Gene Symbol: MYH1
Description: myosin heavy chain 1
Alias: HEL71, MYHSA1, MYHa, MyHC-2X/D, MyHC-2x, myosin-1, epididymis luminal protein 71, myHC-IIx/d, myosin heavy chain 2x, myosin heavy chain IIx/d, myosin heavy chain, skeletal muscle, adult 1, myosin, heavy chain 1, skeletal muscle, adult, myosin, heavy polypeptide 1, skeletal muscle, adult
Species: human
Products:     MYH1

Top Publications

  1. Sun C, Chen H, Guo W, Zhang K, Qi Q, Gu X, et al. A common mutation of the MYH gene is associated with increased DNA oxidation and age-related diseases. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:430-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for this genetic variation may have predictive value in assessing potential longevity of subjects in China, as well as in the Western world. ..
  2. Amilon K, Cortes Araya Y, Moore B, Lee S, Lillico S, Breton A, et al. Generation of Functional Myocytes from Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Reprogram. 2018;20:275-281 pubmed publisher
    ..MYH3 isoforms (at similar or lower levels than MPC myotubes), but they did not express the mature muscle isoform, MYH1. Compared to MPC myotubes, iPSC myotubes expressed reduced levels of the myogenic factors, MYOD1 and MYF6, but did ..
  3. Mathes S, Vanmunster M, Bloch W, Suhr F. Evidence for skeletal muscle fiber type-specific expressions of mechanosensors. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..precursor cells results in significantly increased slow-myosin-coding Myh7 gene, while the fast-myosin-coding genes Myh1, Myh2, and Myh4 are downregulated...
  4. Harafuji N, Schneiderat P, Walter M, Chen Y. miR-411 is up-regulated in FSHD myoblasts and suppresses myogenic factors. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013;8:55 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, expression of myogenic markers including Myod, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain 1 (Myh1) were suppressed by miR-411...
  5. Ahn J, Kim D, Park H, Han S, Hwang S, Cho I, et al. Ectopic Overexpression of Porcine Myh1 Increased in Slow Muscle Fibers and Enhanced Endurance Exercise in Transgenic Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms consist of Myh7, Myh2, Myh1, and Myh4, which are expressed in skeletal muscle tissues during postnatal development...
  6. Willis Owen S, Thompson A, Kemp P, Polkey M, Cookson W, Moffatt M, et al. COPD is accompanied by co-ordinated transcriptional perturbation in the quadriceps affecting the mitochondria and extracellular matrix. Sci Rep. 2018;8:12165 pubmed publisher
    ..Eighteen exhibited ?2fold changes (SLC22A3, FAM184B, CDKN1A, FST, LINC01405, MUSK, PANX1, ANKRD1, C12orf75, MYH1, POSTN, FRZB, TNC, ACTC1, LINC00310, MYH3, MYBPH and AREG)...
  7. Xiong X, Liu X, Zhou L, Yang J, Yang B, Ma H, et al. Genome-wide association analysis reveals genetic loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Chinese Laiwu pigs. Mamm Genome. 2015;26:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study revealed at least five novel QTLs and several candidate genes including 4-linked MYH genes (MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, and MYH13), MAL2, LPAR1, and PRKAG3 at four significant loci...
  8. Liu J, Xu H, Zhou H, Weir M, Chen Q, TROTMAN C. Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in novel macroporous and injectable fibrin for muscle tissue engineering. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:4688-97 pubmed publisher
    ..05). hUCMSCs in dMB35 had high gene expressions of myotube markers of myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3)...
  9. Doraczynska Kowalik A, Nelke K, Pawlak W, Sasiadek M, Gerber H. Genetic Factors Involved in Mandibular Prognathism. J Craniofac Surg. 2017;28:e422-e431 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH7, MYH8, FOXO3, NFATC1, PTGS2, KAT6B, HDAC4, and RUNX2 expression is suspected to be involved in ..

More Information


  1. Han D, Yang W, Kao T. Dexamethasone Treatment at the Myoblast Stage Enhanced C2C12 Myocyte Differentiation. Int J Med Sci. 2017;14:434-443 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of differentiation was determined by myh1, pax7, atrogin-1, and myostatin mRNA expression and fusion index...
