MxA

Summary

Gene Symbol: MxA
Description: MX dynamin like GTPase 1
Alias: IFI-78K, IFI78, MxA, interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1, interferon-induced protein p78, interferon-inducible protein p78, interferon-regulated resistance GTP-binding protein MxA, myxoma resistance protein 1, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78
Species: human
Products:     MxA

Top Publications

  1. Haller O, Staeheli P, Kochs G. Interferon-induced Mx proteins in antiviral host defense. Biochimie. 2007;89:812-8 pubmed
    ..The human MxA GTPase accumulates in the cytoplasm and is partly associated with a COP-I-positive subcompartment of the ..
  2. Pavlovic J, Haller O, Staeheli P. Human and mouse Mx proteins inhibit different steps of the influenza virus multiplication cycle. J Virol. 1992;66:2564-9 pubmed
    Human MxA and mouse Mx1 are interferon-induced proteins capable of inhibiting the multiplication of influenza virus. MxA protein is localized in the cytoplasm, whereas Mx1 protein accumulates in the nucleus...
  3. Peltekian C, Gordien E, Garreau F, Meas Yedid V, Soussan P, Willams V, et al. Human MxA protein participates to the interferon-related inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication in female transgenic mice. J Hepatol. 2005;43:965-72 pubmed
    The interferon (IFN) inducible MxA protein is endowed with antiviral activity against a broad range of RNA viruses...
  4. Gao S, von der Malsburg A, Dick A, Faelber K, Schröder G, Haller O, et al. Structure of myxovirus resistance protein a reveals intra- and intermolecular domain interactions required for the antiviral function. Immunity. 2011;35:514-25 pubmed publisher
    Human myxovirus resistance protein 1 (MxA) is an interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPase that acts as a cell-autonomous host restriction factor against many viral pathogens including influenza viruses...
  5. Serana F, Imberti L, Amato M, Comi G, Gasperini C, Ghezzi A, et al. MxA mRNA quantification and disability progression in interferon beta-treated multiple sclerosis patients. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94794 pubmed publisher
    ..beta (IFN?) antibodies are the main determinants of IFN? bioactivity loss and Myxovirus-resistance protein A (MxA) is the most established marker of IFN? biological activity in IFN?-treated multiple sclerosis patients, their ..
  6. Aebi M, Fah J, Hurt N, Samuel C, Thomis D, Bazzigher L, et al. cDNA structures and regulation of two interferon-induced human Mx proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:5062-72 pubmed
    ..as a hybridization probe, we have isolated cDNA clones originating from two distinct human Mx genes, designated MxA and MxB...
  7. Hijikata M, Mishiro S, Miyamoto C, Furuichi Y, Hashimoto M, Ohta Y. Genetic polymorphism of the MxA gene promoter and interferon responsiveness of hepatitis C patients: revisited by analyzing two SNP sites (-123 and -88) in vivo and in vitro. Intervirology. 2001;44:379-82 pubmed
    ..position -88 (G or T) within an interferon-stimulated response element-like sequence in the promoter region of the MxA gene, which correlated with responsiveness of hepatitis C patients to interferon...
  8. Fernandez M, Quiroga J, Carreno V. Hepatitis B virus downregulates the human interferon-inducible MxA promoter through direct interaction of precore/core proteins. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:2073-82 pubmed
    The human MxA protein is an interferon (IFN)-inducible GTPase with proven antiviral activity against diverse viruses. IFN responsiveness is impaired in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
  9. Knapp S, Yee L, Frodsham A, Hennig B, Hellier S, Zhang L, et al. Polymorphisms in interferon-induced genes and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection: roles of MxA, OAS-1 and PKR. Genes Immun. 2003;4:411-9 pubmed
    ..the expression of a number of genes encoding enzymes with antiviral activities, including myxovirus resistance-1 (MxA), 2-5-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Torisu H, Kusuhara K, Kira R, Bassuny W, Sakai Y, Sanefuji M, et al. Functional MxA promoter polymorphism associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neurology. 2004;62:457-60 pubmed
    The antivirally active MxA protein is induced by interferon (IFN) alpha/beta and inhibits the replication of single-stranded RNA viruses including measles virus (MV)...
  2. Suzuki F, Arase Y, Suzuki Y, Tsubota A, Akuta N, Hosaka T, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the MxA gene promoter influences the response to interferon monotherapy in patients with hepatitis C viral infection. J Viral Hepat. 2004;11:271-6 pubmed
    ..of intracellular antiviral proteins, such as 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA protein. Among these, MxA protein is assumed to be the most specific surrogate parameter for IFN action...
