Gene Symbol: MMP-9
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 9
Alias: CLG4B, GELB, MANDP2, MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-9, macrophage gelatinase, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase), type V collagenase
Species: human
Products:     MMP-9

Top Publications

  1. Cong Y, Guo X, Liu X, Cao D, Jia X, Xiao X, et al. Association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in the extracellular matrix metalloprotease-9 gene with PACG in southern China. Mol Vis. 2009;15:1412-7 pubmed
    ..To study the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs17576 and rs2250889 in the extracellular matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) gene with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in southern Chinese patients...
  2. Duellman T, Warren C, Peissig P, Wynn M, Yang J. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 genotype as a potential genetic marker for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:529-37 pubmed publisher
    ..06-5.70). The combined approach of direct experimental confirmation of the functional alterations of MMP-9 SNPs and logistic-regression analysis revealed significant association between MMP-9 genotype and abdominal aortic aneurysm. ..
  3. Barr T, Latour L, Lee K, Schaewe T, Luby M, Chang G, et al. Blood-brain barrier disruption in humans is independently associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-9. Stroke. 2010;41:e123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..If the association between MMP-9 and BBB disruption is confirmed in future studies, HARM may be a useful imaging marker to evaluate MMP-9 inhibition in ischemic stroke and other populations with BBB disruption. ..
  4. Jackson P, Xu X, Wilson L, Weathington N, Clancy J, Blalock J, et al. Human neutrophil elastase-mediated cleavage sites of MMP-9 and TIMP-1: implications to cystic fibrosis proteolytic dysfunction. Mol Med. 2010;16:159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate increased MMP-9 activity in stable CF lung disease, and the presence of specific protease products in CF sputum highlights that HNE-mediated activity plays a role in this dysregulation. ..
  5. Planaguma J, Liljeström M, Alameda F, Butzow R, Virtanen I, Reventos J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 codistribute with transcription factors RUNX1/AML1 and ETV5/ERM at the invasive front of endometrial and ovarian carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate concurrent mechanisms in expression of MMP-2 and -9, RUNX1/AML1 and ETV5/ERM, and several of the basement membrane components, which are likely to associate with the invasive stage of EEC and OEC. ..
  6. Lan Y, Hsiao J, Chang K, Chang J, Chen C, Lai H, et al. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A promotes invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through ERK/Fra-1-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase 9. J Virol. 2012;86:6656-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we found that in NPC cells, LMP2A upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a metastasis-associated protease...
  7. Lee K, Kim J. Kiss-1 suppresses MMP-9 expression by activating p38 MAP kinase in human stomach cancer. Oncol Res. 2009;18:107-16 pubmed
    ..Downregulation of Kiss-1 using Kiss-1 shRNA also increased in vitro cell invasion. In conclusion, Kiss-1 suppresses MMP-9 expression by activating the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway. ..
  8. Kim S, Choi J, Lim H, Lee S, Kim W, Cho S, et al. EGF-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated by the JAK3/ERK pathway, but not by the JAK3/STAT-3 pathway in a SKBR3 breast cancer cell line. Cell Signal. 2009;21:892-8 pubmed
    ..The JAK3/ERK pathway may play an important role in EGFinduced MMP-9 expression in SKBR3 cells. ..
  9. He J, Qin H, Ren Z, Cui C, Zhang Y, Ranatunga D, et al. MMP-9 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the association with clinicopathological features and prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..049). MMP-9 mRNA expression in PBMCs from NPC patients is increased and associated with the clinical characteristics and overall survival. It supports the belief that MMP-9 may contribute to the progression of NPC. ..

More Information

Publications349 found, 100 shown here

  1. de Rooy D, Zhernakova A, Tsonaka R, Willemze A, Kurreeman B, Trynka G, et al. A genetic variant in the region of MMP-9 is associated with serum levels and progression of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:1163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1×10(-6) and p<0.0036. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels were measured with ELISA in baseline serum samples...
  2. Lin Y, Tsai P, Kandaswami C, Cheng C, Ke F, Lee P, et al. Effects of dietary flavonoids, luteolin, and quercetin on the reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A431 epidermal cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1829-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Luteolin and quercetin show inherent potential as chemopreventive/antineoplastic agents and do this by abating tumor progression through a reversal of EMT. ..
