Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: MIR224
Description: microRNA 224
Alias: MIRN224, miRNA224
- Wang Y, Toh H, Chow P, Chung A, Meyers D, Cole P, et al. MicroRNA-224 is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma through epigenetic mechanisms. FASEB J. 2012;26:3032-41 pubmed publisher..In summary, overexpression of EP300 may account, in part, for the up-regulation of miR-224 expression in patients with HCC. ..
- Li Q, Wang G, Shan J, Yang Z, Wang H, Feng J, et al. MicroRNA-224 is upregulated in HepG2 cells and involved in cellular migration and invasion. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:164-71 pubmed publisher..Overexpression of miR-224 was involved in the malignant phenotype of HepG2 cells, and it may be an important factor in regulating the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. ..
- Zhang Y, Takahashi S, Tasaka A, Yoshima T, Ochi H, Chayama K. Involvement of microRNA-224 in cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and anti-apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28:565-75 pubmed publisher..The results suggest that miR-224 plays a role in cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and anti-apoptosis in HCC by directly binding to its gene targets, implicating this RNA in HCC development and progression. ..
- Li Q, Ding C, Chen C, Zhang Z, Xiao H, Xie F, et al. miR-224 promotion of cell migration and invasion by targeting Homeobox D 10 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;29:835-42 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest a previously undescribed regulatory pathway in which the miR-224/HOXD10/p-PAK4/MMP-9 signaling pathway contributes to the regulation of cell migration and invasion and provides a new biotarget for HCC treatment. ..
- Murakami Y, Yasuda T, Saigo K, Urashima T, Toyoda H, Okanoue T, et al. Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma and non-tumorous tissues. Oncogene. 2006;25:2537-45 pubmed..This information may help clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of liver disease, potentially serving as a diagnostic tool of HCC. ..
- Lu S, Wang S, Geng S, Ma S, Liang Z, Jiao B. Upregulation of microRNA-224 confers a poor prognosis in glioma patients. Clin Transl Oncol. 2013;15:569-74 pubmed publisher..001 and P = 0.005, respectively). MiR-224 is upregulated and confers a poor prognosis in glioma patients. ..
- Yuan K, Xie K, Fox J, Zeng H, Gao H, Huang C, et al. Decreased levels of miR-224 and the passenger strand of miR-221 increase MBD2, suppressing maspin and promoting colorectal tumor growth and metastasis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2013;145:853-64.e9 pubmed publisher..Increased activities of miR-221* and miR-224 reduce growth and metastasis of CRC xenograft tumors in mice; these miRs might be developed as therapeutic reagents or biomarkers of CRC progression. ..
- Li T, Lai Q, Wang S, Cai J, Xiao Z, Deng D, et al. MicroRNA-224 sustains Wnt/Î²-catenin signaling and promotes aggressive phenotype of colorectal cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016;35:21 pubmed publisher..Our research showed mechanistic links between miR-224 and Wnt/Î²-catenin in the pathogenesis of CRC through modulation of GSK3Î² and SFRP2. ..
- Song G, Song G, Ni H, Gu L, Liu H, Chen B, et al. Deregulated expression of miR-224 and its target gene: CD59 predicts outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2014;14:659-70 pubmed..We found that miR-224 may contribute to DLBCL pathogenesis. Most importantly, the expression of miR-224 and CD59 can predict the response and outcome of DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ..
- Geng S, Gu L, Ju F, Zhang H, Wang Y, Tang H, et al. MicroRNA-224 promotes the sensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to cisplatin by targeting Rac1. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:1611-9 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that miR-224 plays a tumour suppressor role in the development of osteosarcoma and is related to the sensitivity of osteosarcoma to cisplatin. ..
- Cui R, Kim T, Fassan M, Meng W, Sun H, Jeon Y, et al. MicroRNA-224 is implicated in lung cancer pathogenesis through targeting caspase-3 and caspase-7. Oncotarget. 2015;6:21802-15 pubmed..Our study provides new insight in understanding of oncogenic role of miR-224 in the lung cancer pathogenesis and suggests that NF-ÎºB/miR-224/CASP3, 7 pathway could be a putative therapeutic target in lung cancer. ..
- Lan S, Wu S, Zuchini R, Lin X, Su I, Tsai T, et al. Autophagy-preferential degradation of MIR224 participates in hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenesis. Autophagy. 2014;10:1687-9 pubmed publisher..Impaired autophagy and high expression of the oncogenic microRNA MIR224 are prevalent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the relationship between the 2 phenomena remains elusive...
