MX2

Summary

Gene Symbol: MX2
Description: MX dynamin like GTPase 2
Alias: MXB, interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2, interferon-regulated resistance GTP-binding protein MXB, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2, myxovirus resistance protein 2, p78-related protein, second interferon-induced protein p78
Species: human
Products:     MX2

Top Publications

  1. Aebi M, Fah J, Hurt N, Samuel C, Thomis D, Bazzigher L, et al. cDNA structures and regulation of two interferon-induced human Mx proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:5062-72 pubmed
    ..hybridization probe, we have isolated cDNA clones originating from two distinct human Mx genes, designated MxA and MxB. In human fibroblasts, expression of MxA and MxB is strongly induced by alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, ..
  2. Melen K, Keskinen P, Ronni T, Sareneva T, Lounatmaa K, Julkunen I. Human MxB protein, an interferon-alpha-inducible GTPase, contains a nuclear targeting signal and is localized in the heterochromatin region beneath the nuclear envelope. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:23478-86 pubmed
    ..localized human MxA protein mediates resistance to influenza and several other viruses, whereas human MxB protein has not been found to have any antiviral activity...
  3. King M, Raposo G, Lemmon M. Inhibition of nuclear import and cell-cycle progression by mutated forms of the dynamin-like GTPase MxB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8957-62 pubmed
    ..g., human MxA) have antiviral activity and are tightly regulated by type I IFNs. Others (e.g., human MxB) lack antiviral activity and are thought to have normal cellular functions that remain undefined...
  4. Goujon C, Moncorgé O, Bauby H, Doyle T, Ward C, Schaller T, et al. Human MX2 is an interferon-induced post-entry inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. Nature. 2013;502:559-62 pubmed publisher
    ..gene-silencing experiments to define the human dynamin-like, IFN-induced myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2, also known as MXB) protein as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and as a key effector of IFN-α-mediated resistance to HIV-1 ..
  5. Liu Z, Pan Q, Ding S, Qian J, Xu F, Zhou J, et al. The interferon-inducible MxB protein inhibits HIV-1 infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..MxA inhibits many RNA and DNA viruses, whereas the antiviral activity of MxB is less well established...
  6. Kane M, Yadav S, Bitzegeio J, Kutluay S, Zang T, Wilson S, et al. MX2 is an interferon-induced inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. Nature. 2013;502:563-6 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitory action of IFN-α at early steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, we identify myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an interferon-induced inhibitor of HIV-1 infection...
  7. Haller O. Dynamins are forever: MxB inhibits HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:371-3 pubmed publisher
    ..MxA (MX1) protein is an interferon-induced restriction factor for a diverse range of viruses, whereas the related MxB (MX2) protein was thought to lack such activity...
  8. Campos C, Hartling I, Kaur M, Fernandes A, Santos R, Cerri R. Intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide promotes inflammation and alters endometrial gene expression in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:10440-10455 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold increase), and interferon-stimulated genes (BMP15 = 0.27-fold decrease; ISG15 = 2.17-fold increase, and MX2 = 2.23-fold increase)...
  9. Oguejiofor C, Cheng Z, Abudureyimu A, Anstaett O, Brownlie J, Fouladi Nashta A, et al. Global transcriptomic profiling of bovine endometrial immune response in vitro. II. Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus on the endometrial response to lipopolysaccharide. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:101 pubmed publisher
    ..Top down-regulated genes were RSAD2, ISG15, BST2, MX2, OAS1, USP18, IFIT3, IFI27, SAMD9, IFIT1, and DDX58, whereas TRIM56, C3, and OLFML1 were most up-regulated...

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Genis S, Aris A, Kaur M, Cerri R. Effect of metritis on endometrium tissue transcriptome during puerperium in Holstein lactating cows. Theriogenology. 2018;122:116-123 pubmed publisher
    ..There was an increased expression of the antiviral factor MX2 and MYH10 gene, which is involved in macrophages recruitment, in metritic compared with healthy cows (P < 0...
  2. Yan W, Wei J, Deng X, Shi Z, Zhu Z, Shao D, et al. Transcriptional analysis of immune-related gene expression in p53-deficient mice with increased susceptibility to influenza A virus infection. BMC Med Genomics. 2015;8:52 pubmed publisher
    ..of Ifng (encoding interferon (IFN)-gamma), Irf7 (encoding IFN regulator factor 7), and antiviral genes, such as Mx2 and Eif2ak2 (encoding PKR), were observed in IAV-infected p53KO mice, suggesting an impaired IFN-mediated immune ..
  3. Kim S, Choi J, Uyangaa E, Patil A, Hossain F, Hur J, et al. Blockage of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase regulates Japanese encephalitis via enhancement of type I/II IFN innate and adaptive T-cell responses. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:79 pubmed publisher
    ..with strong induction of PRRs (RIG-I, MDA5), transcription factors (IRF7, STAT1), and antiviral ISG genes (Mx1, Mx2, ISG49, ISG54, ISG56)...
