Gene Symbol: MMP-2
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 2
Alias: CLG4, CLG4A, MMP-2, MMP-II, MONA, TBE-1, 72 kDa type IV collagenase, collagenase type IV-A, matrix metallopeptidase 2 (gelatinase A, 72kDa gelatinase, 72kDa type IV collagenase), matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-II, neutrophil gelatinase
Species: human
Products:     MMP-2

Top Publications

  1. Planaguma J, Liljeström M, Alameda F, Butzow R, Virtanen I, Reventos J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 codistribute with transcription factors RUNX1/AML1 and ETV5/ERM at the invasive front of endometrial and ovarian carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate concurrent mechanisms in expression of MMP-2 and -9, RUNX1/AML1 and ETV5/ERM, and several of the basement membrane components, which are likely to associate with the invasive stage of EEC and OEC. ..
  2. Onogi A, Naruse K, Sado T, Tsunemi T, Shigetomi H, Noguchi T, et al. Hypoxia inhibits invasion of extravillous trophoblast cells through reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activation in the early first trimester of human pregnancy. Placenta. 2011;32:665-670 pubmed publisher
    ..Decrease in TIMP2 production may reduce the MMP2/TIMP2/MT1-MMP complex and lead to this unique behavior of EVT cells under hypoxic conditions. ..
  3. Wojciechowski R, Yee S, Simpson C, Bailey Wilson J, Stambolian D. Matrix metalloproteinases and educational attainment in refractive error: evidence of gene-environment interactions in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:298-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Variants in MMP1 through MMP10 and MMP2 regions seem to affect population variation in ocular refraction in environmental conditions less favorable for myopia development. ..
  4. Ni X, Xia T, Zhao Y, Zhou W, Wu N, Liu X, et al. Downregulation of miR-106b induced breast cancer cell invasion and motility in association with overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 2. Cancer Sci. 2014;105:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In a previous study, we found the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) to be significantly more pronounced at metastatic bone sites than at orthotopic sites...
  5. Yang X, Wang X, Luo L, Dong D, Yu Q, Wang X, et al. RNA interference suppression of A100A4 reduces the growth and metastatic phenotype of human renal cancer cells via NF-kB-dependent MMP-2 and bcl-2 pathway. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17:1669-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that S100A4 plays a crucial role in proliferation and migratory/invasive processes in human RCC by a mechanism involving activation of NF-kB-bcl-2 and NF-kB-MMP-2 pathway. ..
  6. Cheng K, Liao Y, Chen M, Kuan T, Hong Y, Ko L, et al. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 enzyme activities in the children with ventricular septal defect. Int J Biol Sci. 2013;9:557-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a positive trend between the severity of VSD and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was found. Our data imply that MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities may play a role in the pathogenesis of VSD. ..
  7. Huang Q, Lan F, Wang X, Yu Y, Ouyang X, Zheng F, et al. IL-1?-induced activation of p38 promotes metastasis in gastric adenocarcinoma via upregulation of AP-1/c-fos, MMP2 and MMP9. Mol Cancer. 2014;13:18 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1?-induced p38 activation and the IL-1?/p38/AP-1(c-fos)/MMP2 & MMP9 pathway play an important role in metastasis in GA; this pathway may provide a novel therapeutic target for GA. ..
  8. Hirose Y, Chiba K, Karasugi T, Nakajima M, Kawaguchi Y, Mikami Y, et al. A functional polymorphism in THBS2 that affects alternative splicing and MMP binding is associated with lumbar-disc herniation. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:1122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that regulation of intervertebral disc ECM metabolism by the THBS2-MMP system plays an essential role in the etiology and pathogenesis of LDH. ..
  9. Brun J, Cortez A, Commo F, Uzan S, Rouzier R, Darai E. Serous and mucinous ovarian tumors express different profiles of MMP-2, -7, -9, MT1-MMP, and TIMP-1 and -2. Int J Oncol. 2008;33:1239-46 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results support the differential expression in MMPs and TIMPs of ovarian tumors according to serous or mucinous histology. ..

More Information

Publications175 found, 100 shown here

  1. Alakus H, Grass G, Hennecken J, Bollschweiler E, Schulte C, Drebber U, et al. Clinicopathological significance of MMP-2 and its specific inhibitor TIMP-2 in gastric cancer. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23:917-23 pubmed publisher
  2. Gao J, Ding F, Liu Q, Yao Y. Knockdown of MACC1 expression suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion and inhibited expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;376:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization of MACC1 protein to the nucleus may predict HCC progression. Knockdown of MACC1 expression using MACC1 shRNA warrants further evaluation as a novel therapeutic strategy for control of HCC. ..
