Gene Symbol: MSTN
Description: myostatin
Alias: GDF8, MSLHP, growth/differentiation factor 8
Species: human
Products:     MSTN

Top Publications

  1. Kostek M, Angelopoulos T, Clarkson P, Gordon P, Moyna N, Visich P, et al. Myostatin and follistatin polymorphisms interact with muscle phenotypes and ethnicity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    We examined associations among myostatin (MSTN) 2379 A > G and 163 G > A and follistatin (FST) -5003 A > T and -833 G > T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the muscle size and the strength response to resistance ..
  2. Zhang Z, He J, Qin Y, Hu Y, Li M, Zhang H, et al. Association between myostatin gene polymorphisms and peak BMD variation in Chinese nuclear families. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19:39-47 pubmed
    ..These results suggest, for the first time, the genetic polymorphisms in myostatin likely play a role in attainment of peak BMD in Chinese women. ..
  3. Hulmi J, Tannerstedt J, Selänne H, Kainulainen H, Kovanen V, Mero A. Resistance exercise with whey protein ingestion affects mTOR signaling pathway and myostatin in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:1720-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that resistance exercise rapidly increases mTOR signaling and may decrease myostatin protein expression in muscle and that whey protein increases and prolongs the mTOR signaling response. ..
  4. Kondás K, Szláma G, Trexler M, Patthy L. Both WFIKKN1 and WFIKKN2 have high affinity for growth and differentiation factors 8 and 11. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent experiments have shown that WFIKKN2 protein binds mature GDF8/myostatin and myostatin propeptide and inhibits the biological activity of myostatin (Hill, J. J., Qiu, Y...
  5. Antony N, Bass J, McMahon C, Mitchell M. Myostatin regulates glucose uptake in BeWo cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1296-302 pubmed
    ..This study has shown that myostatin specifically inhibits glucose uptake into BeWo cells, suggesting that locally produced myostatin may control glucose metabolism within the placenta. ..
  6. Wojcik S, Nogalska A, Engel W, Askanas V. Myostatin and its precursor protein are increased in the skeletal muscle of patients with Type-II muscle fibre atrophy. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2008;67:6-12 pubmed
    ..The cellular mechanisms underlying Type-II fibre atrophy are unclear. Myostatin (Mstn) is physiologically a negative regulator of muscle mass and strength...
  7. Deng B, Wen J, Ding Y, Peng J, Jiang S. Different regulation role of myostatin in differentiating pig ADSCs and MSCs into adipocytes. Cell Biochem Funct. 2012;30:145-50 pubmed publisher
    Myostation (MSTN), which is primarily expressed in muscle, plays an important role in myogenic and adipogenic cells...
  8. Thies R, Chen T, Davies M, Tomkinson K, Pearson A, Shakey Q, et al. GDF-8 propeptide binds to GDF-8 and antagonizes biological activity by inhibiting GDF-8 receptor binding. Growth Factors. 2001;18:251-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that GDF-8 propeptide inhibits specific GDF-8 binding to L6 myoblast cells. Collectively, these data identify the GDF-8 propeptide as an inhibitor of GDF-8 biological activity. ..
  9. Santiago C, Ruiz J, Rodríguez Romo G, Fiuza Luces C, Yvert T, Gonzalez Freire M, et al. The K153R polymorphism in the myostatin gene and muscle power phenotypes in young, non-athletic men. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16323 pubmed publisher
    The Lys(K)153Arg(R) polymorphism in exon 2 (rs1805086, 2379 A>G replacement) of the myostatin (MSTN) gene is a candidate to influence skeletal muscle phenotypes...

More Information


  1. Milan G, Dalla Nora E, Pilon C, Pagano C, Granzotto M, Manco M, et al. Changes in muscle myostatin expression in obese subjects after weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2724-7 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that myostatin might represent an important regulator of skeletal muscle size also in conditions of food restriction in obese subjects. ..
  2. Sharma M, Kambadur R, Matthews K, Somers W, Devlin G, Conaglen J, et al. Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily member, is expressed in heart muscle and is upregulated in cardiomyocytes after infarct. J Cell Physiol. 1999;180:1-9 pubmed
    ..Given that myostatin is expressed in fetal and adult hearts and that myostatin expression is upregulated in cardiomyocytes after the infarction, myostatin could play an important role in cardiac development and physiology. ..