  2. Miretti S, Volpe M, Martignani E, Accornero P, Baratta M. Temporal correlation between differentiation factor expression and microRNAs in Holstein bovine skeletal muscle. Animal. 2017;11:227-235 pubmed publisher
    ..During the subsequent 4 days of culture in DM, several tested genes, including MRF4, MYOG, MEF2C, TMEM8C, DES and MYH1, showed increased expression (P<0.05), and these levels remained high throughout the culture period investigated...
  3. Braga M, Simmons Z, Norris K, Ferrini M, Artaza J. Vitamin D induces myogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle derived stem cells. Endocr Connect. 2017;6:139-150 pubmed publisher
    ..induces increased expression of: (i) MYOD, (ii) MYOG, (iii) MYC2, (iv) skeletal muscle fast troponin I and T, (v) MYH1, (vi) IGF1 and 2, (vii) FGF1 and 2, (viii) BMP4, (ix) MMP9 and (x) FST...
  4. Ignacio D, Silvestre D, Anne Palmer E, Bocco B, Fonseca T, Ribeiro M, et al. Early Developmental Disruption of Type 2 Deiodinase Pathway in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Does Not Impair Muscle Function. Thyroid. 2017;27:577-586 pubmed publisher
    ..5) were about 54% of control littermates, but the expression of the T3-responsive genes Myh1 and 7 and Atp2a1 and 2 were not affected...
  5. Bortolini M, Feitosa S, Bilhar A, Salerno G, Zanoteli E, Simões M, et al. Molecular and histomorphological evaluation of female rats' urethral tissues after an innovative trauma model of prolonged vaginal distention: immediate, short-term and long-term effects. Int Urogynecol J. 2019;30:465-476 pubmed publisher
    ..NGF growth factors, collagens (COL1a1 and COL3a1), desmin, smooth muscle myosin (MYH11), skeletal muscle myosins (MYH1, MYH2 and MYH3) and cell proliferation marker MKi67. We used real-time RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry...
  6. Komatsu Y, Sukegawa S, Yamashita M, Katsuda N, Tong B, Ohta T, et al. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. J Genet. 2016;95:341-7 pubmed
    ..Three upregulated genes (EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7) in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 ..
  7. Mascarello F, Toniolo L, Cancellara P, Reggiani C, Maccatrozzo L. Expression and identification of 10 sarcomeric MyHC isoforms in human skeletal muscles of different embryological origin. Diversity and similarity in mammalian species. Ann Anat. 2016;207:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific patterns of expression of the following genes MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH8, MYH13, MYH14/7b and MYH15 were demonstrated in various muscle samples...
  8. Zou T, He D, Yu B, Yu J, Mao X, Zheng P, et al. Moderately increased maternal dietary energy intake delays foetal skeletal muscle differentiation and maturity in pigs. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55:1777-87 pubmed publisher
    ..HE diets decreased the mRNA abundance of muscle growth-related genes, myosin heavy-chain (MYH/MyHC) genes (MYH2 and MYH1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin growth factor-binding protein 5 (P < 0.05)...
  9. Pang M, Luo W, Fu B, Yu X, Zhou Y, Tong J. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus). Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..i>Tgf?, Nr4a1 and Tacr2) and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1,Myh14 and Igfbp7) were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of ..
  10. Lim K, Lee S, Lee E, Kim J, Hong K. Effects of intergenic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fast myosin heavy chain cluster on muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality in Berkshire pigs. Meat Sci. 2015;110:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The fast MyHC gene cluster on porcine chromosome 12 contains MYH2, MYH1, and MYH4, which encode three fast MyHC isoforms expressed in adult skeletal muscle...
  11. Zhang X, Chen Y, Pan J, Liu X, Chen H, Zhou X, et al. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals the distinct early embryo myofiber type characteristics involved in landrace and miniature pig. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:137 pubmed publisher
    ..breed-DEPs selected from last two stages were analyzed by STRING, which showed that some myofibrillar proteins (MYH1, TPM4, MYH10, etc.) and functional proteins (CSRP2, CASQ2, OTC, etc...
  12. Finno C, Gianino G, Perumbakkam S, Williams Z, Bordbari M, Gardner K, et al. A missense mutation in MYH1 is associated with susceptibility to immune-mediated myositis in Quarter Horses. Skelet Muscle. 2018;8:7 pubmed publisher
    ..IMM and four unaffected QHs identified a single segregating nonsynonymous E321G mutation in MYH1 encoding myosin heavy chain 2X. Genotyping of additional 35 IMM and 22 unaffected QHs confirmed an association (P = 2...