  4. Stankiewicz A, Goscik J, Dyr W, Juszczak G, Ryglewicz D, Swiergiel A, et al. Novel candidate genes for alcoholism--transcriptomic analysis of prefrontal medial cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens of Warsaw alcohol-preferring and non-preferring rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015;139:27-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Identified genes and processes included known mediators of ethanol response (Mx2, Fam111a, Itpr1, Gabra4, Agtr1a, LTP/LTD, renin-angiotensin signaling pathway), toxicity (Sult1c2a, Ces1, ..
  5. Yi D, Fang Q, Hou Y, Wang L, Xu H, Wu T, et al. Dietary Supplementation with Oleum Cinnamomi Improves Intestinal Functions in Piglets. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..b-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), villin, junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), myxovirus resistance (MX) 1, MX2 and regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (REG3G), and protein abundances of Ras and claudin-1, but decreased (..
  6. Gao H, Wang F, Lan X, Li C, Feng J, Bai J, et al. Lower PRDM2 expression is associated with dopamine-agonist resistance and tumor recurrence in prolactinomas. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:272 pubmed publisher
    ..New resistant variants were identified in multiple genes including PRDM2, PRG4, MUC4, DSPP, DPCR1, RP1L1, MX2, POTEF, C1orf170, and KRTAP10-3...
  7. Madsen C, Perry G, Mogck C, Daly R, MacNeil M, Geary T. Effects of preovulatory estradiol on embryo survival and pregnancy establishment in beef cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 2015;158:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of interferon stimulated genes, ISG15, MX2, and OAS1, in leukocytes was determined on d 17, 19, 21, and 28 to determine capability of embryonic signaling...
  8. Liu G, Wang Y, Jiang S, Sui M, Wang C, Kang L, et al. Suppression of lymphocyte apoptosis in spleen by CXCL13 after porcine circovirus type 2 infection and regulatory mechanism of CXCL13 expression in pigs. Vet Res. 2019;50:17 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 90 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was identified, including CD207, RSAD2, OAS1, OAS2, MX2, ADRB3, CXCL13, CCR1, and ADRA2C, which were significantly enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms related to the ..
  9. Diotallevi M, Checconi P, Palamara A, Celestino I, Coppo L, Holmgren A, et al. Glutathione Fine-Tunes the Innate Immune Response toward Antiviral Pathways in a Macrophage Cell Line Independently of Its Antioxidant Properties. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1239 pubmed publisher
    ..One group, mapping to innate immunity and antiviral responses (Oas2, Oas3, Mx2, Irf7, Irf9, STAT1, il1b), required GSH for optimal induction...
  10. Valenzuela Miranda D, Valenzuela Muñoz V, Farlora R, Gallardo Escárate C. MicroRNA-based transcriptomic responses of Atlantic salmon during infection by the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;77:287-296 pubmed publisher
    ..putative target genes such as C-C motif chemokine 19-like, stromal cell-derived factor 1-like, myxovirus resistance protein 2 and hepcidin-1 were identified...
  11. Fu Y, Zhu Z, Chang H, Liu Z, Liu J, Chen H. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicate enhanced cellular protection against FMDV in PK15 cells pretreated with IFN-?. Gene. 2016;586:206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, a synergistic effect on some ISGs, including OAS1, OAS2, MX1, MX2, RIG-I and IFIT1, was observed in the combined treatment compared to the IFN-? treatment alone...
  12. Nakamura K, Kusama K, Bai R, Sakurai T, Isuzugawa K, Godkin J, et al. Induction of IFNT-Stimulated Genes by Conceptus-Derived Exosomes during the Attachment Period. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158278 pubmed publisher
    ..from the conceptus, contained interferon tau (IFNT) as well as CAPG and AKR1B1, and up-regulated STAT1, STAT2, MX1, MX2, BST2, and ISG15 transcripts in EECs...
  13. Wathes D, Cheng Z, Chowdhury W, Fenwick M, Fitzpatrick R, Morris D, et al. Negative energy balance alters global gene expression and immune responses in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows. Physiol Genomics. 2009;39:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of several interferon-inducible genes including ISG20, IFIH1, MX1, and MX2 were also significantly increased in the SNEB cows...
  14. Sun M, Yu Z, Ma J, Pan Z, Lu C, Yao H. Down-regulating heat shock protein 27 is involved in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus escaping from host antiviral mechanism. Vet Microbiol. 2017;205:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, treatment with IFN-β and the ISGs, including murine myxovirus resistance 1 and 2 (Mx1 and Mx2), showed direct anti-PEDV activity...