  3. Kader A, Liu J, Shao L, Dinney C, Lin J, Wang Y, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms are associated with bladder cancer invasiveness. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:2614-20 pubmed
    ..32; 95% CI, 1.30-4.12). Our results suggest that genetic changes in MMPs are associated with the development of invasive bladder cancer. ..
  4. Marzano A, Cugno M, Trevisan V, Fanoni D, Venegoni L, Berti E, et al. Role of inflammatory cells, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in neutrophil-mediated skin diseases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;162:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In ulcerative PG, the wound bed is the site of neutrophil-recruitment, whereas in the wound edge activated T lymphocytes and macrophages pave the way to ulcer formation. ..
  5. Crider K, Whitehead N, Buus R. Genetic variation associated with preterm birth: a HuGE review. Genet Med. 2005;7:593-604 pubmed
    ..This review highlights maternal and fetal genetic susceptibilities to PTB, the potential relationships with environmental risk factors, and the need for additional well-designed studies of this critical public health problem. ..
  6. Hurst N, Stocken D, Wilson S, Keh C, Wakelam M, Ismail T. Elevated serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) concentration predicts the presence of colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:971-7 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated raised serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (sMMP-9) in a range of cancers...
  7. Faber Elmann A, Sthoeger Z, Tcherniack A, Dayan M, Mozes E. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 is elevated in sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;127:393-8 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study suggest that MMP-9 plays a role in the pathogenesis of SLE. ..
  8. Pöllänen P, Lehtimaki T, Mikkelsson J, Ilveskoski E, Kunnas T, Perola M, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase3 and 9 gene promoter polymorphisms: joint action of two loci as a risk factor for coronary artery complicated plaques. Atherosclerosis. 2005;180:73-8 pubmed
    ..The joint action of two susceptibility loci, rather than single MMP genes alone, and the particular combination of MMP3 and MMP9 genotypes present at these loci may contribute to heterogeneity in the presentation of atherosclerosis. ..
  9. Lakatos G, Sipos F, Miheller P, Hritz I, Varga M, Juhasz M, et al. The behavior of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis and ulcerative colitis. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the mucosal up-regulation of MMP-9 correlated with the severity of inflammation in UC. The increased MMP-9 expression could contribute to the severity of mucosal damage in active UC. ..
  10. St Jean P, Zhang X, Hart B, Lamlum H, Webster M, Steed D, et al. Characterization of a dinucleotide repeat in the 92 kDa type IV collagenase gene (CLG4B), localization of CLG4B to chromosome 20 and the role of CLG4B in aortic aneurysmal disease. Ann Hum Genet. 1995;59:17-24 pubmed
    Proteolytic imbalance may play a role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). CLG4B, which encodes the 92-kDa form of type IV collagenase, is a candidate gene for AAA...
  11. Nakamaru Y, Vuppusetty C, Wada H, Milne J, Ito M, Rossios C, et al. A protein deacetylase SIRT1 is a negative regulator of metalloproteinase-9. FASEB J. 2009;23:2810-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SIRT1 is a negative regulator of MMP9 expression, and SIRT1 activation is implicated as a novel therapeutic approach to treating chronic inflammatory diseases, in which MMP9 is abundant. ..
  12. Belo V, Souza Costa D, Luizon M, Lanna C, Carneiro P, Izidoro Toledo T, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 genetic variations affect MMP-9 levels in obese children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:69-75 pubmed publisher
  13. Slattery M, John E, Torres Mejía G, Stern M, Lundgreen A, Hines L, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase genes are associated with breast cancer risk and survival: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63165 pubmed publisher
    ..0041) with MMP2 having the strongest gene association (p(artp)?=?0.0007). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in MMP genes influence breast cancer development and survival in this genetically admixed population. ..
  14. Dragutinović V, Izrael Zivkovic L, Radovanovic N. Relation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 to different stages of tumors in the serum of gastric cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:1203-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-9 in serum plays an important role in the progression of gastric cancer. ..
  15. Eldrup N, Grønholdt M, Sillesen H, Nordestgaard B. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 associated with stroke or cardiovascular death in patients with carotid stenosis. Circulation. 2006;114:1847-54 pubmed
    ..Combining elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plaque echolucency was associated with a 4-fold risk for ipsilateral stroke or cardiovascular death and a 3-fold risk for ipsilateral stroke. ..