  13. Feinstein Linial M, Buvoli M, Buvoli A, Sadeh M, Dabby R, Straussberg R, et al. Two novel MYH7 proline substitutions cause Laing Distal Myopathy-like phenotypes with variable expressivity and neck extensor contracture. BMC Med Genet. 2016;17:57 pubmed publisher
    Human skeletal muscles express three major myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms: MyHCIIx (MYH1) in fast type 2B muscle fibers, MyHCIIa (MYH2) in fast type 2A fibers and MyHCI/?-cardiac MyHC (MYH7) in slow type I skeletal fibers and cardiac ..
  14. Ghosh M, Sodhi S, Sharma N, Mongre R, Kim N, Singh A, et al. An integrated in silico approach for functional and structural impact of non- synonymous SNPs in the MYH1 gene in Jeju Native Pigs. BMC Genet. 2016;17:35 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to identify the non- synonymous polymorphisms in the myosin heavy chain 1 gene (MYH1) association with skeletal muscle development in economically important Jeju Native Pig (JNP) and Berkshire breeds...
  15. Miller M, Bedrin N, Ades P, Palmer B, Toth M. Molecular determinants of force production in human skeletal muscle fibers: effects of myosin isoform expression and cross-sectional area. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015;308:C473-84 pubmed publisher
  16. Bouguen G, Manfredi S, Blayau M, Dugast C, Buecher B, Bonneau D, et al. Colorectal adenomatous polyposis Associated with MYH mutations: genotype and phenotype characteristics. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:1612-7 pubmed
    ..The phenotype of the disease is similar to attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy also should be recommended. However, its transmission shows evidence of a recessive pattern. ..
  17. Wu F, Zhang Z, Wan J, Gu S, Liu W, Jin X, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH and risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;233:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results suggested that polymorphisms at codons 83 of hMTH1 and codon 326 of hOGG1 might contribute to CBP in a Chinese occupational population. ..
  18. Avezzù A, Agostini M, Pucciarelli S, Lise M, Urso E, Mammi I, et al. The role of MYH gene in genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer: another piece of the puzzle. Cancer Lett. 2008;268:308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..11 (95% CI=0.90; 1.36), yet not reaching a significant evidence of increased CRC risk. ..
  19. Wooldridge A, Fortner C, Lontay B, Akimoto T, Neppl R, Facemire C, et al. Deletion of the protein kinase A/protein kinase G target SMTNL1 promotes an exercise-adapted phenotype in vascular smooth muscle. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11850-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest roles for SMTNL1 in cGMP/cAMP-mediated adaptations to exercise through mechanisms involving direct modulation of contractile activity. ..
  20. Molsted S, Eidemak I, Sorensen H, Kristensen J, Harrison A, Andersen J. Myosin heavy-chain isoform distribution, fibre-type composition and fibre size in skeletal muscle of patients on haemodialysis. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2007;41:539-45 pubmed
    ..Such a low percentage of type 1 fibres is very rarely observed in normal untrained subjects. Chronic uraemia more severely affects the composition than the size of fibres. ..
  21. Smerdu V, Karsch Mizrachi I, Campione M, Leinwand L, Schiaffino S. Type IIx myosin heavy chain transcripts are expressed in type IIb fibers of human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1994;267:C1723-8 pubmed
    ..Fiber typing by ATPase histochemistry shows that IIa MHC transcripts are more abundant in histochemical type IIa fibers, whereas IIx MHC transcripts are more abundant in histochemical type IIb fibers...
  22. Balaguer F, Castellvi Bel S, Castells A, Andreu M, Muñoz J, Gisbert J, et al. Identification of MYH mutation carriers in colorectal cancer: a multicenter, case-control, population-based study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:379-87 pubmed
  23. Jenkins M, Croitoru M, Monga N, Cleary S, Cotterchio M, Hopper J, et al. Risk of colorectal cancer in monoallelic and biallelic carriers of MYH mutations: a population-based case-family study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:312-4 pubmed
  24. Villacé P, Marion R, Ortin J. The composition of Staufen-containing RNA granules from human cells indicates their role in the regulated transport and translation of messenger RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:2411-20 pubmed
    ..These results support the notion that the hStaufen-containing granules are structures essential in the localization and regulated translation of human mRNAs in vivo...