  3. Spiegel M, Pichlmair A, Mühlberger E, Haller O, Weber F. The antiviral effect of interferon-beta against SARS-coronavirus is not mediated by MxA protein. J Clin Virol. 2004;30:211-3 pubmed
    ..Interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma, by contrast, were less effective. The human MxA protein is one of the most prominent proteins induced by interferon-beta...
  4. Hamano E, Hijikata M, Itoyama S, Quy T, Phi N, Long H, et al. Polymorphisms of interferon-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA associated with SARS in the Vietnamese population. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:1234-9 pubmed
    ..single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1), myxovirus resistance-A (MxA), and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in 44 Vietnamese SARS patients with 103 controls...
  5. Yu Z, Wang Z, Chen J, Li H, Lin Z, Zhang F, et al. GTPase activity is not essential for the interferon-inducible MxA protein to inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1677-84 pubmed publisher
    Multiple studies have established that GTPase activity is critical for MxA to act against RNA viruses...
  6. Airo P, Ghidini C, Zanotti C, Scarsi M, Cattaneo R, Caimi L, et al. Upregulation of myxovirus-resistance protein A: a possible marker of type I interferon induction in systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:2192-200 pubmed
    To examine whether myxovirus-resistance protein A (MxA) mRNA expression, commonly considered a reliable marker of Type I interferon (IFN) bioactivity, is modified in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc); if it is associated to ..
  7. Welzel T, Morgan T, Bonkovsky H, Naishadham D, Pfeiffer R, Wright E, et al. Variants in interferon-alpha pathway genes and response to pegylated interferon-Alpha2a plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the hepatitis C antiviral long-term treatment against cirrhosis trial. Hepatology. 2009;49:1847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..006). Genetic polymorphisms in the interferon-alpha pathway may affect responses to antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C. ..
  8. van der Voort L, Vennegoor A, Visser A, Knol D, Uitdehaag B, Barkhof F, et al. Spontaneous MxA mRNA level predicts relapses in patients with recently diagnosed MS. Neurology. 2010;75:1228-33 pubmed publisher
    To determine if myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) mRNA is related to clinical disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  9. Haller O, Kochs G. Human MxA protein: an interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPase with broad antiviral activity. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011;31:79-87 pubmed publisher
    The human myxovirus resistance protein 1 (MxA) is a key mediator of the interferon-induced antiviral response against a wide range of viruses...
  10. Matzinger S, Carroll T, Dutra J, Ma Z, Miller C. Myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) expression suppresses influenza A virus replication in alpha interferon-treated primate cells. J Virol. 2013;87:1150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The human ISG MxA can inhibit influenza A virus replication in mouse cells by interfering with a step in the virus replication cycle ..
  11. Turan K, Mibayashi M, Sugiyama K, Saito S, Numajiri A, Nagata K. Nuclear MxA proteins form a complex with influenza virus NP and inhibit the transcription of the engineered influenza virus genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:643-52 pubmed
    ..Earlier studies show that nuclear mouse Mx1 and human MxA designed to be localized in the nucleus inhibit the transcription step of the influenza virus genome...
  12. Kaji K, Factor V, Andersen J, Durkin M, Tomokuni A, Marquardt J, et al. DNMT1 is a required genomic regulator for murine liver histogenesis and regeneration. Hepatology. 2016;64:582-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatology 2016;64:582-598). ..
  13. Liu L, Wan X, Zhou P, Zhou X, Zhang W, Hui X, et al. The chromatin remodeling subunit Baf200 promotes normal hematopoiesis and inhibits leukemogenesis. J Hematol Oncol. 2018;11:27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our current studies uncover critical roles of Baf200 in both normal and malignant hematopoiesis and provide a potential therapeutic target for suppressing the progression of leukemia without interfering with normal hematopoiesis. ..
  14. Hamel R, Dejarnac O, Wichit S, Ekchariyawat P, Neyret A, Luplertlop N, et al. Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells. J Virol. 2015;89:8880-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results provide the first general insights into the interaction between ZIKV and its mammalian host. ..
  15. Zhao Y, Valbuena G, Walker D, Gazi M, Hidalgo M, DeSousa R, et al. Endothelial Cell Proteomic Response to Rickettsia conorii Infection Reveals Activation of the Janus Kinase (JAK)-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-Inferferon Stimulated Gene (ISG)15 Pathway and Reprogramming Plasma Membrane Inte. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016;15:289-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These patterns of differentially expressed proteins suggest mechanisms of pathogenesis as well as methods for diagnosis and monitoring Rickettsia infections. ..