  16. Pellikainen J, Ropponen K, Kataja V, Kellokoski J, Eskelinen M, Kosma V. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in breast cancer with a special reference to activator protein-2, HER2, and prognosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:7621-8 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of MMP-9 expression seems to add valuable information on breast cancer prognosis. ..
  17. Chang H, Yang S, Li M, Lin C, Hsieh Y, Lian J. Relationships between circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;366:243-8 pubmed
    ..344, p<0.01). This study demonstrated a correlation between MMP-2, -9 and serum creatinine in CKD patients to suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 might contribute in the pathogenesis of CKD. ..
  18. Louboutin J, Strayer D. Blood-brain barrier abnormalities caused by HIV-1 gp120: mechanistic and therapeutic implications. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:482575 pubmed publisher
  19. Herszenyi L, Sipos F, Galamb O, Solymosi N, Hritz I, Miheller P, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the normal mucosa-adenoma-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence of the colon. Pathol Oncol Res. 2008;14:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate a significantly higher expression of MMP-9 in adenoma with high grade dysplasia-CRC sequence as compared to normal tissue. The over-expression of MMP-9 strongly suggests its association with colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  20. Ardans J, Economou A, Martinson J, Zhou M, Wahl L. Oxidized low-density and high-density lipoproteins regulate the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 by activated monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71:1012-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the interaction of primary monocytes with ox-LDL and proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to vascular remodeling and plaque rupture. ..
  21. Zhou G, Zhai Y, Cui Y, Qiu W, Yang H, Zhang X, et al. Functional polymorphisms and haplotypes in the promoter of the MMP2 gene are associated with risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:1091-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the genetic polymorphisms or haplotype in the MMP2 promoter may play a role in mediating the susceptibility to NPC in Chinese populations. ..
  22. Mazzotti D, Singulane C, Ota V, Rodrigues T, Furuya T, de Souza F, et al. Association of APOE, GCPII and MMP9 polymorphisms with common diseases and lipid levels in an older adult/elderly cohort. Gene. 2014;535:370-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings contributed to characterize risk factors specific for the studied population and to better understand the molecular physiopathology of common morbidities and conditions affecting older-adult/elderly people. ..
  23. Ito I, Nagai S, Handa T, Muro S, Hirai T, Tsukino M, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 promoter polymorphism associated with upper lung dominant emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:1378-82 pubmed
    b>Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has proteolytic activity against connective tissue proteins and appears to play an important role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  24. Vairaktaris E, Vassiliou S, Nkenke E, Serefoglou Z, Derka S, Tsigris C, et al. A metalloproteinase-9 polymorphism which affects its expression is associated with increased risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008;34:450-5 pubmed
  25. Tsai H, Su P, Lee T, Tee Y, Lin L, Yang S, et al. Significant elevation and correlation of plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin and its complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:1252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7% and 74.5%. Plasma NGAL and NGAL/MMP-9 complex may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for PID. In patients with PID, about 80% have plasma levels of NGAL or NGAL/MMP-9 complex level >10.04 ng/ml or 2.33 ng/ml, respectively. ..
  26. Matsumura S, Oue N, Nakayama H, Kitadai Y, Yoshida K, Yamaguchi Y, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the MMP-9 promoter affects tumor progression and invasive phenotype of gastric cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2005;131:19-25 pubmed
    ..05, for each). Our results indicate that the T allele in the MMP-9 promoter is associated with the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer. ..
  27. Kim H, Kim J, Han E, Hwang Y, Choi J, Park B, et al. Metallothionein-2A overexpression increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and invasion of breast cancer cells. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that MT-2A silencing can inhibit breast cancer invasiveness. ..
  28. Rao Q, Zheng G, Lin Y, Wu K. Production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by cord blood CD34+ cells and its role in migration. Ann Hematol. 2004;83:409-13 pubmed
    ..3+/-11.8% and 37.5+/-10.4% inhibition, respectively). Our results strengthen the potential role of MMP-9 in the higher migrational capacity of CB CD34(+) cells, which may be beneficial to homing of these cells to the BM environment. ..