  3. Wu X, Li H, Kang L, Li L, Wang W, Shan B. Activated matrix metalloproteinase-2--a potential marker of prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;84:126-34 pubmed
    ..There was a significant relationship between activated MMP-2 and invasiveness, metastasis, and disease progression in EOC and activated MMP-2 is a potential marker of prognosis. ..
  4. Chung H, Lee J, Moon H, Hur S, Park M, Wen Y, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2, membranous type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 expression in ectopic and eutopic endometrium. Fertil Steril. 2002;78:787-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, increased proteolytic activity may help to explain the invasive factors that result in endometriosis. ..
  5. Suminoe A, Matsuzaki A, Hattori H, Koga Y, Ishii E, Hara T. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP) genes in blasts of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia with organ involvement. Leuk Res. 2007;31:1437-40 pubmed
    ..005 and 0.009) and between CNS involvement and the MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio (p=0.012). The results suggest that MMP/TIMP balance is closely related to the infiltration of leukemia cells into extramedullary organs. ..
  6. Xiong W, Meisinger T, Knispel R, Worth J, Baxter B. MMP-2 regulates Erk1/2 phosphorylation and aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome. Circ Res. 2012;110:e92-e101 pubmed publisher
    ..Losartan has been shown to prevent aneurysms in another mouse model of MFS, Fbn1(C1039G/+), through inhibition of the Erk1/2 pathway. However, the role of MMP-2 in MFS and effect of losartan on the lifespan of MFS mice remain unknown...
  7. Grieu F, Li W, Iacopetta B. Genetic polymorphisms in the MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes and breast cancer phenotype. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004;88:197-204 pubmed
    ..06). These findings suggest that breast cancer phenotype and outcome can be influenced by common functional polymorphisms in MMP genes. ..
  8. Lin T, Chiou S, Wang L, Huang H, Chiang S, Shih A, et al. Expression spectra of matrix metalloproteinases in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Oncol Rep. 2004;12:717-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it should be worth determining MMP expression pattern as a regimen reference for NSCLC patients who were scheduled to receive MMP inhibitor, which was class-specific, as adjuvant therapeutic agent. ..
  9. Gao Q, Meijer M, Schlüter U, van Hogezand R, van der Zon J, van den Berg M, et al. Infliximab treatment influences the serological expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13:693-702 pubmed
    ..However, these changes were not strictly associated with the response to treatment. The enhanced leukocyte MMP-9 expression in CD seems to be regulated by TNF-alpha. ..
  10. Kader A, Liu J, Shao L, Dinney C, Lin J, Wang Y, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms are associated with bladder cancer invasiveness. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:2614-20 pubmed
    ..32; 95% CI, 1.30-4.12). Our results suggest that genetic changes in MMPs are associated with the development of invasive bladder cancer. ..
  11. Price S, Greaves D, Watkins H. Identification of novel, functional genetic variants in the human matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene: role of Sp1 in allele-specific transcriptional regulation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7549-58 pubmed
  12. Gondi C, Talluri L, Dinh D, Gujrati M, Rao J. RNAi-mediated downregulation of MMP-2 activates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in human glioma xenograft cells. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:851-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, it is evident from our results that MMP-2 downregulation induces caspase-8 and AIF-mediated apoptosis and, as such, shows potential for glioma therapy. ..
  13. Russo R, Siviglia E, Gliozzi M, Amantea D, Paoletti A, Berliocchi L, et al. Evidence implicating matrix metalloproteinases in the mechanism underlying accumulation of IL-1beta and neuronal apoptosis in the neocortex of HIV/gp120-exposed rats. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2007;82:407-21 pubmed
  14. Smigielski J, Kołomecki K, Ziemniak P, Drozda R, Amsolik M, Kuzdak K. Degradation of collagen by metalloproteinase 2 in patients with abdominal hernias. Eur Surg Res. 2009;42:118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased activity may lead to dysfunctions in collagen fiber, which is responsible for forming fascial structures, and as a result weaken their durability. ..
  15. Ranogajec I, Jakic Razumovic J, Puzović V, Gabrilovac J. Prognostic value of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and aminopeptidase N/CD13 in breast cancer patients. Med Oncol. 2012;29:561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9). Our results suggest that MMP-2, MMP-9, APN/CD13 expression and MMP-2/MMP-9 coexpression in combination with other standard prognostic factors can serve as a poor prognostic factor in the evaluation of breast cancer prognosis. ..