  15. Yoshimi A, Yamada S, Kunimoto S, Aleksic B, Hirakawa A, Ohashi M, et al. Proteomic analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines from schizophrenic patients. Transl Psychiatry. 2019;9:126 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Mx1 and its related proinflamatory genes (Mx2, Il1b, and Tnf) were also up-regulated in poly I:C-treated mice...
  16. Jiang L, Saetre P, Radomska K, Jazin E, Lindholm Carlström E. QKI-7 regulates expression of interferon-related genes in human astrocyte glioma cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5: pubmed publisher
    ..3E-10), including IFIT1, IFIT2, MX1, MX2, G1P2, G1P3, GBP1 and IFIH1...
  17. Caballero Solares A, Hall J, Xue X, Eslamloo K, Taylor R, Parrish C, et al. The dietary replacement of marine ingredients by terrestrial animal and plant alternatives modulates the antiviral immune response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;64:24-38 pubmed publisher
    ..low ARA proportion in diet VEG coincided with the highest pIC-induction of some immune transcripts (tlr7, stat1c, mxb, and gig1) and the lowest levels of transcripts encoding eicosanoid-synthesizing enzymes (5loxa, 5loxb, and pgds)...
  18. Bao Y, Gao Y, Shi Y, Cui X. Dynamic gene expression analysis in a H1N1 influenza virus mouse pneumonia model. Virus Genes. 2017;53:357-366 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis, and the most important genes were filtered, including Dhx58, Cxcl10, Cxcl11, Zbp1, Ifit1, Ifih1, Trim25, Mx2, Oas2, Cd274, Irgm1, and Irf7...
  19. López Muñoz A, Liarte S, Gómez González N, Cabas I, Meseguer J, García Ayala A, et al. Estrogen receptor 2b deficiency impairs the antiviral response of zebrafish. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;53:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant fish were able to induce the genes encoding major antiviral molecules, including Ifnphi1, Ifnphi2, Infphi3, Mxb and Mxc, and the negative feedback regulator of cytokine signaling Socs1...
  20. Huang C, Chou C, Lien H, Chu C, Ho J, Wu Y, et al. IRF9-Stat2 Fusion Protein as an Innate Immune Inducer to Activate Mx and Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression in Zebrafish Larvae. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2017;19:310-319 pubmed publisher
    ..zIRF9-S2C raises transcription of Mxa, Mxb, Mxc, Ifnφ1, Ifnφ2, and Ifnφ3 in zebrafish liver ((ZFL) cell line) cells and zebrafish larvae...
  21. Su H, Liao Z, Yuan G, Su J. A plasmid containing CpG ODN as vaccine adjuvant against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Oncotarget. 2017;8:86576-86591 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoglobulins (IgM, IgD, IgZ), TLR9, IFN?2, IFN1, TNF-?, Mx2 and VP4 were examined. Ultimately, pcDNA3...
  22. Xu X, Guo L, Wang X, Liu Y, Liu H, Zhou R, et al. Human Cervical Epithelial Cells Release Antiviral Factors and Inhibit HIV Replication in Macrophages. J Innate Immun. 2019;11:29-40 pubmed publisher
    ..gene (ISG15), ISG56, 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS 1), OAS 2, Myxovirus Resistance A (MxA), MxB, and Guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5)...
  23. Zhu K, Hou X, Huang H, Wang Y, Ren Y, Ni X, et al. [Distribution characteristics of serum specific IgE for inhaled allergens in children with different airway allergic diseases]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2017;19:1185-1190 pubmed
    ..The rhinitis group and the rhinitis-asthma group had a significantly higher detection rate of mould fungi (mx2) than the asthma group (P<0.0166)...
  24. Mahony R, Gargan S, Roberts K, Bourke N, Keating S, Bowie A, et al. A novel anti-viral role for STAT3 in IFN-? signalling responses. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:1755-1764 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced Influenza replication and hindered induction of several, well characterised, anti-viral ISGs: PKR, OAS2, MxB and ISG15; while STAT3 expression had no effect upon induction of a separate ISG group: Viperin, IFI27, CXCL10 and ..
  25. Du C, Zheng K, Bi C, Dong T, Lin H, Tsim K. Yu Ping Feng San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction, Induces Gene Expression of Anti-viral Proteins and Inhibits Neuraminidase Activity. Phytother Res. 2015;29:656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..macrophages, the expressions of mRNAs encoding ribonuclease L (RNaseL), myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2 (Mx2), protein kinase R (PKR) and IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) were induced from 2 to 30 folds in dose-dependent ..
  26. Chen M, Hu P, Ling N, Peng H, Lei Y, Hu H, et al. Enhanced functions of peripheral γδ T cells in chronic hepatitis B infection during interferon α treatment in vivo and in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120086 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, IFN-α boosted the expression of Mx2 and cytokine genes in γδT cells from CHB patients in vitro...