  29. Hirakawa S, Lange E, Colicigno C, Freedman B, Rich S, Bowden D. Evaluation of genetic variation and association in the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) gene in ESRD patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:133-42 pubmed
    ..Expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) gene is increased in a variety of renal diseases...
  30. Jin J, Cai L, Liu Z, Zhou X. miRNA-218 inhibits osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion by down-regulating of TIAM1, MMP2 and MMP9. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:3681-4 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that miR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcomas by down-regulating TIAM1, MMP2 and MMP9 expression. ..
  31. Kubben F, Sier C, Meijer M, Van den Berg M, van der Reijden J, Griffioen G, et al. Clinical impact of MMP and TIMP gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;95:744-51 pubmed
    ..We conclude that MMP-related SNPs, especially MMP-7(-181A>G) and TIMP-2(303C>T), may be helpful in identifying gastric cancer patients with a poor clinical outcome. ..
  32. Zhou H, Wong A. Activation of p70S6K induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 associated with hepatocyte growth factor-mediated invasion in human ovarian cancer cells. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2557-66 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that interfering p70(S6K) may provide a novel means of controlling tumor cell invasiveness. ..
  33. Li Z, Bian L, Li Y, Liang Y, Liang H. Expression of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis. Pathol Res Pract. 2009;205:542-50 pubmed publisher
    ..026 and 0.006, respectively). PAR-2 is a possible mediator cooperating with LMP-1 and MMP9 to influence the progression of NPC by inducing angiogenesis and promoting lymph node metastasis. ..
  34. Hsieh W, Kuan T, Cheng K, Liao Y, Chen M, Lin P, et al. ACE/ACE2 ratio and MMP-9 activity as potential biomarkers in tuberculous pleural effusions. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:1197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy. ..
  35. Inagaki N, Stern C, McBain J, Lopata A, Kornman L, Wilkinson D. Analysis of intra-uterine cytokine concentration and matrix-metalloproteinase activity in women with recurrent failed embryo transfer. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:608-15 pubmed
    ..In IVF patients with recurrent implantation failure, an altered pattern of intra-uterine cytokine concentration and MMP activity was observed. ..
  36. Cowden Dahl K, Symowicz J, Ning Y, Gutierrez E, Fishman D, Adley B, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is a mediator of epidermal growth factor-dependent e-cadherin loss in ovarian carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4606-13 pubmed publisher
    ..a mechanism by which EGFR activation promotes disruption of adherens junctions through induction of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)...
  37. Lin C, Shen S, Chien C, Yang L, Shia L, Chen Y. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced invasion/migration of glioblastoma cells through activating PKCalpha/ERK/NF-kappaB-dependent MMP-9 expression. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:472-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of flavonoids to prevent the migration/invasion of glioblastoma cells through blocking PKCalpha/ERK/NF-kappaB activation is first demonstrated herein. ..
  38. Lamblin N, Bauters C, Hermant X, Lablanche J, Helbecque N, Amouyel P. Polymorphisms in the promoter regions of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-12 genes as determinants of aneurysmal coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:43-8 pubmed
    ..The MMP-3 5A allele is associated with the occurrence of CA. Our results suggest that an increased proteolysis in the arterial wall may act as a susceptibility factor for the development of CA in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. ..
  39. Aung T, Yong V, Lim M, Venkataraman D, Toh J, Chew P, et al. Lack of association between the rs2664538 polymorphism in the MMP-9 gene and primary angle closure glaucoma in Singaporean subjects. J Glaucoma. 2008;17:257-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to confirm this association in Singaporean Chinese subjects with both acute and chronic PACG...
  40. Mizon Gérard F, de Groote P, Lamblin N, Hermant X, Dallongeville J, Amouyel P, et al. Prognostic impact of matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms in patients with heart failure according to the aetiology of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:688-93 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MMP genotyping could provide important additional information for refining risk stratification in patients with heart failure. MMP genotyping may help to select patients who could benefit from MMP inhibition. ..
  41. Demacq C, de Souza A, Machado A, Gerlach R, Tanus Santos J. Genetic polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 does not affect plasma MMP-9 activity in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;365:183-7 pubmed
  42. Paupert J, Mansat De Mas V, Demur C, Salles B, Muller C. Cell-surface MMP-9 regulates the invasive capacity of leukemia blast cells with monocytic features. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1047-53 pubmed
    ..These results might have important functional significance in the occurrence of extra-medullar infiltrates of leukaemia cells that occurs frequently during the onset of monocyte-related AML sub-types. ..