  16. Solomon I, De Girolami U, Chettimada S, Misra V, Singer E, Gabuzda D. Brain and liver pathology, amyloid deposition, and interferon responses among older HIV-positive patients in the late HAART era. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:151 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerebrovascular disease, interferon responses, and neuroinflammation are likely factors contributing to brain aging and HAND in older HIV+ patients on current HAART regimens. ..
  17. Kroetz D, Allen R, Schaller M, Cavallaro C, Ito T, Kunkel S. Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005338 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings identify Setdb2 as a novel regulator of the immune system in acute respiratory viral infection. ..
  18. Shin D, Lee J, Park J, Min J. Double Plant Homeodomain Fingers 2 (DPF2) Promotes the Immune Escape of Influenza Virus by Suppressing Beta Interferon Production. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..high levels of several cytokines/chemokines (interleukin-8 [IL-8], IP-10, and IL-6) and antiviral proteins (MxA and ISG56) were produced by DPF2 knockdown cells...
  19. Davoodi S, Cooke R, Fernandes A, Cappellozza B, Vasconcelos J, Cerri R. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows. Theriogenology. 2016;85:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects seem to be more evident in the endometrium during the time of dynamic remodeling for embryo implantation. ..
  20. Komeno Y, Huang Y, Qiu J, Lin L, Xu Y, Zhou Y, et al. SRSF2 Is Essential for Hematopoiesis, and Its Myelodysplastic Syndrome-Related Mutations Dysregulate Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3071-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that intact SRSF2 is essential for the functional integrity of the hematopoietic system and that its mutations likely contribute to development of myelodysplastic syndromes. ..
  21. Macparland S, Ma X, Chen L, Khattar R, Cherepanov V, Selzner M, et al. Lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibit Interferon Signaling in Hepatocytes by Increasing Ubiquitin-Like Protease 18 (USP18) Expression. J Virol. 2016;90:5549-5560 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings represent a new paradigm for how inflammation alters hepatic innate immune responses, with the induction of USP18 representing a potential target for intervention in various inflammatory states. ..
  22. Ohnishi J, Ayuzawa S, Nakamura S, Sakamoto S, Hori M, Sasaoka T, et al. Distinct transcriptional and metabolic profiles associated with empathy in Buddhist priests: a pilot study. Hum Genomics. 2017;11:21 pubmed publisher
    ..The up-regulation of the anti-viral type I IFN responsive genes and distinct metabolites in the plasma may represent systemic biological adaptations with a unique signature underlying spiritual/religious practices for Buddhists. ..
  23. Eissa N, Wang H, Yao H, Abou ElGheit E. Mixed Bacillus Species Enhance the Innate Immune Response and Stress Tolerance in Yellow Perch Subjected to Hypoxia and Air-Exposure Stress. Sci Rep. 2018;8:6891 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are warranted to investigate the correlations between the aquaculture practices and disease resistance in yellow perch. ..
  24. Kraus A, Raftery M, Giese T, Ulrich R, Zawatzky R, Hippenstiel S, et al. Differential antiviral response of endothelial cells after infection with pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses. J Virol. 2004;78:6143-50 pubmed
    ..Most strikingly, the antiviral MxA protein, which interferes with hantavirus replication, was already induced 16 h after infection with TULV...
  25. Tang G, Tang M, Song L, Zhang Y. Biosynthesis of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antibiotics. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16:1717-26 pubmed
    ..The proposal of the THIQ biosynthetic pathway not only shows nature's route to generate such complex molecules, but also set the stage to develop a different process for production of ET-743 by synthetic biology. ..
  26. Damnernsawad A, Kong G, Wen Z, Liu Y, Rajagopalan A, You X, et al. Kras is Required for Adult Hematopoiesis. Stem Cells. 2016;34:1859-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Kras is a major regulator of TPO and GM-CSF signaling in specific populations of hematopoietic cells and its function is required for adult hematopoiesis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1859-1871. ..
  27. Sayad A, Ghafouri Fard S, Omrani M, Noroozi R, Taheri M. Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) polymorphism is associated with IFNβ response in Iranian multiple sclerosis patients. Neurol Sci. 2017;38:1093-1099 pubmed publisher
    ..Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is among the genes which are induced by IFNβ and are involved in the MS pathogenesis and/or response to IFNβ...
  28. Mitchell P, Patzina C, Emerman M, Haller O, Malik H, Kochs G. Evolution-guided identification of antiviral specificity determinants in the broadly acting interferon-induced innate immunity factor MxA. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:598-604 pubmed publisher
    b>MxA is an interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPase with wide-ranging antiviral activity, which hinges upon detection of unique viral structures that differ across virus families...