  27. He P, Zhang J, Che Y, He Q, Chen Y, Ding J. G226, a new epipolythiodioxopiperazine derivative, triggers DNA damage and apoptosis in human cancer cells in vitro via ROS generation. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014;35:1546-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In Topo II-deficient HL60/MX2 cells, however, G226-induced DNA damage, apoptosis and cytotoxicity were only partially reduced, suggesting that ..
  28. dela Peña I, Bang M, Lee J, de la Peña J, Kim B, Han D, et al. Common prefrontal cortical gene expression profiles between adolescent SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl rats which showed inattention behavior. Behav Brain Res. 2015;291:268-276 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Atg7, Cacnb4, Grin3a), and immune response (e.g. Atg7, Ip6k2, Mx2)...
  29. Roos L, Sandling J, Bell C, Glass D, Mangino M, Spector T, et al. Higher Nevus Count Exhibits a Distinct DNA Methylation Signature in Healthy Human Skin: Implications for Melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:910-920 pubmed publisher
    ..4 × 10-14), as well as melanoma risk, including in or near MC1R, MX2, and TERT/CLPTM1L (P < 1 × 10-10)...
  30. Furuya A, Sharifi H, Jellinger R, Cristofano P, Shi B, de Noronha C. Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005581 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that, like the type I interferon-induced cellular anti-viral proteins SAMHD1 and MX2, SFN treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles...
  31. Bhargava A, Lahaye X, Manel N. Let me in: Control of HIV nuclear entry at the nuclear envelope. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2018;40:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..the central viral DNA flap, and the host proteins CPSF6, TNPO3, Nucleoporins, SUN1, SUN2, Cyclophilin A and MX2. We review recent perspectives on the mechanism of action of these factors, and formulate fundamental questions ..
  32. Zahoor M, Xue G, Sato H, Aida Y. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling reveals that HIV-1 Vpr differentially regulates interferon-stimulated genes in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Virus Res. 2015;208:156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles of select genes involved in innate immune responses (interferon-stimulated genes [ISGs]), including MX1, MX2, ISG15, ISG20, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFI27, IFI44L, and TNFSF10, were validated by real-time quantitative PCR; the ..
  33. Chen W, Hu Y, Zou P, Ren S, Nie P, Chang M. MAVS splicing variants contribute to the induction of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes mediated by RIG-I-like receptors. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;49:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..MAVS_tv1 overexpression induced a slow (48 hpf) increased expression of IFN1, mxa, mxb, mxe and RSAD2...
  34. Li W, Yap M, Voss V, Stoye J. Expression levels of Fv1: effects on retroviral restriction specificities. Retrovirology. 2016;13:42 pubmed publisher
    ..It will be interesting to examine whether overexpression of other capsid binding restriction factors such as TRIM5? or Mx2 result in novel restriction specificities.
  35. Shirozu T, Sasaki K, Kawahara M, Yanagawa Y, Nagano M, Yamauchi N, et al. Expression dynamics of bovine MX genes in the endometrium and placenta during early to mid pregnancy. J Reprod Dev. 2016;62:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..MX has at least two isoforms, known as MX1 and MX2, in mammals. Moreover, bovine MX1 has been found to have alternative splice variants-namely, MX1-a and MX1B...
  36. Bürgi M, Zapol skii V, Hinkelmann B, Köster M, Kaufmann D, Sasse F, et al. Screening and characterization of molecules that modulate the biological activity of IFNs-I. J Biotechnol. 2016;233:6-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed four reporter gene assays (RGAs) to identify IFN activity modulator compounds by using WISH-Mx2/EGFP, HeLa-Mx2/EGFP, A549-Mx2/EGFP, and HEp2-Mx2/EGFP reporter cell lines (RCLs)...
  37. Wijma R, Stangaferro M, Kamat M, Vasudevan S, Ott T, Giordano J. Embryo Mortality Around the Period of Maintenance of the Corpus Luteum Causes Alterations to the Ovarian Function of Lactating Dairy Cows. Biol Reprod. 2016;95:112 pubmed
    ..to monitor ovarian dynamics and uterine contents whereas blood was collected every 48 h to determine ISG15 and MX2 mRNA abundance in blood mononuclear cells (Day 14 to 22 only) and determination of hormone concentrations...
  38. Zhou J, Chen J, Zhang X, Gao Z, Liu C, Zhang Y, et al. Porcine Mx1 Protein Inhibits Classical Swine Fever Virus Replication by Targeting Nonstructural Protein NS5B. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..the anti-classical swine fever virus (CSFV) activity of porcine Mx1 in vitro and showed that porcine Mx2 (poMx2), human MxA (huMxA), and mouse Mx1 (mmMx1) also have anti-CSFV activity in vitro Small interfering ..
  39. Davoodi S, Cooke R, Fernandes A, Cappellozza B, Vasconcelos J, Cerri R. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows. Theriogenology. 2016;85:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..affected by estrous expression in the endometrium belong to the immune system and adhesion molecule family (MX1, MX2, MYL12A, MMP19, CXCL10, IGLL1, and SLPI; P ≤ 0...