  43. Kong M, Gaggar A, Li Y, Winkler M, Blalock J, Clancy J. Matrix metalloproteinase activity in pediatric acute lung injury. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6:9-17 pubmed
    ..These results identify a specific repertoire of MMP isoforms in the lung secretions of pediatric ALI patients, and demonstrate inverse changes in MMPs -8 and -9 with protracted disease. ..
  44. Song Y, Qian L, Song S, Chen L, Zhang Y, Yuan G, et al. Fra-1 and Stat3 synergistically regulate activation of human MMP-9 gene. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:137-43 pubmed
    ..A juxtaposed Stat3/AP-1 element plays a crucial role in the manner of enhancersome in the activation of MMP-9 gene. The functional cooperation of the Stat3 and AP-1 transcription factors is required for the transcription of MMP-9 gene. ..
  45. Rodriguez Pla A, Beaty T, Savino P, Eagle R, Seo P, Soloski M. Association of a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase 9 with giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:1849-53 pubmed publisher
    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common type of primary vasculitis. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is present in arterial lesions of GCA and may be involved in its pathogenesis...
  46. Park K, Hwang S, Sheen S, Oh Y, Han J, Lee K. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in pleural effusions of tuberculosis and lung cancer. Respiration. 2005;72:166-75 pubmed
    ..MMP-9 is increased in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with transudates and malignant pleural effusions of lung cancer and is produced predominantly by epithelioid cells in the granulomas of tuberculous pleural tissues. ..
  47. Desai B, Ma T, Zhu J, Chellaiah M. Characterization of the expression of variant and standard CD44 in prostate cancer cells: identification of the possible molecular mechanism of CD44/MMP9 complex formation on the cell surface. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:272-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, MMP9 knock-down PC3 cells showed reduced CD44 at cellular and surface levels. Thus we conclude that surface expression of CD44 and activation of MMP9 on the cell surface are interdependent. ..
  48. Longo G, Xiong W, Greiner T, Zhao Y, Fiotti N, Baxter B. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 work in concert to produce aortic aneurysms. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:625-32 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that macrophage-derived MMP-9 and mesenchymal cell MMP-2 are both required and work in concert to produce AAA. ..
  49. Missé D, Esteve P, Renneboog B, Vidal M, Cerutti M, St Pierre Y, et al. HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 induces the MMP-9 cytopathogenic factor production that is abolished by inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Blood. 2001;98:541-7 pubmed
    ..Importantly, T- and M-tropic gp120 are able to induce the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), an extracellular metalloproteinase present in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-1 by T ..
  50. Shellman Y, Makela M, Norris D. Induction of secreted matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in human melanoma cells by extracellular matrix proteins and cytokines. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:207-11 pubmed
  51. Diamanti Kandarakis E, Livadas S, Kandarakis S, Margeli A, Papassotiriou I. Serum concentrations of atherogenic proteins neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and its complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 are significantly lower in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: hint of a protective mechanism?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:525-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL complex needs to be further investigated, since suppression of these atheromatous molecules might have a protective role in women with PCOS. ..
  52. Chuang L, Chen N, Lin S, Chang Y, Chao I, Pang J. Increased matrix metalloproteinases-9 after sleep in plasma and in monocytes of obstructive sleep apnea patients. Life Sci. 2013;93:220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to determine the correlation of MMPs including MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
  53. Wu Q, Yang Q, Huang Y, She H, Liang J, Yang Q, et al. Expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in lymphatic invasiveness and metastasis of breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97804 pubmed publisher
    b>Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is a type-IV collagenase that is highly expressed in breast cancer, but its exact role in tumor progression and metastasis is unclear...
  54. Han Y, Kim H, Yoon J, Yi S, Moon H, Ahn J, et al. Haplotype analysis of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene associated with advanced-stage endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The haplotypes in the MMP-9 gene may correlate with the progression of endometriosis, and further study of these variations might improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis. ..
  55. Redondo Muñoz J, Ugarte Berzal E, Terol M, Van Den Steen P, Hernández Del Cerro M, Roderfeld M, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 promotes chronic lymphocytic leukemia b cell survival through its hemopexin domain. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:160-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish that MMP/receptor binding induces intracellular survival signals and highlight the role of (pro)MMP-9 in B-CLL pathogenesis. ..