- Liu Z, Chen X, Qiao X, Wang R, Xiang Z. [Detection of miR-122a and miR-224 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:751-3 pubmed..001). HCC has obvious alteration in the expression patterns of miR-122 and miR-224, and real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR provide a new means for early, efficient, and accurate diagnosis of HCC. ..
- Guo X, Xue H, Guo X, Gao X, Xu S, Yan S, et al. MiR224-3p inhibits hypoxia-induced autophagy by targeting autophagy-related genes in human glioblastoma cells. Oncotarget. 2015;6:41620-37 pubmed publisher..Further research showed that miR224-3p, one of the significantly down-regulated miRNAs, was involved in regulating hypoxia-induced autophagy in GBM ..
- Chen W, Fan X, Mao L, Zhang J, Li J, Wu J, et al. MicroRNA-224: as a potential target for miR-based therapy of cancer. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:6645-52 pubmed publisher..MiR-224 regulates its targets by modulating messenger RNA (mRNA) stability and/or protein translation, and it would provide new insight into molecular targeting cancer treatment. ..
- Upraity S, Kazi S, Padul V, Shirsat N. MiR-224 expression increases radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;448:225-30 pubmed publisher..Up-regulation of miR-224 or down-regulation of its target API5 in combination with radiation therapy, therefore appear as promising options for the treatment of glioblastoma, which is refractory to the existing treatment strategies. ..
- Bai J, Na H, Hua X, Wei Y, Ye T, Zhang Y, et al. A retrospective study of NENs and miR-224 promotes apoptosis of BON-1 cells by targeting PCSK9 inhibition. Oncotarget. 2017;8:6929-6939 pubmed publisher..05). Taken together, age, tumor grading and LDL-C level are independent risk factors of NENs. The miR-224/PCSK9/GC axis binds to tumorigenesis and prognosis of pancreatic NENs (p-NENs). ..
- Kuasne H, Barros Filho M, Busso Lopes A, Marchi F, Pinheiro M, Muñoz J, et al. Integrative miRNA and mRNA analysis in penile carcinomas reveals markers and pathways with potential clinical impact. Oncotarget. 2017;8:15294-15306 pubmed publisher..Overall, an integrative analysis using mRNA and miRNA profiles revealed markers related with tumor development and progression. Furthermore, MMP1 expression level was a predictive marker for lymph node metastasis in patients with PeCa. ..
- Zhu Y, Xu A, Li J, Fu J, Wang G, Yang Y, et al. Fecal miR-29a and miR-224 as the noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Cancer Biomark. 2016;16:259-64 pubmed publisher..There are reduced expression of miR-29a, miR-223, and miR-224 in the feces from the CRC patients, which could be an informative biomarker for screening and early diagnosis of CRC. ..
- Yu L, Zhang J, Guo X, Li Z, Zhang P. MicroRNA-224 upregulation and AKT activation synergistically predict poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol. 2014;38:408-13 pubmed publisher..The combined high expression of miR-224 and pAKT may be a potential indicator for predicting unfavorable prognosis in HCC patients. ..
- Hu K, Liang M. Upregulated microRNA-224 promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation by targeting KLLN. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2017;53:149-156 pubmed publisher..Our results provide new data about microRNAs and their targets involved in proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer cells by modulating the downstream signaling. ..
- Huang Y, Li Y, Wang F, Lv W, Xie X, Cheng X. Over-Expressed miR-224 Promotes the Progression of Cervical Cancer via Targeting RASSF8. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0162378 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that miR-224 directly targets RASSF8 and thereby acts as a tumor promoter in cervical cancer progression. ..
- Wang Y, Ren J, Gao Y, Ma J, Toh H, Chow P, et al. MicroRNA-224 targets SMAD family member 4 to promote cell proliferation and negatively influence patient survival. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68744 pubmed publisher..05). In summary, miR-224/SMAD4 pathway is a clinically relevant pathway to provide new insights in understanding HCC. (191 words). ..
- Ni H, Wang X, Liu H, Tian F, Song G. Low expression of miRNA-224 predicts poor clinical outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Biomarkers. 2015;20:253-7 pubmed publisher..05). MiR-224 expression level is implicated as a prognostic marker for DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ..
- Ma J, Huang K, Ma Y, Zhou M, Fan S. The TAZ-miR-224-SMAD4 axis promotes tumorigenesis in osteosarcoma. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2539 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that targeting TAZ and miR-224 could be a promising approach for the treatment of OS. ..