  40. Manjari P, Reddi S, Alhussien M, Mohammed S, De S, Mohanty A, et al. Neutrophil gene dynamics and plasma cytokine levels in dairy cattle during peri-implantation period. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2016;173:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of adhesion molecules (CD62L, CD11b), chemokine (IL-8), and interferon stimulated genes (ISG15, OAS1, MX1, MX2, IFI16 and IFI44) using qRT-PCR. Adhesion molecules along with IL-8 showed a higher expression in NP cows...
  41. Rahmberg A, Rajakumar P, Billingsley J, Johnson R. Dynamic Modulation of Expression of Lentiviral Restriction Factors in Primary CD4+ T Cells following Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..T cells exhibited significantly lower expression of multiple restriction factors, including APOBEC3G, MX2, and TRIM25, which may contribute to the exquisite susceptibility of these cells to SIV infection...
  42. Merindol N, Berthoux L. Restriction Factors in HIV-1 Disease Progression. Curr HIV Res. 2015;13:448-61 pubmed
    ..TRIM5α, Mx2/MxB, TRIM22/Staf50, SAMHD1, p21/CDKN1, tetherin/BST2/CD137, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F have all been proposed to inhibit HIV-..
  43. Kowacs T, Pan Q, Lang P, O Reilly L, Rau S, Browne W, et al. Supramolecular bimetallic assemblies for photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water. Faraday Discuss. 2015;185:143-70 pubmed publisher
    A series of supramolecular assemblies of the type [Ru(L-L)2(L'-L)MX2)](n+) are reported where L-L is 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), 4,4'-di-tetra-butyl-bipyridine (tbbipy) or 4,4'-diethoxycarbonyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dceb), L-L' is tetrapyrido[3,2-..
  44. Ma F, Gao G, Jiao Y, Gu Y, Bilic A, Zhang H, et al. Predicting a new phase (T'') of two-dimensional transition metal di-chalcogenides and strain-controlled topological phase transition. Nanoscale. 2016;8:4969-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, all the known MX2 (M = Mo or W; X = S, Se or Te) monolayers in the new T'' phase unambiguously display similar band topologies and ..
  45. Buragohain L, Kumar R, Nanda T, Phulia S, Mohanty A, Kumar S, et al. Serum MX2 Protein as Candidate Biomarker for Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Buffalo. Reprod Domest Anim. 2016;51:453-60 pubmed publisher
    ..ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and myxovirus resistance genes (MX1 and MX2) have generated immense attention towards developing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of pregnancy in bovine...
  46. Kozela E, Juknat A, Gao F, Kaushansky N, Coppola G, Vogel Z. Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:136 pubmed publisher
    ..CBD increases a number of IFN-dependent transcripts (Rgs16, Mx2, Rsad2, Irf4, Ifit2, Ephx1, Ets2) known to execute anti-proliferative activities in T cells...
  47. Fernández Trujillo M, García Rosado E, Alonso M, Álvarez M, Béjar J. Synergistic effects in the antiviral activity of the three Mx proteins from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2015;168:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Gilthead seabream has three Mx proteins (Mx1, Mx2 and Mx3) that, separately, display antiviral activity against a wide range of viruses, showing interesting ..
  48. Thakur N, Singh G, Paul A, Bharati J, Rajesh G, Gm V, et al. Expression and molecular cloning of interferon stimulated genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology. 2017;100:50-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the study was planned to demonstrate the expression dynamics of ISGs (OAS1, MX1, MX2 and ISG15) in PBMCs during peri-implantation period in buffalo and also molecular cloning and expression of ..
  49. Stoltz M, Sundström K, Hidmark Ã, Tolf C, Vene S, Ahlm C, et al. A model system for in vitro studies of bank vole borne viruses. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28992 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes encoding bank vole IFN-β and Mx2 were partially sequenced and protocols for semi-quantitative RT-PCR were developed...
  50. Goodier J, Pereira G, Cheung L, Rose R, Kazazian H. The Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Protein ZAP Restricts Human Retrotransposition. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005252 pubmed publisher
    ..Several factors, including BST2, ISG20, MAVS, MX2, and ZAP, showed strong L1 inhibition...
  51. Gollasch B, Basmanav F, Nanda A, Fritz G, Mahmoudi H, Thiele H, et al. Identification of a novel mutation in RIPK4 in a kindred with phenotypic features of Bartsocas-Papas and CHAND syndromes. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A:2555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We initially identified three homozygous mutations in the linked region, located in PWP2, MX2 and RIPK4...
  52. Puppala M, Zhao X, Casemore D, Zhou B, Aridoss G, Narayanapillai S, et al. 4H-Chromene-based anticancer agents towards multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 human leukemia: SAR at the 4th and 6th positions. Bioorg Med Chem. 2016;24:1292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..observed at both positions with respect to cellular cytotoxic potency and selectivity between the parental HL60 and the multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 cells. These results provide critical guidance for future medicinal optimization.