  29. Domagalski K, Pawłowska M, Kozielewicz D, Dybowska D, Tretyn A, Halota W. The Impact of IL28B Genotype and Liver Fibrosis on the Hepatic Expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 and Their Association with Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130899 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of IP10 is positive and independent from IL28B prediction of SVR, which is strongly associated with liver fibrosis in CHC patients. ..
  30. Liu F, Gao X, Wang J, Gao C, Li X, Li X, et al. Transcriptome Sequencing to Identify Transcription Factor Regulatory Network and Alternative Splicing in Endothelial Cells Under VEGF Stimulation. J Mol Neurosci. 2016;58:170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF might influence HUVECs proliferation and migration, as well as angiogenesis process by regulating the expression of ISG15, MX1, CCL2, FN1, and ADORA2A. However, more research studies are still required to verify these predictions. ..
  31. Wu Y, Chiu D, Lin H, Tang H, Cheng M, Ho H. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enhances Antiviral Response through Downregulation of NADPH Sensor HSCARG and Upregulation of NF-κB Signaling. Viruses. 2015;7:6689-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the increased susceptibility of the G6PD-knockdown cells to viral infection was due to impaired NF-κB signaling and antiviral response mediated by HSCARG. ..
  32. Lee H, Lee S, Bae H, Kang H, Kim S. Genome-wide identification of target genes for miR-204 and miR-211 identifies their proliferation stimulatory role in breast cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25287 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that miR-204/211 serve to increase cell proliferation at least in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by downregulating tumor suppressor genes. ..
  33. Verhelst J, Van Hoecke L, Spitaels J, De Vlieger D, Kolpe A, Saelens X. Chemical-controlled Activation of Antiviral Myxovirus Resistance Protein 1. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:2226-2236 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a model in which mouse MX1 interacts with the incoming influenza A vRNPs and inhibits their activity by disrupting the PB2-NP interaction. ..
  34. Zhao G, Liu L, Su B, Zhang T, Chen P, Li W, et al. The dynamic changes of interferon lambdas related genes and proteins in JAK/STAT pathway in both acute and chronic HIV-1 infected patients. AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:31 pubmed publisher
    ..The dynamic changes of IFNs related genes in JAK-STAT pathway in acute HIV-1 infection will deepen our understanding of the roles of IFN-lambdas in HIV pathogenesis. ..
  35. Huang Y, Chou M, Du Y, Huang C, Wu C, Chen C, et al. Expression of toll-like receptors and type 1 interferon specific protein MxA in biliary atresia. Lab Invest. 2007;87:66-74 pubmed
    ..transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to quantitate TLR, type I interferon specific molecule MxA, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry for TLR 7 and MxA protein staining...
  36. Brown S, Knowell A, Hunt A, Patel D, Bhosle S, Chaudhary J. Interferon inducible antiviral MxA is inversely associated with prostate cancer and regulates cell cycle, invasion and Docetaxel induced apoptosis. Prostate. 2015;75:266-79 pubmed publisher
    The interferon inducible Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance A (MxA) is considered as a key mediator of the interferon-induced antiviral response...
  37. Yuan B, Fang H, Shen C, Zheng C. Expression of porcine Mx1 with FMDV IRES enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in PK-15 cells. Arch Virol. 2015;160:1989-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The new construct reported here could be used as a novel effective therapy against FMDV infection. ..
  38. Razali N, Abdul Aziz A, Lim C, Mat Junit S. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells. Peerj. 2015;3:e1292 pubmed publisher
  39. Caballero I, Honko A, Gire S, Winnicki S, Mele M, Gerhardinger C, et al. In vivo Ebola virus infection leads to a strong innate response in circulating immune cells. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:707 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is in stark contrast to in vitro evidence showing a suppression of innate immune signaling, and it suggests that the strong innate response we observe in infected animals may be an important contributor to pathogenesis. ..
  40. Huang C, Chou C, Lien H, Chu C, Ho J, Wu Y, et al. IRF9-Stat2 Fusion Protein as an Innate Immune Inducer to Activate Mx and Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression in Zebrafish Larvae. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2017;19:310-319 pubmed publisher
    ..zIRF9-S2C raises transcription of Mxa, Mxb, Mxc, Ifnφ1, Ifnφ2, and Ifnφ3 in zebrafish liver ((ZFL) cell line) cells and zebrafish larvae...