  25. Kambara T, Whitehall V, Spring K, Barker M, Arnold S, Wynter C, et al. Role of inherited defects of MYH in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;40:1-9 pubmed
    ..02). These results suggest that single germ-line variants of MYH may influence genetic pathways in CRC. ..
  26. Korfage J, Brugman P, van Eijden T. Intermuscular and intramuscular differences in myosin heavy chain composition of the human masticatory muscles. J Neurol Sci. 2000;178:95-106 pubmed
  27. Shyy W, Wang K, Sheffield V, Morcuende J. Evaluation of embryonic and perinatal myosin gene mutations and the etiology of congenital idiopathic clubfoot. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010;30:231-4 pubmed publisher
  28. Cvetko E, Karen P, Erzen I. Wearing of complete dentures reduces slow fibre and enhances hybrid fibre fraction in masseter muscle. J Oral Rehabil. 2012;39:608-14 pubmed publisher
  29. Saez L, Leinwand L. Characterization of diverse forms of myosin heavy chain expressed in adult human skeletal muscle. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:2951-69 pubmed
    ..However, there is no homology between the 3' untranslated region of cardiac and skeletal muscle MHCs. Isotype-specific preservation of MHC 3' untranslated sequences during evolution suggests a functional role for these regions. ..
  30. Leinwand L, Saez L, McNally E, Nadal Ginard B. Isolation and characterization of human myosin heavy chain genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:3716-20 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these genes may be useful to study gene evolution and repetitive sequence transposition. ..
  31. Daugaard J, Nielsen J, Kristiansen S, Andersen J, Hargreaves M, Richter E. Fiber type-specific expression of GLUT4 in human skeletal muscle: influence of exercise training. Diabetes. 2000;49:1092-5 pubmed
  32. Pontén E, Stål P. Decreased capillarization and a shift to fast myosin heavy chain IIx in the biceps brachii muscle from young adults with spastic paresis. J Neurol Sci. 2007;253:25-33 pubmed
  33. Sulova M, Zidkova K, Kleibl Z, Stekrova J, Kebrdlova V, Bortlik M, et al. Mutation analysis of the MYH gene in unrelated Czech APC mutation-negative polyposis patients. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:1617-21 pubmed
    ..494 A>G (p.Y165C); c.1,145 G>A (p.G382D). These variants are established to be associated with adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer. No novel pathogenic mutation has been identified in our study. ..
  34. Pontén E, Lindström M, Kadi F. Higher amount of MyHC IIX in a wrist flexor in tetraplegic compared to hemiplegic cerebral palsy. J Neurol Sci. 2008;266:51-6 pubmed
    ..005). Taken together theses results indicate that tetraplegic CP is associated with a shift from slow to fast myosins and that regenerative events are more prominent in tetraplegic CP compared with milder brain damage. ..
  35. Lefevre J, Parc Y, Svrcek M, Kerneis S, Colas C, Shields C, et al. APC, MYH, and the correlation genotype-phenotype in colorectal polyposis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:871-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This two-way analysis did not show any correlation that might help to identify a subgroup of patients with APC mutation that may be considered attenuated. It is more likely that the MAP syndrome is the real AFAP. ..
  36. Yoon S, Seiler S, Kucherlapati R, Leinwand L. Organization of the human skeletal myosin heavy chain gene cluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:12078-82 pubmed
    ..1. Six MYH genes were located within a 500-kilobase segment of human DNA. The order of the genes within this cluster does not correspond to the developmental pattern of expression of individual members. ..
  37. Olsson A, Rönn T, Elgzyri T, Hansson O, Eriksson K, Groop L, et al. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) genes in human skeletal muscle is related to metabolic characteristics involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;103:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the expression levels of the MHC genes are associated with age and both PGC-1? and PGC-1? and indicate that the MHC genes may to some extent be used to determine fibre-type composition in human skeletal muscle. ..
  38. Daugherty M, Luo Q, Sokoloff A. Myosin heavy chain composition of the human genioglossus muscle. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2012;55:609-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite activation of GG during kinematically diverse behaviors and complex patterns of GG motor unit activity, the human GG is composed of conventional MHC isoforms and 3 primary MHC phenotypes. ..