  53. Dubois A, Galan M, Cosson J, Gauffre B, Henttonen H, Niemimaa J, et al. Microevolution of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) at neutral and immune-related genes during multiannual dynamic cycles: Consequences for Puumala hantavirus epidemiology. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;49:318-329 pubmed publisher
    ..neutral markers and immune-related genes involved in susceptibility to PUUV (Tnf-promoter, Tlr4, Tlr7 and Mx2 gene) to investigate the links between population dynamics, microevolutionary processes and PUUV epidemiology...
  54. Abdoon A, Giraud Delville C, Kandil O, Kerboeuf Giraud A, Eozenou C, Carvalho A, et al. Maternal recognition of pregnancy and implantation are not associated with an interferon response of the endometrium to the presence of the conceptus in dromedary camel. Theriogenology. 2017;90:301-308 pubmed publisher
    ..encoding steroid hormones (PGR, ESR1), transcription factors (STAT1, FOXL2), interferon stimulated genes (MX1, MX2, OAS1, RSAD2) including SOCS genes (SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH), previously identified as conceptus regulated ..
  55. Takino T, Okamura T, Ando T, Hagiwara K. Change in the responsiveness of interferon-stimulated genes during early pregnancy in cows with Borna virus-1 infection. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:253 pubmed
    ..IFN-? induces the expression of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) 15 and Mx2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
  56. Wang H, Bai J, Fan B, Li Y, Zhang Q, Jiang P. The Interferon-Induced Mx2 Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2016;36:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2) has been identified as a novel interferon (IFN)-induced, innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits some ..
  57. Yang J, Chang X, Sham K, Yiu S, Kwong H, Che C. M8L12 cubic cages with all facial ? or facial ? configuration: effects of surface anions on the occupancy of the cage and anion exchange. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016;52:5981-4 pubmed publisher
    ..having an encapsulated anion, were prepared by the self-assembly of m-xylene-bridged imidazolyl-imine ligands and MX2 (X = PF6(-), SbF6(-), TfO(-)) salts; the encapsulated anion exchange with different anions (SbF6(-), Tf2N(-), NO3(-)..
  58. Zahoor M, Xue G, Sato H, Murakami T, Takeshima S, Aida Y. HIV-1 Vpr induces interferon-stimulated genes in human monocyte-derived macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106418 pubmed publisher
    ..interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in the innate immune response, including STAT1, IRF7, MX1, MX2, ISG15, ISG20, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFI27, IFI44L, APOBEC3A, DDX58 (RIG-I), TNFSF10 (TRAIL), and RSAD2 (viperin) ..
  59. Xu B, Kong J, Wang X, Wei W, Xie W, Yu X. Structural insight into the assembly of human anti-HIV dynamin-like protein MxB/Mx2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;456:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have indicated that human myxovirus resistance protein 2 (Mx2 or MxB), one of these ISGs, contributes to the inhibition of HIV-1 replication by interferon...
  60. Goujon C, Greenbury R, Papaioannou S, Doyle T, Malim M. A triple-arginine motif in the amino-terminal domain and oligomerization are required for HIV-1 inhibition by human MX2. J Virol. 2015;89:4676-80 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic approaches to understand the domain organization of the HIV-1 resistance factor myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2). First, we describe an essential triple-arginine motif in the amino-terminal domain...
  61. Schulte B, Buffone C, Opp S, Di Nunzio F, De Souza Aranha Vieira D, Brandariz Nuñez A, et al. Restriction of HIV-1 Requires the N-Terminal Region of MxB as a Capsid-Binding Motif but Not as a Nuclear Localization Signal. J Virol. 2015;89:8599-610 pubmed publisher
    ..MxB/Mx2 blocks HIV-1 infection in cells from the immune system...
  62. Jiang X, Liu C, Yu T, Zhang L, Meng K, Xing Z, et al. Genetic dissection of the Down syndrome critical region. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6540-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of human chromosome 21 is an important region for this phenotype, which is demarcated by Setd4/Cbr1 and Fam3b/Mx2. We first confirmed the importance of the Cbr1-Fam3b region using compound mutant mice, which carry a duplication ..
  63. Lavender K, Gibbert K, Peterson K, Van Dis E, Francois S, Woods T, et al. Interferon Alpha Subtype-Specific Suppression of HIV-1 Infection In Vivo. J Virol. 2016;90:6001-6013 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with increased intrinsic and innate immunity, including significantly higher induction of tetherin and MX2, increased APOBEC3G signature mutations in HIV-1 proviral DNA, and higher frequencies of TRAIL(+) NK cells...
