
Xenobiotica 19:1023-35. 1989..of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in vitro has been investigated under anaerobic conditions, using methaemalbumin (MHA) and either sodium dithionite or NADPH together with NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase (EC 1.6.2...
- Prevalence of neurosyphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with latent syphilisP D Holtom
Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center 90033
Am J Med 93:9-12. 1992..with latent syphilis (reactive serum rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and microhemagglutination-Treponema pallidum [MHA-TP])...
- [Comparison of susceptibilities for fosfomycin determined by various methods in clinical isolates in 2003 -2004]Hideaki Muramatsu
Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
Jpn J Antibiot 60:107-24. 2007..and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were determined by an agar dilution method using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp...
- Diverse patterns of T-cell response against multiple newly identified human Y chromosome-encoded minor histocompatibility epitopesYishai Ofran
Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Cancer Vaccine Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Clin Cancer Res 16:1642-51. 2010Donor T cells respond to minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA), resulting in both graft-versus-host disease and graft versus leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
- Viscum album agglutinin-I induces degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in leukaemia PLB-985 cells differentiated toward neutrophils: cleavage of non-muscle myosin heavy chain-IIA by caspasesValérie Lavastre
INRS Institut Armand Frappier, Universite du Quebec, Pointe Claire, QC, Canada
Br J Haematol 138:545-54. 2007..Therefore, PLB-985D cells may provide a suitable substitute for neutrophils in screening experiments, preventing extensive neutrophil cell isolation...
- Evaluation of the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination technique (TP.PA) in the diagnosis of neurosyphilisRita Castro
Unidade de Doenças Sexualmente Transmitidas Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
J Clin Lab Anal 20:233-8. 2006..Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies (MHA-TP), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-ABS (FTA-Abs) test for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis...
- Improved detection of vanB2-containing enterococcus faecium with vancomycin susceptibility by Etest using oxgall supplementationE A Grabsch
Microbiology Department, Austin Hospital, Studley Rd, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
J Clin Microbiol 46:1961-4. 2008..Etest detection of LM-VRE improved when Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) and brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) were supplemented with 10 g/liter oxgall (MHA-Oxg and BHIA-Oxg, respectively)...
- Recent advances in molecular pharmacology of the histamine systems: organic cation transporters as a histamine transporter and histamine metabolismMasahito Ogasawara
Division of Pharmacology, Department of Integrated Basic Medical Science, Ehime University School of Medicine, Toon, Japan
J Pharmacol Sci 101:24-30. 2006..After 60-min incubation of these cells with PBS including HA (100 microM), N(tau)-methylhistamine (MHA) concentration of the supernatants was determined by the HPLC-fluorometry method...
- The nucleoprotein of Pichinde virus expressed by a vaccinia-Pichinde virus recombinant partially protects hamsters from lethal virus challengeD Y Ozols
Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Arch Virol 139:23-36. 1994Syrian hamsters, strain MHA/Lak, are susceptible to intraperitoneal infection with Pichinde virus and die from an overwhelming viremia...
- Dental implants placed in extraction sites grafted with different bone substitutes: radiographic evaluation at 24 monthsRoberto Crespi
Department of Dentistry, Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
J Periodontol 80:1616-21. 2009..The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographic parameters of implants positioned in grafted alveoli with three different biomaterials: magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite (MHA), calcium sulfate (CS), and heterologous porcine bone (PB).
- Treponemal specific tests for the serodiagnosis of syphilis. Syphilis and HIV Study GroupM Augenbraun
SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA augenm23Ahscbklyn edu
Sex Transm Dis 25:549-52. 1998OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of concordance of the Microhemagglutination Assay for Antibodies to T. pallidum (MHA-TP) and the Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption test (FTA-ABS) prior to therapy in patients with early stage ..
- Is the direct quantitation of antibiotics in agar by high-performance liquid chromatography useful?C Arcelloni
Laboratory of Chromatography and Separative Techniques, IRCCS H S Raffaele, Milan, Italy
J Chromatogr A 812:111-6. 1998..Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) plates from three manufacturers were tested using HPLC and the disc diffusion test of ceftazidime (CAZ)...