  41. Horisberger M, McMaster G, Zeller H, Wathelet M, Dellis J, Content J. Cloning and sequence analyses of cDNAs for interferon- and virus-induced human Mx proteins reveal that they contain putative guanine nucleotide-binding sites: functional study of the corresponding gene promoter. J Virol. 1990;64:1171-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we showed that these proteins, as well as the homologous mouse Mx protein, possess three consensus elements in proper spacing, characteristic of GTP-binding proteins. ..
  42. Weitz G, Bekisz J, Zoon K, Arnheiter H. Purification and characterization of a human Mx protein. J Interferon Res. 1989;9:679-89 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, unlike the mouse Mx protein, the human Mx protein studied in this communication may not be sufficient to confer to cells a high degree of protection against influenza virus. ..
  43. Pitossi F, Blank A, Schroder A, Schwarz A, Hüssi P, Schwemmle M, et al. A functional GTP-binding motif is necessary for antiviral activity of Mx proteins. J Virol. 1993;67:6726-32 pubmed
    ..Here, we have introduced mutations into the tripartite GTP-binding consensus elements of the human MxA and mouse Mx1 proteins...
  44. Bridgen A, Dalrymple D, Weber F, Elliott R. Inhibition of Dugbe nairovirus replication by human MxA protein. Virus Res. 2004;99:47-50 pubmed
    Sensitivity to the interferon-induced protein, MxA, has previously been demonstrated for viruses belonging to the Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus genera of the Bunyaviridae family...
  45. Dick A, Graf L, Olal D, von der Malsburg A, Gao S, Kochs G, et al. Role of nucleotide binding and GTPase domain dimerization in dynamin-like myxovirus resistance protein A for GTPase activation and antiviral activity. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:12779-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Human MxA (also called MX1) is expressed in the cytoplasm and is partly associated with membranes of the smooth endoplasmic ..
  46. Larruskain A, Esparza Baquer A, Minguijón E, Juste R, Jugo B. SNPs in candidate genes MX dynamin-like GTPase and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-5 are associated with ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma progression in Latxa sheep. Anim Genet. 2015;46:666-75 pubmed publisher
  47. Zhijian Y, Zhen H, Fan Z, Jin Y, Qiwen D, Zhongming Z. Hepatitis B virus core protein with hot-spot mutations inhibit MxA gene transcription but has no effect on inhibition of virus replication by interferon ?. Virol J. 2010;7:278 pubmed publisher
    ..reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can inhibit the transcription of human interferon-induced MxA gene...
  48. Ciancanelli M, Abel L, Zhang S, Casanova J. Host genetics of severe influenza: from mouse Mx1 to human IRF7. Curr Opin Immunol. 2016;38:109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Next generation sequencing of human exomes and genomes will facilitate the analysis of the human genetic determinism of severe influenza. ..
  49. Miller M, Rosten P, Lemieux M, Lai C, Humphries R. Meis1 Is Required for Adult Mouse Erythropoiesis, Megakaryopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151584 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression analyses point to a number of candidate genes involved in Meis1's role in hematopoiesis. Our data additionally support recent evidence of a role of Meis1 in ROS regulation. ..
  50. Monteleone K, Scheri G, Statzu M, Selvaggi C, Falasca F, Giustini N, et al. IFN-stimulated gene expression is independent of the IFNL4 genotype in chronic HIV-1 infection. Arch Virol. 2016;161:3263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..out genotyping analysis and measured the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) (myxovirus resistance protein A [MxA], ISG15, ISG56, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like [APOBEC] 3F and APOBEC3G) on ..
  51. Nigg P, Pavlovic J. Characterization of Multi-subunit Protein Complexes of Human MxA Using Non-denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel-electrophoresis. J Vis Exp. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..The interferon-induced antiviral effector protein MxA exerts a broad antiviral activity against many viruses...
  52. Feng Y, Zheng M, Gan S, Zhang L, Wan Z, Zhang Y, et al. Identification of potential gene targets in systemic vasculitis using DNA microarray analysis. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:3665-3673 pubmed publisher
    ..Various genes, including FOS, UBB, MX1, STAT1, MAFB, and YWHAZ may be potential targets useful for the treatment of systemic vasculitis. ..
  53. Glymph S, Mandal S, Knowell A, Abebe F, Chaudhary J. The myxovirus resistance A (MxA) gene -88G>T single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with prostate cancer. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;16:186-90 pubmed publisher
    Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance A (MxA) is an interferon stimulated antiviral protein that is required for a complete antiviral response...