  64. Kong J, Ma M, He S, Qin X. Mx oligomer: a novel capsid pattern sensor?. Future Microbiol. 2016;11:1047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Human MxB acts as a novel restriction factor with antiviral activity against a range of HIV-1 and other retroviruses mainly ..
  65. Stewart J, Mercadante V, Dias N, Canisso I, Yau P, Imai B, et al. Nerve Growth Factor-Beta, purified from bull seminal plasma, enhances corpus luteum formation and conceptus development in Bos taurus cows. Theriogenology. 2018;106:30-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, MX2, RTP4) were assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes on day 19...
  66. Horisberger M, McMaster G, Zeller H, Wathelet M, Dellis J, Content J. Cloning and sequence analyses of cDNAs for interferon- and virus-induced human Mx proteins reveal that they contain putative guanine nucleotide-binding sites: functional study of the corresponding gene promoter. J Virol. 1990;64:1171-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we showed that these proteins, as well as the homologous mouse Mx protein, possess three consensus elements in proper spacing, characteristic of GTP-binding proteins. ..
  67. Melen K, Julkunen I. Nuclear cotransport mechanism of cytoplasmic human MxB protein. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:32353-9 pubmed
    ..MxA protein mediates resistance to multiple RNA viruses, whereas no antiviral activity has been found for human MxB protein...
  68. Ambrose Z, Aiken C. HIV-1 uncoating: connection to nuclear entry and regulation by host proteins. Virology. 2014;454-455:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding uncoating will be valuable toward developing novel antiretroviral therapies for HIV-infected individuals. ..
  69. Le Sage V, Mouland A, Valiente Echeverría F. Roles of HIV-1 capsid in viral replication and immune evasion. Virus Res. 2014;193:116-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that CA engages in a number of different protein-protein interactions with the host makes it an interesting target for the development of new potent antiviral agents. ..
  70. Dicks M, Goujon C, Pollpeter D, Betancor G, Apolonia L, Bergeron J, et al. Oligomerization Requirements for MX2-Mediated Suppression of HIV-1 Infection. J Virol. 2016;90:22-32 pubmed publisher
    Human myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2/MXB) is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) and was recently identified as a late postentry suppressor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, inhibiting the nuclear accumulation of ..
  71. Rey S, Moiche V, Boltaña S, Teles M, MacKenzie S. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;67:287-292 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: TR and TCh...
  72. Clancy R, Markham A, Jackson T, Rasmussen S, Blumenberg M, Buyon J. Cardiac fibroblast transcriptome analyses support a role for interferogenic, profibrotic, and inflammatory genes in anti-SSA/Ro-associated congenital heart block. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H631-H640 pubmed publisher
    ..g., IFN-induced protein 44-like (IFI44L), of MX dynamin-like GTPase (MX)1, MX2, and radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (Rsad2)]...
  73. Yeon C, Yun S, Yang J, Youn D, Lim J. Na-Cation-Assisted Exfoliation of MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) Nanosheets in an Aqueous Medium with the Aid of a Polymeric Surfactant for Flexible Polymer-Nanocomposite Memory Applications. Small. 2017;: pubmed publisher
  74. Tanaka S, Honda Y, Honda M. MX2 gene expression tends to be downregulated in subjects with HLA-DQB1*0602. Sleep. 2008;31:749-51 pubmed
    ..Our previous report identified the myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) gene as a narcolepsy-specific dysregulated gene; however, the report had a limitation-the control groups were not ..
  75. Barrett J, Iles M, Harland M, Taylor J, Aitken J, Andresen P, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies three new melanoma susceptibility loci. Nat Genet. 2011;43:1108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..4 × 10(-9)), an SNP in MX2 (rs45430, P = 2.9 × 10(-9)) and an SNP adjacent to CASP8 (rs13016963, P = 8.6 × 10(-10))...
  76. Busnadiego I, Kane M, Rihn S, Preugschas H, Hughes J, Blanco Melo D, et al. Host and viral determinants of Mx2 antiretroviral activity. J Virol. 2014;88:7738-52 pubmed publisher
    Myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2/MxB) has recently been uncovered as an effector of the anti-HIV-1 activity of type I interferons (IFNs) that inhibits HIV-1 at an early stage postinfection, after reverse transcription but prior to proviral ..
  77. Fribourgh J, Nguyen H, Matreyek K, Alvarez F, Summers B, Dewdney T, et al. Structural insight into HIV-1 restriction by MxB. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;16:627-638 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, MxB, but not MxA, was shown to restrict HIV-1 by an unknown mechanism that likely occurs in close proximity to the host ..
  78. Matreyek K, Wang W, Serrao E, Singh P, Levin H, Engelman A. Host and viral determinants for MxB restriction of HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2014;11:90 pubmed publisher
    ..The Mx family of dynamin-like GTPases, which include MxA and MxB, target a wide variety of viruses...