  3. McPherron A, Lee S. Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12457-61 pubmed
  4. Thomis M, Huygens W, Heuninckx S, Chagnon M, Maes H, Claessens A, et al. Exploration of myostatin polymorphisms and the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion genotype in responses of human muscle to strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;92:267-74 pubmed
    This study explores the associations between polymorphisms in two candidate genes-myostatin gene (MSTN or GDF8) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene-with interindividual differences in human muscle mass and strength responses to ..
  5. Saunders M, Good J, Lawrence E, Ferrell R, Li W, Nachman M. Human adaptive evolution at Myostatin (GDF8), a regulator of muscle growth. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79:1089-97 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin (GDF8) is a negative regulator of muscle growth in mammals, and loss-of-function mutations are associated with increased skeletal-muscle mass in mice, cattle, and humans...
  6. Juffer P, Furrer R, Gonzalez Freire M, Santiago C, Verde Z, Serratosa L, et al. Genotype distributions in top-level soccer players: a role for ACE?. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:387-92 pubmed publisher
  7. Ferrell R, Conte V, Lawrence E, Roth S, Hagberg J, Hurley B. Frequent sequence variation in the human myostatin (GDF8) gene as a marker for analysis of muscle-related phenotypes. Genomics. 1999;62:203-7 pubmed
    ..transforming growth factor-beta family of regulatory factors, also known as growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8). The nucleotide sequence of human myostatin was determined in 40 individuals...
  8. Guo W, Flanagan J, Jasuja R, Kirkland J, Jiang L, Bhasin S. The effects of myostatin on adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are mediated through cross-communication between Smad3 and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were mediated, in part, by activation of Smad3 and cross-communication of the TGFbeta/Smad signal to Wnt/beta-catenin/TCF4 pathway, leading to down-regulation of PPARgamma. ..
  9. Schuelke M, Wagner K, Stolz L, Hübner C, Riebel T, Kömen W, et al. Myostatin mutation associated with gross muscle hypertrophy in a child. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2682-8 pubmed
  10. Han D, Chen Y, Lin S, Chang H, Huang T, Chi Y, et al. Serum myostatin levels and grip strength in normal subjects and patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;75:857-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The mode of dialyzer modulates the blood levels of myostatin. Higher myostatin is associated with lower muscle function. The use of myostatin assay in various clinical settings merits further investigation. ..
  11. Brandt C, Nielsen A, Fischer C, Hansen J, Pedersen B, Plomgaard P. Plasma and muscle myostatin in relation to type 2 diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37236 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the idea that myostatin may have a negative effect on metabolism. However, the metabolic effect of myostatin appears to be overruled by other factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. ..
  12. Park J, Berggren J, Hulver M, Houmard J, Hoffman E. GRB14, GPD1, and GDF8 as potential network collaborators in weight loss-induced improvements in insulin action in human skeletal muscle. Physiol Genomics. 2006;27:114-21 pubmed
    ..Growth factor receptor-bound protein 14 (GRB14), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), and growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8; myostatin) significantly decreased approximately 2.4-, 2.2-, and 2...
  13. Gonzalez Cadavid N, Taylor W, Yarasheski K, Sinha Hikim I, Ma K, Ezzat S, et al. Organization of the human myostatin gene and expression in healthy men and HIV-infected men with muscle wasting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:14938-43 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that myostatin is an attenuator of skeletal muscle growth in adult men and contributes to muscle wasting in HIV-infected men. ..
  14. McPherron A, Lawler A, Lee S. Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. Nature. 1997;387:83-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GDF-8 functions specifically as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. ..
  15. Hill J, Davies M, Pearson A, Wang J, Hewick R, Wolfman N, et al. The myostatin propeptide and the follistatin-related gene are inhibitory binding proteins of myostatin in normal serum. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40735-41 pubmed
    ..Functional studies show that FLRG inhibits myostatin activity in a reporter gene assay. These experiments suggest that the myostatin propeptide and FLRG are major negative regulators of myostatin in vivo. ..
  16. Gonzalez Freire M, Rodríguez Romo G, Santiago C, Bustamante Ara N, Yvert T, Gomez Gallego F, et al. The K153R variant in the myostatin gene and sarcopenia at the end of the human lifespan. Age (Dordr). 2010;32:405-9 pubmed publisher
    We studied the A55T, E164K, I225T, K153R and P198A variants in the myostatin (GDF8) gene, muscle strength and mass, and physical function during daily living in 41 nonagenarians [33 women, age range, 90, 97]...