  54. Bader El Din N, Salum G, Anany M, Ibrahim M, Dawood R, Zayed N, et al. Association of Myxovirus Resistance Gene Promoter Polymorphism with Response to Combined Interferon Treatment and Progression of Liver Disease in Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2015;35:641-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphism at the -88 myxovirus resistance (MxA) gene promoter region in relation to the status of hepatitis C virus (HCV) progression and response to combined interferon (IFN) in chronic ..
  55. Fernández Trujillo M, García Rosado E, Alonso M, Álvarez M, Béjar J. Synergistic effects in the antiviral activity of the three Mx proteins from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2015;168:83-90 pubmed publisher
  56. Ovsyannikova I, Salk H, Larrabee B, Pankratz V, Poland G. Single nucleotide polymorphisms/haplotypes associated with multiple rubella-specific immune response outcomes post-MMR immunization in healthy children. Immunogenetics. 2015;67:547-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will aid our understanding of mechanisms behind rubella-specific immune response to MMR vaccine and influence the development of vaccines in the future. ..
  57. Cao Z, Xia Z, Zhou Y, Yang X, Hao H, Peng N, et al. Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 potentiates RLR-induced NF-?B signaling by targeting MAVS complex. Sci Rep. 2016;6:33557 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that MCCC1 plays an essential role in virus-triggered, MAVS-mediated activation of NF-?B signaling. ..
  58. Tazi Ahnini R, di Giovine F, McDonagh A, Messenger A, Amadou C, Cox A, et al. Structure and polymorphism of the human gene for the interferon-induced p78 protein (MX1): evidence of association with alopecia areata in the Down syndrome region. Hum Genet. 2000;106:639-45 pubmed
    ..MX1 is the gene encoding the interferon-induced p78 protein (MxA)...
  59. Li M, Yang N, Huang X, Zhao Z, Zhang J, Liu X, et al. [The correlation of myxovirus resistance 1 and 2'5'-ollgoadenylate synthetase 1 with clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;40:268-71 pubmed
    ..006). The expression levels of both MX1 and OAS1 in SLE patients are up-regulated, the expression levels of OAS1 genes are associated with SLE disease activity. As IFN-induced genes, MX1 and OAS1 play their respective role in SLE. ..
  60. Doehle B, Chang K, Fleming L, McNevin J, Hladik F, McElrath M, et al. Vpu-deficient HIV strains stimulate innate immune signaling responses in target cells. J Virol. 2012;86:8499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations show that HIV-1 can indeed be recognized as a pathogen in infected cells and provide a novel and effective platform for defining the native innate immune programs of target cells of HIV-1 infection. ..
  61. Hammerstad S, Jahnsen F, Tauriainen S, Hyoty H, Paulsen T, Norheim I, et al. Immunological changes and increased expression of myxovirus resistance protein a in thyroid tissue of patients with recent onset and untreated Graves' disease. Thyroid. 2014;24:537-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The production of interferon-inducible myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) was analyzed as a sign of virus infection...
  62. Hoenen A, Gillespie L, Morgan G, van der Heide P, Khromykh A, Mackenzie J. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein. Virology. 2014;448:104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular ..
  63. Croner R, Sturzl M, Rau T, Metodieva G, Geppert C, Naschberger E, et al. Quantitative proteome profiling of lymph node-positive vs. -negative colorectal carcinomas pinpoints MX1 as a marker for lymph node metastasis. Int J Cancer. 2014;135:2878-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified proteins can give insights into the mechanisms of lymphatic metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and may act as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets after further prospective validation. ..
  64. Brantis de Carvalho C, Maarifi G, Gonçalves Boldrin P, Zanelli C, Nisole S, Chelbi Alix M, et al. MxA interacts with and is modified by the SUMOylation machinery. Exp Cell Res. 2015;330:151-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The human MxA is a cytoplasmic protein that confers resistance to a large number of viruses...
  65. Lee S, Hwang C, Kim Y, Lee H, Ahn S, Shin N, et al. Expression of Myxovirus Resistance A (MxA) Is Associated with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-Positive Breast Cancers. Cancer Res Treat. 2017;49:313-321 pubmed publisher
    ..Interferons can affect T-cell activity through direct and indirect mechanisms. Myxovirus resistance A (MxA) is an excellent marker of interferon activity...
  66. Rebbani K, Ababou M, Nadifi S, Kandil M, Marchio A, Pineau P, et al. Myxovirus resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and outcomes of viral hepatitis B and C infections in Moroccan patients. J Med Virol. 2017;89:647-652 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that for North African patients with chronic hepatitis, MX1 gene variation at position -123 may influence the outcome of HBV infection but not HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 89:647-652, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  67. Chen C, Zhu X, Xu W, Yang F, Zhang G, Wu L, et al. IFNA2 p.Ala120Thr impairs the inhibitory activity of Interferon-?2 against the hepatitis B virus through altering its binding to the receptor. Antiviral Res. 2017;147:11-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We used qPCR to further explore anti-HBV protein expression including APOBEC3, MxA, OAS1, and PKR. Cell model experiments confirmed that IFNA2p.Ala120Thr impairs anti-HBV activity of IFN-?2...