  56. Armstrong C, Abilleira S, Sitzer M, Markus H, Bevan S. Polymorphisms in MMP family and TIMP genes and carotid artery intima-media thickness. Stroke. 2007;38:2895-9 pubmed
    ..These findings need replication in hypertensive populations to assess their effects more fully. ..
  57. Redondo Muñoz J, Escobar Díaz E, Samaniego R, Terol M, Garcia Marco J, Garcia Pardo A. MMP-9 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is up-regulated by alpha4beta1 integrin or CXCR4 engagement via distinct signaling pathways, localizes to podosomes, and is involved in cell invasion and migration. Blood. 2006;108:3143-51 pubmed
    ..MMP-9 could therefore constitute a target for treatment of this malignancy. ..
  58. Mendes O, Kim H, Stoica G. Expression of MMP2, MMP9 and MMP3 in breast cancer brain metastasis in a rat model. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2005;22:237-46 pubmed
    ..In addition, PD 166793 decreased the in vitro invasive cell behavior of ENU1546. Together our results suggest that MMP-2, -3 and -9 may be involved in the process of metastasis of breast cancer to the brain. ..
  59. Pereza N, Ostojic S, Volk M, Kapovic M, Peterlin B. Matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, 3 and 9 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that MMP2 -735 C/T and MMP9 -1562 C/T functional gene polymorphisms might be associated with an increased risk of IRSA in women. ..
  60. Fernandez C, Yan L, Louis G, Yang J, Kutok J, Moses M. The matrix metalloproteinase-9/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin complex plays a role in breast tumor growth and is present in the urine of breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:5390-5 pubmed
    ..Clinically, these data suggest that the urinary detection of MMP-9/NGAL may be useful in noninvasively predicting disease status of breast cancer patients. ..
  61. Van Den Steen P, Wuyts A, Husson S, Proost P, Van Damme J, Opdenakker G. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 and neutrophil collagenase/MMP-8 process the chemokines human GCP-2/CXCL6, ENA-78/CXCL5 and mouse GCP-2/LIX and modulate their physiological activities. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:3739-49 pubmed
    ..This rapid conversion was also performed by crude neutrophil granule secretion under physiological conditions, extending the relevance of this proteolytic cleavage to the in vivo situation. ..
  62. Bendardaf R, Buhmeida A, Hilska M, Laato M, Syrjanen S, Syrjanen K, et al. MMP-9 (gelatinase B) expression is associated with disease-free survival and disease-specific survival in colorectal cancer patients. Cancer Invest. 2010;28:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..014), but not of DSS, which was independently predicted by disease recurrence, stage and localization. The detection of MMP-9 expression may be valuable in finding patients who are at high risk of developing disease recurrence. ..
  63. Ferrand P, Parry S, Sammel M, Macones G, Kuivaniemi H, Romero R, et al. A polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-9 promoter is associated with increased risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes in African Americans. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002;8:494-501 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there are cell host-dependent differences in MMP-9 promoter activity related to CA-repeat number and that fetal carriage of the 14 CA-repeat allele is associated with PPROM in African Americans. ..
  64. Takahashi C, Sheng Z, Horan T, Kitayama H, Maki M, Hitomi K, et al. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and inhibition of tumor invasion by the membrane-anchored glycoprotein RECK. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13221-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, purified RECK protein was found to bind to, and inhibit the proteolytic activity of, MMP-9. Thus, RECK may link oncogenic signals to tumor invasion and metastasis. ..
  65. Langers A, Sier C, Hawinkels L, Kubben F, van Duijn W, van der Reijden J, et al. MMP-2 geno-phenotype is prognostic for colorectal cancer survival, whereas MMP-9 is not. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1820-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Extreme tumour MMP-9 levels were associated with poor prognosis but SNP MMP-9(-1562C>T) was not. Tumour MMP levels were not determined by their SNP genotypes. ..