  16. Miao X, Yu C, Tan W, Xiong P, Liang G, Lu W, et al. A functional polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene promoter (-1306C/T) is associated with risk of development but not metastasis of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3987-90 pubmed
    ..36-2.20) for the CC genotype. These findings are consistent with our initial observation for lung cancer and further support the hypothesis that MMP2 genotype may influence individual susceptibility to the development of certain cancer. ..
  17. Butler G, Tam E, Overall C. The canonical methionine 392 of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (gelatinase A) is not required for catalytic efficiency or structural integrity: probing the role of the methionine-turn in the metzincin metalloprotease superfamily. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15615-20 pubmed
    ..These results challenge the dogma that this methionine residue and the Met-turn, which are absolutely conserved in all of the subfamilies of the metzincins, play an essential role in catalysis or active site structure. ..
  18. Lekstan A, Lampe P, Lewin Kowalik J, Olakowski M, Jablonska B, Labuzek K, et al. Concentrations and activities of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and their inhibitors (TIMPS) in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;63:589-99 pubmed
    ..gelatinases and their inhibitors play important role in the pathogenesis of the CP as well as PC. The activity and concentration of gelatinases and the concentration of their inhibitors were all significantly higher in the PC group. ..
  19. Chernov A, Sounni N, Remacle A, Strongin A. Epigenetic control of the invasion-promoting MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the epigenetic control plays an important role in both the balanced regulation of the MT1-MMP/MMP-2/TIMP-2 axis and the invasive behavior in cancer cells. ..
  20. Xiang Z, Zeng Z, Fan J, Tang Z, Zeng H, Gao D. Gene expression profiling of fixed tissues identified hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 as biomarkers of lymph node metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:5463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that the combination of intratumoral HIF-1?, VEGF, and MMP-2 may be useful as a molecular prediction model for LNM. ..
  21. Volcik K, Campbell S, Chambless L, Coresh J, Folsom A, Mosley T, et al. MMP2 genetic variation is associated with measures of fibrous cap thickness: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid MRI Study. Atherosclerosis. 2010;210:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..1mm thinner cap thickness compared to those carrying a T allele (P=0.02). Genetic variation within the MMP2 promoter region was associated with cap thickness and therefore may influence the role of MMP2 in plaque vulnerability. ..
  22. Ma Z, Chang M, Shah R, Adamski J, Zhao X, Benveniste E. Brg-1 is required for maximal transcription of the human matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46326-34 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate the connection between the SWI/SNF complex and optimal expression of MMP-2 and highlight the critical function of Brg-1 in regulating the recruitment of Sp1, Sp3, AP-2, and polymerase II to the MMP-2 promoter. ..
  23. Rojiani M, Alidina J, Esposito N, Rojiani A. Expression of MMP-2 correlates with increased angiogenesis in CNS metastasis of lung carcinoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2010;3:775-81 pubmed
    ..The relationship between MMP-2 expression and angiogenesis has been previously reported and its biological and therapeutic implications remain the focus of investigations. ..
  24. Perigny M, Bairati I, Harvey I, Beauchemin M, Harel F, Plante M, et al. Role of immunohistochemical overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-11 in the prognosis of death by ovarian cancer. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008;129:226-31 pubmed publisher
  25. Prast J, Saleh L, Husslein H, Sonderegger S, Helmer H, Knöfler M. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates trophoblast invasion through extracellularly regulated kinase and AKT signaling. Endocrinology. 2008;149:979-87 pubmed
    ..Because the increase of CG during the first trimester of pregnancy correlates with rising trophoblast motility, the hormone could be a critical regulator of the early invasion process. ..
  26. Murnane M, Cai J, Shuja S, McAneny D, Klepeis V, Willett J. Active MMP-2 effectively identifies the presence of colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:2893-902 pubmed publisher
  27. Xu E, Lai M, Lv B, Xing X, Huang Q, Xia X. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-2 promoter is associated with colorectal cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:999-1003 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that MMP-2 -1306 C-->T polymorphism may be associated with colorectal cancer development and invasion in the Chinese population. ..
  28. McKaig B, McWilliams D, Watson S, Mahida Y. Expression and regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinases by intestinal myofibroblasts in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:1355-60 pubmed
    ..These studies illustrate a potential mechanism by which differential expression of isoforms of TGF-beta may lead to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix and stricture formation via TIMP-1-mediated inhibition of MMP activity. ..