- Zhu J, Pfuhl T, Motsch N, Barth S, Nicholls J, Grässer F, et al. Identification of novel Epstein-Barr virus microRNA genes from nasopharyngeal carcinomas. J Virol. 2009;83:3333-41 pubmed publisher..We found that the tumor suppressor BRCA-1 is a target of miR-15a as well as miR-16, suggesting a miRNA role in NPC pathogenesis. ..
- Cui R, Meng W, Sun H, Kim T, Ye Z, Fassan M, et al. MicroRNA-224 promotes tumor progression in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4288-97 pubmed publisher..Our findings indicate that targeting miR-224 could be effective in the treatment of certain lung cancer patients. ..
- Lendvai G, JÃ¡rmay K, KarÃ¡csony G, HalÃ¡sz T, Kovalszky I, Baghy K, et al. Elevated miR-33a and miR-224 in steatotic chronic hepatitis C liver biopsies. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:15343-50 pubmed publisher..Differences in miRNA expression were observed between CHC and steatotic CHC, CHC and steatotic liver, but not between steatotic CHC and steatotic liver of metabolic origin. ..
- Zheng X, Tang H, Zhao X, Sun Y, Jiang Y, Liu Y. Long non-coding RNA FTH1P3 facilitates uveal melanoma cell growth and invasion through miR-224-5p. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184746 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that lncRNA FTH1P3 plays a crucial role in uveal melanoma. Investigation of the underlying mechanism may be a target for the treatment of uveal melanoma. ..
- Zhang Y, Li C, Ma L, Ding M, Zhang B. MicroRNA-224 aggrevates tumor growth and progression by targeting mTOR in gastric cancer. Int J Oncol. 2016;49:1068-80 pubmed publisher..In addition, targeting miR-224 could serve as a novel strategy for future gastric cancer therapy. ..
- Wan Y, Zeng Z, Xi M, Wan S, Hua W, Liu Y, et al. Dysregulated microRNA-224/apelin axis associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis in patients with prostate cancer. Hum Pathol. 2015;46:295-303 pubmed publisher..More importantly, miR-224 down-regulation and APLN up-regulation may synergistically predict biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with PCa. ..
- He X, Zhang Z, Li M, Li S, Ren L, Zhu H, et al. Expression and role of oncogenic miRNA-224 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:575 pubmed publisher..The current study demonstrated that miR-224 acts as an oncogenic miRNA in ESCC, possibly by targeting PHLPP1 and PHLPP2. ..
- Zhang C. Long non-coding RNA FTH1P3 facilitates oral squamous cell carcinoma progression by acting as a molecular sponge of miR-224-5p to modulate fizzled 5 expression. Gene. 2017;607:47-55 pubmed publisher..Thus, targeting the ceRNA network referring FTH1P3 may be a therapeutic target for treatment of OSCC. ..
- Zhang Y, Guo C, Guan D, Yang C, Jiang Y. Prognostic Value of microRNA-224 in Various Cancers: A Meta-analysis. Arch Med Res. 2017;48:472-482 pubmed publisher..Due to the complicated pathogenesis of cancers, more large-scale and standard researches are requisite. ..
- Liu F, Liu Y, Shen J, Zhang G, Han J. MicroRNA-224 inhibits proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by down-regulating Fizzled 5 expression. Oncotarget. 2016;7:49130-49142 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these data indicated that miR-224 down-regulated the Wnt/Î²-catenin signaling possibly by binding to Frizzled 5 and inhibited proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. ..
- Fan Y, Zhou Y, Zhou X, Sun F, Gao B, Wan M, et al. MicroRNA 224 Regulates Ion Transporter Expression in Ameloblasts To Coordinate Enamel Mineralization. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:2875-90 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that miR-224 plays a pivotal role in fine tuning enamel mineralization by modulating SLC4A4 and CFTR to maintain pH homeostasis and support enamel mineralization. ..
- Zhang X, Zhang X, Liu C, Jia N, Li X, Xiao J. MiR?224 promotes colorectal cancer cells proliferation via downregulation of P21WAF1/CIP1. Mol Med Rep. 2014;9:941-6 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the downregulation of miR?224 in CRC is a novel potential therapeutic strategy. ..
- Feng X, Zhao L, Gao S, Song X, Dong W, Zhao Y, et al. Increased fucosylation has a pivotal role in multidrug resistance of breast cancer cells through miR-224-3p targeting FUT4. Gene. 2016;578:232-41 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that FUT4 and miR-224-3p are crucial regulators of cancer response to chemotherapy, and may serve as therapeutic targets to reverse chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer. ..