  66. Hamze A, Wei S, Bahudhanapati H, Kota S, Acharya K, Brew K. Constraining specificity in the N-domain of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1; gelatinase-selective inhibitors. Protein Sci. 2007;16:1905-13 pubmed
    ..8 and 0.4 nM for MMP-2 and -9, respectively. Interestingly, the Gly mutant has a Ki of 2.1 nM for MMP-9 and >40 muM for MMP-2, indicating that engineered TIMPs can discriminate between MMPs in the same subfamily. ..
  67. Xu D, Suenaga N, Edelmann M, Fridman R, Muschel R, Kessler B. Novel MMP-9 substrates in cancer cells revealed by a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:2215-28 pubmed publisher
  68. Hoehna Y, Uckermann O, Luksch H, Stefovska V, Marzahn J, Theil M, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 regulates cell death following pilocarpine-induced seizures in the developing brain. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;48:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..As indicated by Western blot analysis, MMP-9 activation may be linked to activation of the Erk/CREB-pathway. The findings implicate involvement of MMP-9 in the pathophysiology of brain injury following seizures in the developing brain. ..
  69. Nothnick W. Regulation of uterine matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the role of microRNAs. Semin Reprod Med. 2008;26:494-9 pubmed publisher
  70. Nagaraju G, Nalla A, Gupta R, Mohanam S, Gujrati M, Dinh D, et al. siRNA-mediated downregulation of MMP-9 and uPAR in combination with radiation induces G2/M cell-cycle arrest in Medulloblastoma. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:51-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that downregulation of MMP-9 and uPAR induces Chk1-mediated G2/M cell-cycle arrest, whereas the disruption caused by IR alone is dependent on p53- and Chk2-mediated G2/M cell-cycle arrest. ..
  71. Konopka A, Grajkowska W, Ziemiańska K, Roszkowski M, Daszkiewicz P, Rysz A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human intractable epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia. Epilepsy Res. 2013;104:45-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings support the hypothesis of the pathogenic role of MMP-9 in human epilepsy and may stimulate discussions about whether MMPs could be novel therapeutic targets for intractable epilepsy. ..
  72. Wang J, Warzecha D, Wilcken D, Wang X. Polymorphism in the gelatinase B gene and the severity of coronary arterial stenosis. Clin Sci (Lond). 2001;101:87-92 pubmed
    ..05). In conclusion, our study in a large series of angiographically defined patients suggests that the C-1562T polymorphism may not be useful as a predictor of the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. ..
  73. Takeuchi T, Hisanaga M, Nagao M, Ikeda N, Fujii H, Koyama F, et al. The membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) regulator RECK in combination with MMP-9 serves as an informative prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:5572-9 pubmed
    ..RECK/MMP-9-balance is an informative prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer. Our data also suggest that RECK suppresses tumor angiogenesis, probably by limiting the availability of VEGF in tumor tissues. ..
  74. Kubben F, Sier C, Schram M, Witte A, Veenendaal R, van Duijn W, et al. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection favourably affects altered gastric mucosal MMP-9 levels. Helicobacter. 2007;12:498-504 pubmed
    ..pylori therapy. Elevated MMP-9 levels in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa are reversible by eradication of the infection. No major changes in mucosal MMP-2 levels were observed by H. pylori eradication. ..
  75. Kaplan R, Smith N, Zucker S, Heckbert S, Rice K, Psaty B. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) and MMP9 genes and risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. Atherosclerosis. 2008;201:130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP9 haplotypes or SNPs were not associated with myocardial infarction or stroke. MMP3 haplotype may predict both cardiac events and stroke. ..
  76. Okada Y, Gonoji Y, Naka K, Tomita K, Nakanishi I, Iwata K, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (92-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase) from HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Purification and activation of the precursor and enzymic properties. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:21712-9 pubmed
    b>Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has been purified as an inactive zymogen of M(r) 92,000 (proMMP-9) from the culture medium of HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells...
  77. Gürkan A, Emingil G, Saygan B, Atilla G, Cinarcik S, Kose T, et al. Gene polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 and -12 in periodontal health and severe chronic periodontitis. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:337-45 pubmed
    ..However, T allele of MMP-9 -1562 gene might be associated with decreased susceptibility to severe CP. ..
  78. Lu Y, Wahl L. Production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by activated human monocytes involves a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt/IKKalpha/NF-kappaB pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:259-65 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that Akt is involved in the signaling pathway leading to the production of monocyte MMP-9 and provides an additional approach in the regulation of this enzyme in human primary monocytes. ..