  29. Sillanpää S, Anttila M, Suhonen K, Hamalainen K, Turpeenniemi Hujanen T, Puistola U, et al. Prognostic significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer and matrix metalloproteinase 2 in epithelial ovarian cancer. Tumour Biol. 2007;28:280-9 pubmed
    ..investigated the prognostic significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in epithelial ovarian cancer as well as their relation to hyaluronan (HA) expression...
  30. Song H, Li Y, Lee J, Schwartz A, Bu G. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by inducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Cancer Res. 2009;69:879-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we reveal a novel mechanism by which LRP1 induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 and thereby promotes the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma U87 cells...
  31. Sariahmetoglu M, Crawford B, Leon H, Sawicka J, Li L, Ballermann B, et al. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity by phosphorylation. FASEB J. 2007;21:2486-95 pubmed
    ..We conclude that MMP-2 is modulated by phosphorylation on multiple sites and that protein kinase C may be a regulator of this protease in vivo. ..
  32. Qian Q, Wang Q, Zhan P, Peng L, Wei S, Shi Y, et al. The role of matrix metalloproteinase 2 on the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Cancer Invest. 2010;28:661-9 pubmed publisher
    ..08 (95% CI: 1.24-3.48)). This study supported the fact that MMP-2 could be included in further prospective trials studying prognostic factors in NSCLC. ..
  33. Zhou G, Zhai Y, Cui Y, Qiu W, Yang H, Zhang X, et al. Functional polymorphisms and haplotypes in the promoter of the MMP2 gene are associated with risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:1091-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the genetic polymorphisms or haplotype in the MMP2 promoter may play a role in mediating the susceptibility to NPC in Chinese populations. ..
  34. O Grady A, Dunne C, O Kelly P, Murphy G, Leader M, Kay E. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in non-melanoma skin cancer: implications for tumour progression. Histopathology. 2007;51:793-804 pubmed
    ..The immunoexpression of these proteins may be useful indicators of cutaneous cancer invasion and progression. ..
  35. Fromigue O, Hamidouche Z, Marie P. Blockade of the RhoA-JNK-c-Jun-MMP2 cascade by atorvastatin reduces osteosarcoma cell invasion. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a novel strategy targeting RhoA-JNK-c-Jun signaling to reduce osteosarcoma cell tumorigenesis. ..
  36. Montagnana M, Lippi G, Albiero A, Scevarolli S, Salvagno G, Franchi M, et al. Evaluation of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and their inhibitors in physiologic and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. J Clin Lab Anal. 2009;23:88-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirm that the modification of the fine balance between MMPs and their inhibitors plays a greater role in the structural and functional vascular changes of women with complicated pregnancies. ..
  37. Nakanishi H, Hayashi H, Yamada R, Yamashiro K, Nakata I, Shimada N, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, and -3 in Japanese with high myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4432-6 pubmed publisher
    ..62), between the high myopia cases and the general-population controls. The four functional SNPs in the MMP1, -2, and -3 promoter regions do not play critical roles in the development of high myopia in the Japanese population. ..
  38. Wang C, Chang H, Hung W. p16 inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression via suppression of Sp1-mediated gene transcription. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:246-52 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that p16 suppresses MMP-2 by blocking Sp1-mediated gene transcription. ..
  39. Zankl A, Bonafe L, Calcaterra V, Di Rocco M, Superti Furga A. Winchester syndrome caused by a homozygous mutation affecting the active site of matrix metalloproteinase 2. Clin Genet. 2005;67:261-6 pubmed
    ..Recently, mutations in the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) gene were identified in affected individuals with a clinical diagnosis of NAO in two Arab ..
  40. Lee P, Tsang S, Moses M, Trayes Gibson Z, Hsiao L, Jensen R, et al. Rapamycin-insensitive up-regulation of MMP2 and other genes in tuberous sclerosis complex 2-deficient lymphangioleiomyomatosis-like cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:227-34 pubmed publisher
  41. Surgucheva I, Sivak J, Fini M, Palazzo R, Surguchov A. Effect of gamma-synuclein overexpression on matrix metalloproteinases in retinoblastoma Y79 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;410:167-76 pubmed
    ..This increment of promoter activity may be mediated by the AP-1 binding site(s), since point mutations in one of these sites (Pr18 or Pr19) and elimination of the distal AP-1 site (Pr14) reduced the increment of promoter activity. ..