  17. Lokireddy S, Mouly V, Butler Browne G, Gluckman P, Sharma M, Kambadur R, et al. Myostatin promotes the wasting of human myoblast cultures through promoting ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-mediated loss of sarcomeric proteins. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C1316-24 pubmed publisher
  18. Ryan A, Ivey F, Prior S, Li G, HAFER MACKO C. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and muscle myostatin reduction after resistive training in stroke survivors. Stroke. 2011;42:416-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased myostatin mRNA in the paretic thigh and reduction with RT imply an important regulatory role for myostatin after stroke. ..
  19. Seibert M, Xue Q, Fried L, Walston J. Polymorphic variation in the human myostatin (GDF-8) gene and association with strength measures in the Women's Health and Aging Study II cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:1093-6 pubmed
  20. Hittel D, Berggren J, Shearer J, Boyle K, Houmard J. Increased secretion and expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle from extremely obese women. Diabetes. 2009;58:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This may contribute to systemic metabolic deterioration of skeletal muscle with the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. ..
  21. Rebbapragada A, Benchabane H, Wrana J, Celeste A, Attisano L. Myostatin signals through a transforming growth factor beta-like signaling pathway to block adipogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7230-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results reveal a strikingly specific antagonism of BMP7-mediated processes by myostatin and suggest that myostatin is an important regulator of adipogenesis. ..
  22. Mitchell M, Osepchook C, Leung K, McMahon C, Bass J. Myostatin is a human placental product that regulates glucose uptake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:1434-7 pubmed
    ..Myostatin is synthesized, released, and acts within the human placenta. It contributes to placental glucose homeostasis and may be a therapeutic target in diseases ranging from placental insufficiency to diabetes in pregnancy. ..
  23. Hamrick M, McPherron A, Lovejoy C. Bone mineral content and density in the humerus of adult myostatin-deficient mice. Calcif Tissue Int. 2002;71:63-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the effects of increased muscle mass on the mouse humerus are localized to regions where muscles attach; furthermore, these effects include increased mineral content of both trabecular and cortical bone. ..
  24. Corsi A, Ferrucci L, Gozzini A, Tanini A, Brandi M. Myostatin polymorphisms and age-related sarcopenia in the Italian population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50:1463 pubmed
  25. Anderson S, Goldberg A, Whitman M. Identification of a novel pool of extracellular pro-myostatin in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7027-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-secretion activation of this pool by furin family proprotein convertases may therefore represent a major control point for activation of myostatin in skeletal muscle. ..
  26. Louis E, Raue U, Yang Y, Jemiolo B, Trappe S. Time course of proteolytic, cytokine, and myostatin gene expression after acute exercise in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:1744-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this information suggests a greater induction of proteolytic genes following RUN compared with RE. ..
  27. Hill J, Qiu Y, Hewick R, Wolfman N. Regulation of myostatin in vivo by growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein-1: a novel protein with protease inhibitor and follistatin domains. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1144-54 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, recombinant GASP-1 binds directly not only to mature myostatin, but also to the myostatin propeptide. Thus, GASP-1 represents a novel class of inhibitory TGFbeta binding proteins. ..
  28. Trendelenburg A, Meyer A, Rohner D, Boyle J, Hatakeyama S, Glass D. Myostatin reduces Akt/TORC1/p70S6K signaling, inhibiting myoblast differentiation and myotube size. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1258-70 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; In vivo, inhibition of myostatin increases muscle creatine kinase activity, coincident with an increase in muscle size, demonstrating that this in vitro differentiation measure is also upregulated in vivo. ..
  29. Chien Y, Han D, Hwu W, Thurberg B, Yang W. Myostatin and insulin-like growth factor I: potential therapeutic biomarkers for pompe disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71900 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of these molecules as potential therapeutic biomarkers in Pompe disease and other neuromuscular diseases warrants further study. ..
  30. Lee S, McPherron A. Regulation of myostatin activity and muscle growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9306-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the propeptide, follistatin, or other molecules that block signaling through this pathway may be useful agents for enhancing muscle growth for both human therapeutic and agricultural applications. ..
  31. Grobet L, Martin L, Poncelet D, Pirottin D, Brouwers B, Riquet J, et al. A deletion in the bovine myostatin gene causes the double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Nat Genet. 1997;17:71-4 pubmed
    ..5). We used a positional candidate approach to demonstrate that a mutation in bovine MSTN, which encodes myostatin, a member of the TGF beta superfamily, is responsible for the double-muscled phenotype...