  79. Li J, Lu H, Tao F, Zhou H, Feng G, He L, et al. Meta-analysis of MMP9-562C/T and the risk of coronary heart disease. Cardiology. 2013;124:53-9 pubmed publisher
    Previous case-control studies have suggested that the -1562C/T and R279Q polymorphisms of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene (MMP9) are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  80. Prato M, Giribaldi G, Polimeni M, Gallo V, Arese P. Phagocytosis of hemozoin enhances matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and TNF-alpha production in human monocytes: role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of falciparum malaria. J Immunol. 2005;175:6436-42 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological inhibition of MMP-9 may offer a new chance to control pathogenic mechanisms in malaria. ..
  81. Deshmukh H, Shaver C, Case L, Dietsch M, Wesselkamper S, Hardie W, et al. Acrolein-activated matrix metalloproteinase 9 contributes to persistent mucin production. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:446-54 pubmed
    ..In this study, increased mMUC5AC transcripts and protein were associated with increased lung matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mMMP9) transcripts, protein, and activity in acrolein-exposed mice...
  82. Tan J, Hua Q, Xing X, Wen J, Liu R, Yang Z. Impact of the metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 system on large arterial stiffness in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2007;30:959-63 pubmed
  83. Vermeer P, Denker J, Estin M, Moninger T, Keshavjee S, Karp P, et al. MMP9 modulates tight junction integrity and cell viability in human airway epithelia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L751-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that a component of airway remodeling associated with asthma may be directly regulated by MMP9. ..
  84. Liu L, Wu J, Ying Z, Chen B, Han A, Liang Y, et al. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 and induces human glioma invasion. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3750-9 pubmed publisher
  85. Herszenyi L, Hritz I, Pregun I, Sipos F, Juhasz M, Molnar B, et al. Alterations of glutathione S-transferase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions are early events in esophageal carcinogenesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:676-82 pubmed
    ..Quantification of these parameters in Barrett's esophagus might be useful to identify patients at higher risk for progression to cancer. ..
  86. Zhou M, Huang S, Wan H, Li B, Deng W, Li M. Genetic polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Han population of south China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2004;117:1481-4 pubmed
    ..05 respectively). The genetic polymorphism in promoters of MMP-9 gene is associated with the susceptibility to COPD in the Han population of South China. ..
  87. Taghavi S, Krenn K, Jaksch P, Klepetko W, Aharinejad S. Broncho-alveolar lavage matrix metalloproteases as a sensitive measure of bronchiolitis obliterans. Am J Transplant. 2005;5:1548-52 pubmed
    ..BAL MMP-8, -9 and TIMP-1 might be useful markers to detect BO in lung transplant patients. ..
  88. Zhao X, Sun T, Che N, Sun D, Zhao N, Dong X, et al. Promotion of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis through matrix metalloproteinase activation by epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulator Twist1. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Twist1 may contribute to HCC invasion and metastasis and may be used as a novel therapeutic target for the inhibition of HCC metastasis. ..
  89. Zhu X, Wang L, Zhang B, Li J, Dou X, Zhao R. TGF-beta1-induced PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB/MMP9 signalling pathway is activated in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia hemangioblasts. J Biochem. 2011;149:405-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide direct evidence for the first time that hemangioblasts beyond HSCs play a critical role in the progression of CML. ..
  90. Jones G, Phillips V, Harris E, Rossaak J, Van Rij A. Functional matrix metalloproteinase-9 polymorphism (C-1562T) associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38:1363-7 pubmed
  91. Kader A, Shao L, Dinney C, Schabath M, Wang Y, Liu J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11644-8 pubmed
    ..Heavy carcinogen exposure may overwhelm some of the genetic effects of MMP polymorphisms. Our study confirms the importance of taking a multigenic pathway-based approach to risk assessment. ..
  92. van der Zijl N, Hanemaaijer R, Tushuizen M, Schindhelm R, Boerop J, Rustemeijer C, et al. Urinary matrix metalloproteinase-8 and -9 activities in type 2 diabetic subjects: A marker of incipient diabetic nephropathy?. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:635-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In summary, MMP-8 and -9 are highest in T2DM UA patients. MMP-9, showed the strongest associations with clinical parameters related to DN. ..