  68. Liao Y, Jiang J, Liang B, Wei F, Huang J, Pan P, et al. Opiate use inhibits TLR9 signaling pathway in vivo: possible role in pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13071 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined with HIV-1 infection, opiate use resulted in lower expression of MyD88, ISG56, and MxA. In addition, morphine treatment promoted HIV-1 replication in macrophages via inhibition of TLR9 pathway...
  69. Villalba M, Pérez V, Herrera L, Stepke C, Maldonado N, Fredericksen F, et al. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infection of fish cell lines: Preliminary analysis of gene expressions related to extracellular matrix remodeling and immunity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2017;193-194:10-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this is the first report in fish to find IPNV modulating the activation of interleukin-1β production primarily through the NF-κB pathway. ..
  70. Fernandez M, Quiroga J, Martin J, Cotonat T, Pardo M, Horisberger M, et al. Impaired interferon induction of human MxA protein in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Med Virol. 1997;51:332-7 pubmed
    b>MxA protein is interferon inducible, and its role as an antiviral mediator is being studied in various viral diseases...
  71. Weber F, Haller O, Kochs G. MxA GTPase blocks reporter gene expression of reconstituted Thogoto virus ribonucleoprotein complexes. J Virol. 2000;74:560-3 pubmed
    Human MxA protein accumulates in the cytoplasm of interferon-treated cells and inhibits the multiplication of several RNA viruses, including Thogoto virus (THOV), a tick-borne orthomyxovirus that transcribes and replicates its genome in ..
  72. King J, Yeh S, Lin M, Liu C, Lai M, Kao J, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in interferon pathway and response to interferon treatment in hepatitis B patients: A pilot study. Hepatology. 2002;36:1416-24 pubmed
    ..In addition, borderline significance for the SNP in MxA gene promoter at nt -88 revealed G/T alleles, with the G/T heterozygote rate being 19% in nonresponders and 43% in ..
  73. Weinstock Guttman B, Tamaño Blanco M, Bhasi K, Zivadinov R, Ramanathan M. Pharmacogenetics of MXA SNPs in interferon-beta treated multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;182:236-9 pubmed
    The myxovirus resistance A (MXA) mRNA has been extensively investigated for assessing the biologic responses of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to interferon-beta (IFN-beta) therapy...
  74. Yamamoto M, Arimura H, Fukushige T, Minami K, Nishizawa Y, Tanimoto A, et al. Abcb10 role in heme biosynthesis in vivo: Abcb10 knockout in mice causes anemia with protoporphyrin IX and iron accumulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a critical role for Abcb10 in heme biosynthesis and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of erythropoietic protoporphyria and sideroblastic anemia. ..
  75. Goujon C, Moncorgé O, Bauby H, Doyle T, Barclay W, Malim M. Transfer of the amino-terminal nuclear envelope targeting domain of human MX2 converts MX1 into an HIV-1 resistance factor. J Virol. 2014;88:9017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these studies correlate the cellular location of MX proteins with anti-HIV-1 function and help establish a framework for future mechanistic analyses of MX-mediated virus control. ..
  76. Rennie M, McKelvie S, Bulloch E, Kingston R. Transient dimerization of human MxA promotes GTP hydrolysis, resulting in a mechanical power stroke. Structure. 2014;22:1433-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the GTPase domain of MxA dimerizes to facilitate catalysis, in a fashion analogous to dynamin...
  77. Mendoza López M, Velez Martínez D, Argumedo Delira R, Alarcón A, García Barradas O, Sánchez Viveros G, et al. Lipid extraction from the biomass of Trichoderma koningiopsis MX1 produced in a non-stirring culture for potential biodiesel production. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;: pubmed
    ..Therefore, the modification of some of these conditions could increase their efficiency and viability. ..
  78. Stewart J, Mercadante V, Dias N, Canisso I, Yau P, Imai B, et al. Nerve Growth Factor-Beta, purified from bull seminal plasma, enhances corpus luteum formation and conceptus development in Bos taurus cows. Theriogenology. 2018;106:30-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that seminal plasma NGF could play a role in conceptus development and may be important to improve fertility in cattle. ..