- Kristensen H, Haldrup C, Strand S, Mundbjerg K, Mortensen M, Thorsen K, et al. Hypermethylation of the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 promoter in prostate cancer predicts biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:2169-81 pubmed publisher..Tumor-suppressive functions of the intronic miR-224 and miR-452 were demonstrated in two prostate cancer cell lines, suggesting that epigenetic silencing of GABRE?miR-452?miR-224 may be selected for in prostate cancer. ..
- Wang M, Deng X, Ying Q, Jin T, Li M, Liang C. MicroRNA-224 targets ERG2 and contributes to malignant progressions of meningioma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;460:354-61 pubmed publisher..Our findings imply the miR-224 expression could predict the overall survival and recurrence-free survival of patients with meningioma and it might be a promising therapeutic target for treating malignant meningiomas. ..
- Knoll S, FÃ¼rst K, Kowtharapu B, Schmitz U, Marquardt S, Wolkenhauer O, et al. E2F1 induces miR-224/452 expression to drive EMT through TXNIP downregulation. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:1315-29 pubmed publisher..The E2F1-miR-224/452-TXNIP axis constitutes a molecular signature that predicts patient survival and may help to set novel therapies. ..
- Zhou H, Li Y, Liu B, Shan Y, Li Y, Zhao L, et al. Downregulation of miR-224 and let-7i contribute to cell survival and chemoresistance in chronic myeloid leukemia cells by regulating ST3GAL IV expression. Gene. 2017;626:106-118 pubmed publisher..Thus we propose that miR-224 and let-7i regulate the proliferation and chemosensitivity of CML cells probably via targeting ST3GAL IV. ..
- Amankwatia E, Chakravarty P, Carey F, Weidlich S, Steele R, Munro A, et al. MicroRNA-224 is associated with colorectal cancer progression and response to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy by KRAS-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Br J Cancer. 2015;112:1480-90 pubmed publisher..We describe a novel mechanism of KRAS regulation, and highlight the clinical utility of colorectal cancer-specific miRNAs as disease progression or clinical response biomarkers. ..
- Zhu D, Chen H, Yang X, Chen W, Wang L, Xu J, et al. Decreased microRNA-224 and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Diagn Pathol. 2014;9:198 pubmed publisher..The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_198. ..
- Fu H, He H, Han Z, Wan Y, Luo H, Huang Y, et al. MicroRNA-224 and its target CAMKK2 synergistically influence tumor progression and patient prognosis in prostate cancer. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:1983-91 pubmed publisher..Combined detection of miR-224 and CAMKK2 expressions represents an efficient predictor of patient prognosis and may be a novel marker which can provide additional prognostic information in PCa. ..
- Tzur G, Levy A, Meiri E, Barad O, Spector Y, Bentwich Z, et al. MicroRNA expression patterns and function in endodermal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3726 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that expression of specific miRNAs correlates with that of specific genes upon differentiation, and highlight the potential role of miRNAs in endodermal differentiation of hESC. ..
- Wang H, Zhu L, Yang Y, Wang Z, Wang R. MiR-224 promotes the chemoresistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cells to cisplatin via regulating G?/S transition and apoptosis by targeting p21(WAF1/CIP1). Br J Cancer. 2014;111:339-54 pubmed publisher..Our findings shed novel light on the roles of miR-224/p21(WAF1/CIP1) signalling in the DDP resistance of LA cells, and targeting it will be a potential strategic approach for reversing the DDP resistance in human LAs. ..
- Zheng Z, Li X, Zhu Y, Gu W, Xie X, Jiang J. Prognostic Significance of MiRNA in Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: a Meta-Analysis. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;39:1891-1904 pubmed..MiRNAs may act as independent prognostic factors in patients with DLBCL, and useful in risk stratification. ..
- Zhang B, Guo X, Zhang J, Liu X, Zhan X, Li Z. MicroRNAâ€‘224 is downregulated in mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas and may regulate tumorigenesis by targeting Jagged1. Mol Med Rep. 2014;10:3303-9 pubmed publisher..Further studies investigating the role of miRNAs and functional analysis of epigenetic alterations are required to examine the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of miRNAs in MCNs. ..
- Ke T, Hsu H, Wu Y, Chen W, Cheng Y, Cheng C. MicroRNA-224 suppresses colorectal cancer cell migration by targeting Cdc42. Dis Markers. 2014;2014:617150 pubmed publisher..Overall, this study indicated a role of miR-224 in negatively regulating CRC cell migration. The expression level of miR-224 may be a useful predictive biomarker for CRC progression. ..