  32. Muniz V, Senkevics A, Zilbersztajn D, Gurgel Giannetti J, Silva H, Yamamoto L, et al. Genetic variability in the myostatin gene does not explain the muscle hypertrophy and clinical penetrance in myotonia congenita. Muscle Nerve. 2010;41:427-8 pubmed publisher
  33. Serpa P, Garbade P, Natalini C, Pires A, Tisotti T. High-resolution melting analysis for detection of a single-nucleotide polymorphism and the genotype of the myostatin gene in warmblood horses. Am J Vet Res. 2017;78:63-68 pubmed publisher
    ..66493737C>T polymorphism in the myostatin gene (MSTN) and determine the frequency of 3 previously defined g.66493737 genotypes (T/T, T/C, and C/C) in warmblood horses...
  34. Hammers D, Merscham Banda M, Hsiao J, ENGST S, Hartman J, Sweeney H. Supraphysiological levels of GDF11 induce striated muscle atrophy. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:531-544 pubmed publisher
    ..a potential therapeutic for age-related cardiac and skeletal muscle decrements, despite high homology to myostatin (Mstn), a potent negative regulator of muscle mass...
  35. Rochus C, Tortereau F, Plisson Petit F, Restoux G, Moreno Romieux C, Tosser Klopp G, et al. Revealing the selection history of adaptive loci using genome-wide scans for selection: an example from domestic sheep. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:71 pubmed publisher
    ..loci commonly identified as selection targets in many species ("selection hotspots") including ABCG2, LCORL/NCAPG, MSTN, and coat colour genes such as ASIP, MC1R, MITF, and TYRP1...
  36. Gao F, Kishida T, Ejima A, Gojo S, Mazda O. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases. ..
  37. Ohta M, Hosokawa Y, Hatano N, Sugano A, Ito A, Takaoka Y. Efficacy of femtosecond lasers for application of acupuncture therapy. Lasers Med Sci. 2017;32:2167-2171 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported suppression of myostatin (Mstn) gene expression in skeletal muscle by means of femtosecond laser (FL) irradiation, after electroacupuncture, in ..
  38. Oestreich A, Kamp W, McCray M, Carleton S, Karasseva N, Lenz K, et al. Decreasing maternal myostatin programs adult offspring bone strength in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:13522-13527 pubmed
    ..Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass. Parental myostatin deficiency (Mstntm1Sjl/+) increases muscle mass in wild-type offspring, suggesting an intrauterine programming effect...
  39. Torres Velarde J, Ibarra Castro L, Rodríguez Ibarra E, Sifuentes Romero I, Hernández Cornejo R, García Gasca A. Expression of myostatin in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus during larval and juvenile development under cultured conditions. J Fish Biol. 2015;87:1147-64 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the developmental expression pattern of myostatin (mstn) in the spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus under culture conditions is presented. The full coding sequence of mstn from L...
  40. Dschietzig T. Myostatin - From the Mighty Mouse to cardiovascular disease and cachexia. Clin Chim Acta. 2014;433:216-24 pubmed publisher
  41. Snijders T, Wall B, Dirks M, Senden J, Hartgens F, Dolmans J, et al. Muscle disuse atrophy is not accompanied by changes in skeletal muscle satellite cell content. Clin Sci (Lond). 2014;126:557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein and/or mRNA expression of key genes [i.e. MYOD (myogenic differentiation), MYOG (myogenin) and MSTN (myostatin)] in the satellite cell regulatory pathways were determined using Western blotting and RT-PCR (real-time ..
  42. Zhang J, Cui M, Nie Y, Dai B, Li F, Liu D, et al. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated specific integration of fat-1 at the goat MSTN locus. FEBS J. 2018;285:2828-2839 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, this study specifically inserted the fat-1 gene into the goat MSTN locus, thereby achieving simultaneous fat-1 insertion and MSTN mutation...
  43. Szulc P, Hofbauer L, Rauner M, Goettsch C, Chapurlat R, Schoppet M. Serum myostatin levels are negatively associated with abdominal aortic calcification in older men: the STRAMBO study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;167:873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In older men, total myostatin serum levels are inversely correlated with AAC. Further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms underlying this association and to assess utility of myostatin as a cardiovascular marker. ..
  44. Fernández Solà J, Lluis M, Sacanella E, Estruch R, Antúnez E, Urbano Márquez A. Increased myostatin activity and decreased myocyte proliferation in chronic alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The final result may suppose an imbalance in myocyte homeostasis, with a net loss in total ventricular myocyte mass and progressive ventricular dysfunction. ..