  42. McColgan P, Sharma P. Polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, 3 and 9 and susceptibility to lung, breast and colorectal cancer in over 30,000 subjects. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:1473-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects with the MMP-1 nt-1607 polymorphism have an increased association with colorectal cancer. Those homozygous for either the MMP-2/1306T or 735T allele may be at reduced risk of lung cancer, although the evidence base is small. ..
  43. Shi M, Yu B, Gao H, Mu J, Ji C. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 overexpression and prognosis in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:617-23 pubmed publisher
    Many studies investigated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) overexpression and survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), but yielded inconsistent results...
  44. Di Nezza L, Misajon A, Zhang J, Jobling T, Quinn M, Ostor A, et al. Presence of active gelatinases in endometrial carcinoma and correlation of matrix metalloproteinase expression with increasing tumor grade and invasion. Cancer. 2002;94:1466-75 pubmed
    ..Active gelatinases are present in endometrial carcinoma, resulting in alterations to the microenvironment that promote tumor invasion and metastasis. ..
  45. McQuibban G, Gong J, Wong J, Wallace J, Clark Lewis I, Overall C. Matrix metalloproteinase processing of monocyte chemoattractant proteins generates CC chemokine receptor antagonists with anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. Blood. 2002;100:1160-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that MMPs have an important role in modulating inflammatory and immune responses by processing chemokines in wound healing and in disease. ..
  46. Jones J, Stroud R, O Quinn E, Black L, Barth J, Elefteriades J, et al. Selective microRNA suppression in human thoracic aneurysms: relationship of miR-29a to aortic size and proteolytic induction. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, these data suggest that these miRs have biological and clinical relevance to the behavior of TAAs and may provide significant targets for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. ..
  47. Lamblin N, Bauters C, Hermant X, Lablanche J, Helbecque N, Amouyel P. Polymorphisms in the promoter regions of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-12 genes as determinants of aneurysmal coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:43-8 pubmed
    ..The MMP-3 5A allele is associated with the occurrence of CA. Our results suggest that an increased proteolysis in the arterial wall may act as a susceptibility factor for the development of CA in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. ..
  48. Tester A, Waltham M, Oh S, Bae S, Bills M, Walker E, et al. Pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 transfection increases orthotopic primary growth and experimental metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Cancer Res. 2004;64:652-8 pubmed
    ..MMP-2 may be a useful target for breast cancer therapy when refinement of MMP inhibitors provides for MMP-specific agents. ..
  49. Trudel D, Fradet Y, Meyer F, Harel F, Tetu B. Significance of MMP-2 expression in prostate cancer: an immunohistochemical study. Cancer Res. 2003;63:8511-5 pubmed
    ..267; P = 0.0012). Increased MMP-2 expression by malignant prostatic epithelia is an independent predictor of decreased prostate cancer disease-free survival. ..
  50. Petignat P, Laurini R, Goffin F, Bruchim I, Bischof P. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and mutant p53 is increased in hydatidiform mole as compared with normal placenta. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1679-84 pubmed
    ..MMP-2 and mutp53 are overexpressed in HM as compared with normal trophoblast and might participate in the invasive behavior of the HM...
  51. Heist R, Marshall A, Liu G, Zhou W, Su L, Neuberg D, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms and survival in stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:5448-53 pubmed
    ..07-2.41, P=0.02]. None of the other MMP polymorphisms was significantly associated with survival. Our results show that patients with stage I NSCLC carrying the variant G allele of the MMP-12 1082A/G polymorphism have worse survival. ..
  52. Overall C, King A, Sam D, Ong A, Lau T, Wallon U, et al. Identification of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) binding site on the hemopexin carboxyl domain of human gelatinase A by site-directed mutagenesis. The hierarchical role in binding TIMP-2 of the unique cationic clusters of hemop. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:4421-9 pubmed
    ..This location implies that considerable molecular movement of the TIMP-2. C domain complex would be needed for the bound TIMP-2 to inhibit in cis the gelatinase A active site. ..
  53. Conant K, St Hillaire C, Anderson C, Galey D, Wang J, Nath A. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and methamphetamine affect the release and activation of matrix-degrading proteinases. J Neurovirol. 2004;10:21-8 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest a potential mechanism for acceleration of HIVD with methamphetamine use. ..
  54. Stygar D, Wang H, Vladic Y, Ekman G, Eriksson H, Sahlin L. Increased level of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in the ripening process of the human cervix. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:889-94 pubmed
    ..These data indicate the involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the cervical ripening process. ..