  79. Tedbury P, Freed E. HIV-1 gag: an emerging target for antiretroviral therapy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2015;389:171-201 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we outline the advances made in targeting the Gag protein and its mature products, particularly capsid and nucleocapsid, and highlight possible targets for future pharmacological intervention. ..
  80. Czubala M, Finsterbusch K, Ivory M, Mitchell J, Ahmed Z, Shimauchi T, et al. TGF? Induces a SAMHD1-Independent Post-Entry Restriction to HIV-1 Infection of Human Epithelial Langerhans Cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1981-1989 pubmed publisher
    ..at HIV-1 reverse transcription, but remains independent of restriction factors SAMHD1 and myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2)...
  81. Sun L, Wang X, Zhou Y, Zhou R, Ho W, Li J. Exosomes contribute to the transmission of anti-HIV activity from TLR3-activated brain microvascular endothelial cells to macrophages. Antiviral Res. 2016;134:167-171 pubmed publisher
    ..exosomes contained multiple antiviral factors, including several key IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs; ISG15, ISG56, and Mx2) at mRNA and protein levels...
  82. Toji N, Shigeno S, Kizaki K, Koshi K, Matsuda H, Hashiyada Y, et al. Evaluation of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood granulocytes as sensitive responders to bovine early conceptus signals. Vet J. 2017;229:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes with expression changes included known IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs; ISG15, OAS1, MX1, and MX2)...
  83. Chen W, Gu J, Liu Q, Luo R, Yao L, Sun B, et al. Quantum Dots of 1T Phase Transitional Metal Dichalcogenides Generated via Electrochemical Li Intercalation. ACS Nano. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    We prepare Group VI transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs, or MX2) from the 1T phase with quantum-sized and monolayer features via a quasi-full electrochemical process...
  84. Ge R, Wu X, Kim M, Shi J, Sonde S, Tao L, et al. Atomristor: Non-Volatile Resistance Switching in Atomic Sheets of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. Nano Lett. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..NVRS is observed in the prototypical semiconducting (MX2, M=Mo, W; and X=S, Se) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which alludes to the universality of this ..
  85. Al Masri A, Werfel T, Jakschies D, von Wussow P. Intracellular staining of Mx proteins in cells from peripheral blood, bone marrow and skin. Mol Pathol. 1997;50:9-14 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to establish a staining method for the human intracellular Mx proteins, MxA and MxB, in leucocytes and bone marrow and skin cells...
  86. Stein D, Shaw S, McKinnon L, Abou M, McCorrister S, Westmacott G, et al. Mx2 expression is associated with reduced susceptibility to HIV infection in highly exposed HIV seronegative Kenyan sex workers. AIDS. 2015;29:35-41 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have identified Mx2 as a novel HIV-1 innate restriction factor that inhibits proviral integration...
  87. Opp S, Vieira D, Schulte B, Chanda S, Diaz Griffero F. MxB Is Not Responsible for the Blocking of HIV-1 Infection Observed in Alpha Interferon-Treated Cells. J Virol. 2015;90:3056-64 pubmed publisher
    b>MxB restricts HIV-1 infection by directly interacting with the HIV-1 core, which is made of viral capsid; however, the contribution of MxB to the HIV-1 restriction observed in alpha interferon (IFN-α)-treated human cells is unknown...
  88. Wei W, Guo H, Ma M, Markham R, Yu X. Accumulation of MxB/Mx2-resistant HIV-1 Capsid Variants During Expansion of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Human Populations. EBioMedicine. 2016;8:230-236 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have identified human myxovirus resistance protein 2 (MxB or Mx2) as an interferon induced inhibitor of HIV-1 replication...
  89. Horisberger M, Wathelet M, Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Islam Q, Levan G, et al. cDNA cloning and assignment to chromosome 21 of IFI-78K gene, the human equivalent of murine Mx gene. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1988;14:123-31 pubmed
  90. Tanaka S, Honda Y, Honda M. Identification of differentially expressed genes in blood cells of narcolepsy patients. Sleep. 2007;30:974-9 pubmed
    ..The second screening revealed differential expression of 4 candidate genes. Among them, MX2 was confirmed as a significantly down-regulated gene in the white blood cells of narcoleptic patients by ..
  91. Sironi M, Biasin M, Cagliani R, Gnudi F, Saulle I, Ibba S, et al. Evolutionary analysis identifies an MX2 haplotype associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Mol Biol Evol. 2014;31:2402-14 pubmed publisher
    The protein product of the myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) gene restricts HIV-1 and simian retroviruses...
  92. Fricke T, White T, Schulte B, de Souza Aranha Vieira D, Dharan A, Campbell E, et al. MxB binds to the HIV-1 core and prevents the uncoating process of HIV-1. Retrovirology. 2014;11:68 pubmed publisher
    The IFN-α-inducible restriction factor MxB blocks HIV-1 infection after reverse transcription but prior to integration. Genetic evidence suggested that capsid is the viral determinant for restriction by MxB...