  45. Rodgers B, Roalson E, Weber G, Roberts S, Goetz F. A proposed nomenclature consensus for the myostatin gene family. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E371-2 pubmed publisher
  46. Retamales A, Zuloaga R, Valenzuela C, Gallardo Escárate C, Molina A, Valdés J. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;464:596-602 pubmed publisher
    ..This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1)...
  47. Wallner C, Jaurich H, Wagner J, Becerikli M, Harati K, Dadras M, et al. Inhibition of GDF8 (Myostatin) accelerates bone regeneration in diabetes mellitus type 2. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9878 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover recent studies suggest a highly underestimated importance of GDF8 (Myostatin) in bone metabolism...
  48. Binns A, Gray M, Henson A, Fort I. Changes in Lean Mass and Serum Myostatin with Habitual Protein Intake and High-Velocity Resistance Training. J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21:1111-1117 pubmed publisher
    Examine the associations between dietary protein intake, lean mass (LM), and serum myostatin (Mstn) levels among community-dwelling older adults participating in a 20-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) program...
  49. Schwarz N, McKinley Barnard S, Spillane M, Andre T, Gann J, Willoughby D. Effect of resistance exercise intensity on the expression of PGC-1? isoforms and the anabolic and catabolic signaling mediators, IGF-1 and myostatin, in human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41:856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to determine the effects of the various isoforms of PGC-1? in human skeletal muscle on the translational level as well as their relation to the expression of IGF-1 and myostatin. ..
  50. Lima E, Povh J, Otonel R, Leonhardt J, Alfieri A, Headley S, et al. Morphology and muscle gene expression in GIFT and Supreme Nile tilapia varieties reared in two cultivation systems. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..influence of cultivation in hapas and earthen ponds on the diameter of white muscle fibers and on the myostatin (MSTN-1) gene in GIFT and Supreme varieties of tilapia...
  51. Tang L, Li N, Jian W, Kang Y, Yin B, Sun S, et al. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound prevents muscle atrophy induced by type 1 diabetes in rats. Skelet Muscle. 2017;7:29 pubmed publisher
    ..LIPUS significantly activated Akt and upregulated the expression of mTOR, and LIPUS downregulated the expression of MSTN, its receptor ActRIIB, and FoxO1...
  52. Chabi B, Pauly M, Carillon J, Carnac G, Favier F, Fouret G, et al. Protective effect of myostatin gene deletion on aging-related muscle metabolic decline. Exp Gerontol. 2016;78:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the effects of aging on these features in aged wild-type (WT) and mstn knockout (KO) mice...
  53. Peiris H, Lappas M, Georgiou H, Vaswani K, Salomon C, Rice G, et al. Myostatin in the placentae of pregnancies complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus. Placenta. 2015;36:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesise that myostatin is active in these placentae and could affect glucose homoeostasis and/or cytokine production thereby altering the function of the placenta. ..
  54. Ishida J, Konishi M, Saitoh M, Anker M, Anker S, Springer J. Myostatin signaling is up-regulated in female patients with advanced heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2017;238:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced myostatin signaling in female failing heart may causally contribute to pathogenesis of HF and cardiac cachexia. ..
  55. Chang H, Fang Y, Liu P, Cheng J, Yang X, Leung P. Connective tissue growth factor mediates growth differentiation factor 8-induced increase of lysyl oxidase activity in human granulosa-lutein cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;434:186-98 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a unique member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that is expressed in ..
  56. Hedayati M, Nozhat Z, Hannani M. Can the Serum Level of Myostatin be Considered as an Informative Factor for Cachexia Prevention in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer?. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:119-23 pubmed
    ..The findings of this study support the hypothesis that Mst serum levels may have a potential ability for early diagnosis of cachexia in MTC patients, especially in females. ..
  57. Furihata T, Kinugawa S, Fukushima A, Takada S, Homma T, Masaki Y, et al. Serum myostatin levels are independently associated with skeletal muscle wasting in patients with heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2016;220:483-7 pubmed publisher
    ..02). Serum myostatin levels were significantly decreased in HF patients and associated with lower extremity muscle wasting, suggesting that myostatin may be an important factor for maintaining skeletal muscle mass and strength in HF. ..
  58. Tsigkou A, Reis F, Ciarmela P, Lee M, Jiang B, Tosti C, et al. Expression Levels of Myostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 mRNAs in Uterine Leiomyoma are Correlated With Dysmenorrhea. Reprod Sci. 2015;22:1597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the present findings showed that MMP14 mRNA is highly expressed in uterine leiomyoma, where it correlates with the molecular expression of growth factors and is further increased in cases of intense dysmenorrhea. ..