  55. Galli A, Svegliati Baroni G, Ceni E, Milani S, Ridolfi F, Salzano R, et al. Oxidative stress stimulates proliferation and invasiveness of hepatic stellate cells via a MMP2-mediated mechanism. Hepatology. 2005;41:1074-84 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that MMP-2 is required for the mitogenic and proinvasive effects of ROS on HSC and demonstrate that ERK1/2 and PI3K are the main signals involved in ROS-mediated MMP-2 expression. ..
  56. Wang Y, Xu H, Ueda Y, Shimasaki M, Wang E. Activation ratio of MMP-2 and expression of MT1-MMP are correlated in thymic epithelial tumours. Pathology. 2007;39:486-90 pubmed
    ..MMP-2, MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 mRNA expression levels were correlated with clinical stages and histological subtypes of thymic epithelial tumours. The activation of pro-MMP-2 might be mediated by MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 up-regulation. ..
  57. Shellman Y, Makela M, Norris D. Induction of secreted matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in human melanoma cells by extracellular matrix proteins and cytokines. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:207-11 pubmed
  58. Kesanakurti D, Chetty C, Dinh D, Gujrati M, Rao J. Role of MMP-2 in the regulation of IL-6/Stat3 survival signaling via interaction with ?5?1 integrin in glioma. Oncogene. 2013;32:327-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate the possible role of MMP-2/?5?1 interaction in the regulation of ?5?1-mediated IL-6/Stat3 signaling activation and signifies the therapeutic potential of blocking MMP-2/?5?1 interaction in glioma treatment. ..
  59. Zhou Y, Yu C, Miao X, Tan W, Liang G, Xiong P, et al. Substantial reduction in risk of breast cancer associated with genetic polymorphisms in the promoters of the matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 genes. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:399-404 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the presence of the variant allele in the promoter of MMP2 or TIMP2 may be a protective factor for the development of breast cancer. ..
  60. Gao Z, Duan Y, Zhang L, Chen D, Ding P. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and its tissue inhibitor in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:599-603 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and adjacent normal tissues, and explore the role ..
  61. Dean R, Butler G, Hamma Kourbali Y, Delbe J, Brigstock D, Courty J, et al. Identification of candidate angiogenic inhibitors processed by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in cell-based proteomic screens: disruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/heparin affin regulatory peptide (pleiotrophin) and VEGF/Connec. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8454-65 pubmed
    ..Hence the unmasking of cytokines, such as VEGF, by metalloproteinase processing of their binding proteins is a new mechanism in the control of cytokine activation and angiogenesis. ..
  62. Lin S, Lo S, Liu C, Chung M, Huang J, Chang K. Functional genotype in matrix metalloproteinases-2 promoter is a risk factor for oral carcinogenesis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33:405-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first paper demonstrating that functional genotype of MMP-2 promoter is a risk factor for oral carcinogenesis, particularly for the subsets occurring on non-buccal site. ..
  63. Bjørnland K, Flatmark K, Pettersen S, Aaasen A, Fodstad O, Maelandsmo G. Matrix metalloproteinases participate in osteosarcoma invasion. J Surg Res. 2005;127:151-6 pubmed
    ..However, MMP-9 levels were higher in the biopsies than in the xenografts. The obtained results support the hypothesis that MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors participate in the invasive process of human OS. ..
  64. Nagase H, Visse R, Murphy G. Structure and function of matrix metalloproteinases and TIMPs. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;69:562-73 pubmed
    ..This review introduces the members of the MMP family and discusses their domain structure and function, proenyme activation, the mechanism of inhibition by TIMPs and their significance in physiology and pathology. ..
  65. Silletti S, Kessler T, Goldberg J, Boger D, Cheresh D. Disruption of matrix metalloproteinase 2 binding to integrin alpha vbeta 3 by an organic molecule inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:119-24 pubmed
    b>Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) can associate with integrin alpha(v)beta3 on the surface of endothelial cells, thereby promoting vascular invasion...
  66. Wu Z, Li J, Zhan W, He Y. Lymph node micrometastasis and its correlation with MMP-2 expression in gastric carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:2941-4 pubmed
    ..We also conclude that MMP-2 may participate in the development of lymph node micrometastasis of gastric carcinoma. Further investigations are needed to draw a conclusion. ..