  79. Kermorgant M, Leca F, Nasr N, Custaud M, Geeraerts T, Czosnyka M, et al. Impacts of Simulated Weightlessness by Dry Immersion on Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter and Cerebral Autoregulation. Front Physiol. 2017;8:780 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine the relationship between mean CBFV and mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) and (2) correlation index Mxa between mean CBFV and mean ABP...
  80. Melen K, Keskinen P, Ronni T, Sareneva T, Lounatmaa K, Julkunen I. Human MxB protein, an interferon-alpha-inducible GTPase, contains a nuclear targeting signal and is localized in the heterochromatin region beneath the nuclear envelope. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:23478-86 pubmed
    ..Cytoplasmically localized human MxA protein mediates resistance to influenza and several other viruses, whereas human MxB protein has not been found to ..
  81. Gilli F, Marnetto F, Caldano M, Sala A, Malucchi S, Capobianco M, et al. Biological markers of interferon-beta therapy: comparison among interferon-stimulated genes MxA, TRAIL and XAF-1. Mult Scler. 2006;12:47-57 pubmed
    ..Among them, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) appears to have the highest specificity, but it has no role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  82. Badolato R, Ghidini C, Facchetti F, Serana F, Sottini A, Chiarini M, et al. Type I interferon-dependent gene MxA in perinatal HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy as marker for therapy failure and blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells depletion. J Transl Med. 2008;6:49 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA for interferon-alpha and MxA, a gene that is specifically induced by interferon-alpha, was quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR,..
  83. Al Masri A, Heidenreich F, Walter G. Interferon-induced Mx proteins in brain tissue of multiple sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mx proteins A and B (MxA and MxB) are intracellular proteins that are induced exclusively by type I IFNs...
  84. Calmon M, Rodrigues R, Kaneto C, Moura R, Silva S, Mota L, et al. Epigenetic silencing of CRABP2 and MX1 in head and neck tumors. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1329-39 pubmed
    ..Finally, absence of the CRABP2 protein was associated with decreased disease-free survival rates, supporting a potential use of CRABP2 expression as a prognostic biomarker for HNSCC patients. ..
  85. Power C, Hui E, Vivithanaporn P, Acharjee S, Polyak M. Delineating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders using transgenic models: the neuropathogenic actions of Vpr. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7:319-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of different transgenic models to study HIV neuropathogenesis represents exciting and innovative approaches to understanding disease mechanisms and perhaps developing new therapeutic strategies in the future. ..
  86. Ezzati P, Komher K, Severini G, Coombs K. Comparative proteomic analyses demonstrate enhanced interferon and STAT-1 activation in reovirus T3D-infected HeLa cells. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2015;5:30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study expands our understanding of reovirus-induced host responses. ..
  87. Velasco Hernandez T, Säwén P, Bryder D, Cammenga J. Potential Pitfalls of the Mx1-Cre System: Implications for Experimental Modeling of Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis. Stem Cell Reports. 2016;7:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies emphasize therefore that proper controls are crucial when modeling gene deletion using the Mx1-Cre transgene. ..
  88. Yuan H, Sehgal P. MxA Is a Novel Regulator of Endosome-Associated Transcriptional Signaling by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 4 and 9 (BMP4 and BMP9). PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166382 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated MxA, an IFN-?-inducible cytoplasmic dynamin-family GTPase for effects on BMP4/9 signaling, including in the presence of ..
  89. Crabtree N, Chapman S, Hogler W, Hodgson K, Chapman D, Bebbington N, et al. Vertebral fractures assessment in children: Evaluation of DXA imaging versus conventional spine radiography. Bone. 2017;97:168-174 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate DXA VFA and morphometric analysis (MXA) using a GE Lunar iDXA bone densitometer against spinal radiographic assessment (RA) for the identification of ..
  90. Libertinova J, Meluzinova E, Matoska V, Zajac M, Kovárová I, Havrdova E, et al. MxA mRNA decrease preceding NAb detection in IFN?-treated MS patients. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00644 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) mRNA is regarded as a marker of IFN? bioactivity...
  91. Karaulov A, Shulzhenko A, Karsonova A. Expression of IFN-Inducible Genes with Antiviral Function OAS1 and MX1 in Health and under Conditions of Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017;163:370-373 pubmed publisher
  92. Khaiboullina S, Rizvanov A, Deyde V, St Jeor S. Andes virus stimulates interferon-inducible MxA protein expression in endothelial cells. J Med Virol. 2005;75:267-75 pubmed
    b>MxA is a cellular protein activated in cells treated with type I interferons. MxA protein is a member of the dynamin superfamily of large guanosine triphosphatases...