  59. Saremi A, Gharakhanloo R, Sharghi S, Gharaati M, Larijani B, Omidfar K. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;317:25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..05), but had not additional effect on GASP-1 (p>0.05). The effects of resistance training on serum levels of myostatin and GASP-1, may explain the increased muscle mass that is amplified by creatine supplementation. ..
  60. Bayarsaikhan O, Kawai N, Mori H, Kinouchi N, Nikawa T, Tanaka E. Co-Administration of Myostatin-Targeting siRNA and ActRIIB-Fc Fusion Protein Increases Masseter Muscle Mass and Fiber Size. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017;63:244-248 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the co-delivery of myostatin-targeting siRNA (Mstn-siRNA) and ActRIIB-Fc into skeletal muscle as a potential treatment of atrophic myopathies...
  61. Fernández Santander A, Valveny N, Harich N, Kandil M, Luna F, Martín M, et al. Polymorphisms influencing muscle phenotypes in North-African and Spanish populations. Ann Hum Biol. 2012;39:166-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) gene and of the missense substitution K153R in the myostatin (GDF8) gene in one Spanish and two North African populations...
  62. Fernández Solà J, Borrisser Pairó F, Antúnez E, Tobías E. Myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 in hypertensive heart disease: a prospective study in human heart donors. J Hypertens. 2015;33:851-8; discussion 859 pubmed publisher
    ..Myostatin myocardial expression increases in the presence of structural CMP either of hypertensive or other origin. These effects open the possibility of modulating hypertensive-induced cardiac damage. ..
  63. Cassar Malek I, Boby C, Picard B, Reverter A, Hudson N. Molecular regulation of high muscle mass in developing Blonde d'Aquitaine cattle foetuses. Biol Open. 2017;6:1483-1492 pubmed publisher
    The Blonde d'Aquitaine (BA) is a French cattle breed with enhanced muscularity, partly attributable to a MSTN mutation. The BA m...
  64. Wallner C, Drysch M, Becerikli M, Jaurich H, Wagner J, Dittfeld S, et al. Interaction with the GDF8/11 pathway reveals treatment options for adenocarcinoma of the breast. Breast. 2018;37:134-141 pubmed publisher
    ..the interaction of breast adenocarcinoma with the ubiquitously present protein Follistatin and subsequently the GDF8/11 pathway...
  65. Lee S, McPherron A. Myostatin and the control of skeletal muscle mass. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:604-7 pubmed
  66. Petersen A, Magkos F, Atherton P, Selby A, Smith K, Rennie M, et al. Smoking impairs muscle protein synthesis and increases the expression of myostatin and MAFbx in muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E843-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that smoking impairs the muscle protein synthesis process and increases the expression of genes associated with impaired muscle maintenance; smoking therefore likely increases the risk of sarcopenia. ..
  67. Santiago C, Ruiz J, Muniesa C, Gonzalez Freire M, Gomez Gallego F, Lucia A. Does the polygenic profile determine the potential for becoming a world-class athlete? Insights from the sport of rowing. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:e188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, we cannot discard the fact that, overall, elite athletes are endowed with a more "favorable" polygenic profile than the general population. ..
  68. Dieli Conwright C, Spektor T, Rice J, Sattler F, Schroeder E. Hormone therapy and maximal eccentric exercise alters myostatin-related gene expression in postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:1374-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, postmenopausal women using HT experienced a profoundly greater myostatin-related response to maximal eccentric exercise. ..
  69. Liu L, Jiang G, Peng Z, Li Y, Li J, Zou L, et al. The effect of high fat diet on daily rhythm of the core clock genes and muscle functional genes in the skeletal muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;213:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Cry1/2, Per1/2, DBP, AANAT, NIFL3, BHLHE40, NR1D2, RORA, RORB, RORC) and 12 muscle functional genes (FBXO32, MBNL1, MSTN, Myf5, Myf6, MyoD, MyoG, MyoM1, PPARa, PDK4, Trim63, UCP3) in the skeletal muscle of the two treatments...
  70. Fang M, Yu C, Chen S, Xiong W, Li X, Zeng R, et al. Identification of Novel Clinically Relevant Variants in 70 Southern Chinese patients with Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection by Next-generation Sequencing. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10035 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) were in the FBN1 gene, 3 in Col5A2, 2 in ACTA2, 2 in MYH11, 2 in MYLK, 2 in SLC2A10, 1 in MSTN and 1 in SMAD3 respectively...
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