  67. Trudel D, Fradet Y, Meyer F, Harel F, Tetu B. Membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, matrix metalloproteinase 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix proteinase 2 in prostate cancer: identification of patients with poor prognosis by immunohistochemistry. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). This study suggests that MMP14 is involved mostly in Pca implantation and that MMP2 and TIMP2 expression by reactive stromal cells might be used as predictors of DFS in T3N0-2M0 Pca. ..
  68. Morozevich G, Kozlova N, Cheglakov I, Ushakova N, Berman A. Integrin alpha5beta1 controls invasion of human breast carcinoma cells by direct and indirect modulation of MMP-2 collagenase activity. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2219-25 pubmed
  69. Godefroy E, Moreau Aubry A, Diez E, Dreno B, Jotereau F, Guilloux Y. alpha v beta3-dependent cross-presentation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by melanoma cells gives rise to a new tumor antigen. J Exp Med. 2005;202:61-72 pubmed
    ..Because MMP-2 activity is critical for melanoma progression, the MMP-2 peptide should be cross-presented by most progressing melanomas and represents a unique antigen for vaccine therapy of these tumors. ..
  70. Ali M, Cho W, Hudson B, Kassiri Z, Granzier H, Schulz R. Titin is a target of matrix metalloproteinase-2: implications in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2010;122:2039-47 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-2 localizes to titin at the Z-disk region of the cardiac sarcomere and contributes to titin degradation in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  71. Wojciechowski R, Bailey Wilson J, Stambolian D. Association of matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms with refractive error in Amish and Ashkenazi families. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4989-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the MMP1 and MMP2 genes are involved in refractive variation in the AMISH. Genetic and/or environmental heterogeneity most likely contribute to differences in association results between ethnic groups. ..
  72. Kryczka J, Stasiak M, Dziki L, Mik M, Dziki A, Cierniewski C. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleavage of the ?1 integrin ectodomain facilitates colon cancer cell motility. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36556-66 pubmed publisher
  73. Park M, Kwak H, Lee H, Yoo D, Park I, Kim M, et al. Nerve growth factor induces endothelial cell invasion and cord formation by promoting matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and AP-2 transcription factor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30485-96 pubmed
    ..Our data collectively suggest that NGF stimulates endothelial cell invasion and cord formation by augmenting MMP-2 via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and AP-2 transcription factor, which may be responsible for triggering angiogenesis. ..
  74. Bian J, Sun Y. Transcriptional activation by p53 of the human type IV collagenase (gelatinase A or matrix metalloproteinase 2) promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6330-8 pubmed
    ..p53 binding site in the promoter of the human type IV collagenase (also called 72-kDa gelatinase or matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP-2]) gene. This p53 binding site was found to specifically bind to p53 protein in a gel shift assay...
  75. Eren B, Sar M, Oz B, Dincbas F. MMP-2, TIMP-2 and CD44v6 expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2008;37:32-9 pubmed
    ..013). We found that TIMP-2 and CD44v6 can decrease the lymphatic invasion in NSCLCs. Also there was observed histiotype-related pattern of CD44v6 variant expression in SCCs. ..
  76. Chung A, Yang H, Sigrist M, Brin G, Chum E, Gourlay W, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 exacerbate arterial stiffening and angiogenesis in diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may help to explain the high susceptibility of CVD in diabetic and non-diabetic CKD patients. ..
  77. Lind A, Dahm Kähler P, Weijdegård B, Sundfeldt And K, Brannstrom M. Gelatinases and their tissue inhibitors during human ovulation: increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006;12:725-36 pubmed
    ..The increased expression of TIMP-1 may reflect a specific temporal inhibition of collagenolysis and thereby a time-dependent regulation of ECM breakdown in areas surrounding the apex of the follicle. ..
  78. Langers A, Sier C, Hawinkels L, Kubben F, van Duijn W, van der Reijden J, et al. MMP-2 geno-phenotype is prognostic for colorectal cancer survival, whereas MMP-9 is not. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1820-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Extreme tumour MMP-9 levels were associated with poor prognosis but SNP MMP-9(-1562C>T) was not. Tumour MMP levels were not determined by their SNP genotypes. ..
  79. McQuibban G, Butler G, Gong J, Bendall L, Power C, Clark Lewis I, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase activity inactivates the CXC chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43503-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MMPs may be important regulatory proteases in attenuating SDF-1 function and point to a deep convergence of two important networks, chemokines and MMPs, to regulate leukocytic activity in vivo. ..