- Rumen degradation and availability of various amounts of liquid methionine hydroxy analog in lactating dairy cowsK M Koenig
Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB
J Dairy Sci 85:930-8. 2002..2 g of a dry calcium salt of the analog (86% HMB; MHA) mixed with 0.5 kg of ground barley grain...
- Evaluation of the Etest method for determining fluconazole susceptibilities of 402 clinical yeast isolates by using three different agar mediaM A Pfaller
Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
J Clin Microbiol 36:2586-9. 1998..MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose (RPG), Casitone agar (CAS), and Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) and were read after incubation for 48 h at 35 degrees C...
- Cellular and Molecular Regulation of ThrombopoiesisRamesh Shivdasani; Fiscal Year: 2009..biological studies, genetic analysis in mice, and appreciation of congenital human thrombocytopenias such as the Myh9- related disorders...
- Cellular and Molecular Regulation of ThrombopoiesisRamesh A Shivdasani; Fiscal Year: 2010..biological studies, genetic analysis in mice, and appreciation of congenital human thrombocytopenias such as the Myh9- related disorders...
- Identifying the earliest events in HIV-1 associated nephropathy via genome-wideAli G Gharavi; Fiscal Year: 2010..to HIVAN has complex determination, with significant contribution from genetic variation in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9), a podocyte expressed gene...
- Basic FGF Low Affinity Receptors in HIVANPATRICIO ERNESTO RAY; Fiscal Year: 2010..screened for the presence of the HIV-genome, HBGF, HSPG, and genotyped to characterize a genetic variation in the MYH9 gene, encoding the non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain, that is associated with HIV-collapsing glomerulopathy in ..
- Microarray Analysis of H-Y Antibodies in Human TransplantationDavid Miklos; Fiscal Year: 2007..hematopoietic transplantation induces clinically relevant B-cell responses to minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA)...
- Identification of Minor Histocompatibility AntigensDavid Miklos; Fiscal Year: 2006Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA) are peptides derived from normal cellular proteins that are presented by major histocompatibility antigen (MHC) class I and class H molecules...
- Alloimmunization to mHAs by RBC TransfusionJAMES ZIMRING; Fiscal Year: 2007..provides a mechanism by which chronic transfusion of even stringently leukoreduced RBC may result in sufficient mHA immunization to increase the frequency of BMT rejection...
- IMMUNOGENETICS OF MARROW ALLOGRAFTINGJohn Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2006..and the definition of optimal criteria for donor selection, on the identification of minor histocompatability (mHA) that function as peptide ligands for alloreactive T cells, and on the development of new strategies for inducing ..
- Cellular Regulation of a Myosin II Heavy Chain KinasePaul Steimle; Fiscal Year: 2006..in myosin II bipolar filament assembly can lead to the development of pathologies such as platelet malformation and kidney function defects, associated with a set of human genetic diseases, collectively called MYH9-related disorders.
- Improving Inpatient Psychiatric Payment: Cost and Quality ImplicationsDONALD MICHAEL STEINWACHS; Fiscal Year: 2010..the State of Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC) and Maryland Mental Hygiene Administration (MHA)...
- Maryland Science to Service for Children and FamiliesALBERT ZACHIK; Fiscal Year: 2003..This grant will expand the capacity of the Mental Hygiene Administration (MHA)-sponsored Systems Evaluation Center at the University of Maryland Department of Psychiatry - which is already ..
- HISPANIC COR: TRAINING IN BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL RESEARCHGuillermo Bernal; Fiscal Year: 2007..orogram is based on the need to produce qualified researchers that can address the mental health and HIV/AIDS(MHA)-related problems facing contemporary society...
- Hispanic COR:Training in Biopsychosocial ResearchGuillermo Bernal; Fiscal Year: 2006..program is based on the need to produce qualified researchers who can address the mental health and HIV-AIDS (MHA) problems of contemporary society...
- Improving Inpatient Psychiatric Payment: Cost and Quality ImplicationsDonald Steinwachs; Fiscal Year: 2007..the State of Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC) and Maryland Mental Hygiene Administration (MHA)...
- OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM--NEURAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONWilliam King; Fiscal Year: 1999..neurons of the VOR are secondary vestibular neurons (currently called PVP units) and flocculus target neurons (FTNs)...