  39. Yang Y, Fiskus W, Yong B, Atadja P, Takahashi Y, Pandita T, et al. Acetylated hsp70 and KAP1-mediated Vps34 SUMOylation is required for autophagosome creation in autophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1/3 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts MEFs. These findings highlight a regulatory mechanism of Vps34 activity, which involves acetylated hsp70 and KAP1-dependent SUMOylation of Vps34 bound to Beclin 1. ..
  40. Olschwang S, Vernerey D, Cottet V, Pariente A, Nalet B, Lafon J, et al. Analysis of candidate genes in occurrence and growth of colorectal adenomas. J Oncol. 2009;2009:306786 pubmed publisher
    ..04, exact test) but not its occurrence. This result needs to be replicated and genome-wide association studies may be necessary to fully identify low-penetrance alleles involved in early stages of colorectal tumorigenesis. ..
  41. Olschwang S, Blanche H, de Moncuit C, Thomas G. Similar colorectal cancer risk in patients with monoallelic and biallelic mutations in the MYH gene identified in a population with adenomatous polyposis. Genet Test. 2007;11:315-20 pubmed
    ..From age 25-30, MYH mutation carriers should be proposed an early screening program, which includes endoscopies of the upper digestive tract and the colorectum every 2 years. ..
  42. Kim J, Ka I, Lee Y, Koo K, Kim H, Yu C, et al. MYH, OGG1, MTH1, and APC alterations involved in the colorectal tumorigenesis of Korean patients with multiple adenomas. Virchows Arch. 2007;450:311-9 pubmed
    ..Some BER variants involved in specific APC mutations are associated with characteristics of histogenesis other than altered mismatch repair or p53 pathway. ..
  43. Zhang Y, Liu X, Fan Y, Ding J, Xu A, Zhou X, et al. Germline mutations and polymorphic variants in MMR, E-cadherin and MYH genes associated with familial gastric cancer in Jiangsu of China. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:2592-6 pubmed
    ..Leu390Phe. In summary, germline mutation at MSH2, MLH1, E-cadherin and MYH genes is a frequent event in the familial GC. They may form a genetic basis for the familial GC susceptibility in Chinese population. ..
  44. Baudhuin L, Roberts L, Enders F, Swanson R, Mettler T, Aderca I, et al. MYH Y165C and G382D mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:159-62 pubmed
    ..Patients with HCC or cholangiocarcinoma do not have an increased incidence of monoallelic MYH mutations pre-disposing them to disease. ..
  45. Cassar Malek I, Boby C, Picard B, Reverter A, Hudson N. Molecular regulation of high muscle mass in developing Blonde d'Aquitaine cattle foetuses. Biol Open. 2017;6:1483-1492 pubmed publisher
    ..breeds reflected the replacement of embryonic myosin isoforms (MYL4, MYH3) with adult isoforms (MYH1) and the upregulation of mitochondrial metabolism (CKMT2, AGXT2L1) in preparation for birth...
  46. Leite J, Isidro G, Martins M, Regateiro F, Albuquerque O, Amaro P, et al. Is prophylactic colectomy indicated in patients with MYH-associated polyposis?. Colorectal Dis. 2005;7:327-31 pubmed
    ..The identification of MYH associated polyposis is important to evaluate the level of risk, particularly for the siblings. ..
  47. Konig S, Burkman J, Fitzgerald J, Mitchell M, Su L, Stedman H. Modular organization of phylogenetically conserved domains controlling developmental regulation of the human skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27593-605 pubmed
  48. Qiu X, Chen D, Li M, Gao Y, Liu F, Zheng H, et al. Transition of myosin heavy chain isoforms in human laryngeal abductors following denervation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;272:2915-23 pubmed publisher
  49. Weiss A, Schiaffino S, Leinwand L. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete human sarcomeric myosin heavy chain family: implications for functional diversity. J Mol Biol. 1999;290:61-75 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that functional diversity among MyHCs is likely to be accomplished by having small pockets of sequence diversity in an otherwise highly conserved molecule. ..
  50. Weiss A, McDonough D, Wertman B, Acakpo Satchivi L, Montgomery K, Kucherlapati R, et al. Organization of human and mouse skeletal myosin heavy chain gene clusters is highly conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2958-63 pubmed