  80. Ji F, Chen Y, Jin E, Wang W, Yang Z, Li Y. Relationship between matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA expression and clinicopathological and urokinase-type plasminogen activator system parameters and prognosis in human gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:3222-6 pubmed
    ..0083, 0.0160, and 0.0094, respectively). MMP-2 may play an important role in the development of invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer. ..
  81. Moroz A, Delella F, Lacorte L, Deffune E, Felisbino S. Fibronectin induces MMP2 expression in human prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;430:1319-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies of transcriptomes and proteomes in prostate cancer research using these cell lines should not neglect these important conclusions. ..
  82. Ochieng J, Fridman R, Nangia Makker P, Kleiner D, Liotta L, Stetler Stevenson W, et al. Galectin-3 is a novel substrate for human matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Biochemistry. 1994;33:14109-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that galectin-3 may be a substrate for gelatinases and that its degradation may play a role in modulating the biological activities of galectin-3. ..
  83. Toschi E, Barillari G, Sgadari C, Bacigalupo I, Cereseto A, Carlei D, et al. Activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 and membrane-type-1-matrix-metalloproteinase in endothelial cells and induction of vascular permeability in vivo by human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein and basic fibroblast growth factor. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:2934-46 pubmed
    ..This suggests a novel pathway by which Tat can increase KS aggressiveness or induce vasculopathy in the setting of HIV-1 infection. ..
  84. Temtamy S, Ismail S, Aglan M, Ashour A, Hosny L, el Badry T, et al. A report of three patients with MMP2 associated hereditary osteolysis. Genet Couns. 2012;23:175-84 pubmed
    ..The three affected patients were homozygous for novel MMP2 gene mutations which confirmed the diagnosis. Our patients are the first to be reported from Egypt thus, supporting the pan ethnic nature of the disease...
  85. Kuittinen O, Soini Y, Turpeenniemi Hujanen T. Diverse role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the clinicopathological behavior of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 2002;69:205-12 pubmed
    ..The favorable prognostic value of MMP-2 is surprising in view of the role of MMPs in solid tumors. This, however, may be linked to the basic biological differences of hematological malignancies vs. other tumors. ..
  86. Wu C, Wu M, Chen Y, Chen C, Chen H, Shun C, et al. Clinicopathological significance of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 genotypes in gastric cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:799-808 pubmed
    ..19, p=0.021), lymphatic invasion (OR=2.87, p=0.016) and venous invasion (OR=2.65, p=0.033). Our results suggest MMP-2 and TIMP-2 genotypes play a crucial role in gastric cancer invasion, but not with development of gastric cancer. ..
  87. Sun H, Wei S, Xu R, Xu P, Zhang W. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces human endothelial VEGF and MMP-2 production via transcription factor ZNF580: novel insights into angiogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results elucidate the important role that ZNF580 plays in the process of migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, which provides a foundation for a novel approach to regulate angiogenesis. ..
  88. Kuo L, Chang H, Leu T, Maa M, Hung W. Src oncogene activates MMP-2 expression via the ERK/Sp1 pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2006;207:729-34 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results strongly suggest that Src induces MMP-2 expression via transcription activation and the ERK/Sp1 signaling pathway is involved in this process. ..
  89. Hou C, Chiang Y, Fong Y, Tang C. WISP-1 increases MMP-2 expression and cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:1286-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicated that WISP-1 enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-2 expression through the ?5?1 integrin receptor, FAK, MEK, ERK, p65 and NF-?B signal transduction pathway. ..
  90. Yongxin S, Wenjun D, Qiang W, Yunqing S, Liming Z, Chunsheng W. Heavy smoking before coronary surgical procedures affects the native matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression in saphenous vein conduits. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013;95:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..With the elevated native MMP2 and MMP9 gene expression in the SV induced by heavy smoking, more vein graft disease can be found on long-term follow-up. ..
  91. Brooks P, Silletti S, von Schalscha T, Friedlander M, Cheresh D. Disruption of angiogenesis by PEX, a noncatalytic metalloproteinase fragment with integrin binding activity. Cell. 1998;92:391-400 pubmed
    Angiogenesis depends on both cell adhesion and proteolytic mechanisms. In fact, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and integrin alphavbeta3 are functionally associated on the surface of angiogenic blood vessels...
  92. Angenete E, Langenskiöld M, Falk P, Ivarsson M. Matrix metalloproteinases in rectal mucosa, tumour and plasma: response after preoperative irradiation. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007;22:667-74 pubmed
    ..High levels of MMP-1 in tumour and mucosa as well as MMP-2 in plasma may be correlated to risk of developing distant metastases. ..