Gene Symbol: MIR222
Description: microRNA 222
Alias: MIRN222, miRNA222, mir-222
Species: human
Products:     MIR222

Top Publications

  1. Hwang M, Yu N, Stinson S, Yue P, Newman R, Allan B, et al. miR-221/222 targets adiponectin receptor 1 to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66502 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ADIPOR1 may play an important role in breast cancer progression and metastasis, and could potentially offer an alternative therapeutic strategy for basal-like breast cancer patients. ..
  2. Zhang C, Han L, Zhang A, Yang W, Zhou X, Pu P, et al. Global changes of mRNA expression reveals an increased activity of the interferon-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway by repression of miR-221/222 in glioblastoma U251 cells. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:1503-12 pubmed
    ..These data indicate for the first time a mechanism involving STAT1/2 upregulation under the transcriptional control of INF-alpha signaling after knockdown of miR-221/222 cluster in U251 glioma cells. ..
  3. Di Leva G, Gasparini P, Piovan C, Ngankeu A, Garofalo M, Taccioli C, et al. MicroRNA cluster 221-222 and estrogen receptor alpha interactions in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:706-21 pubmed publisher
  4. Koelz M, Lense J, Wrba F, Scheffler M, Dienes H, Odenthal M. Down-regulation of miR-221 and miR-222 correlates with pronounced Kit expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although miR-221/222 expression does not have an impact on diagnostics, it could be considered as a tool for future therapeutic strategies for GISTs, especially for tumors with secondary resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ..
  5. Garofalo M, Quintavalle C, Di Leva G, Zanca C, Romano G, Taccioli C, et al. MicroRNA signatures of TRAIL resistance in human non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2008;27:3845-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we show that high expression levels of miR-221 and -222 are needed to maintain the TRAIL-resistant phenotype, thus making these miRs as promising therapeutic targets or diagnostic tool for TRAIL resistance in NSCLC. ..
  6. Mercatelli N, Coppola V, Bonci D, Miele F, Costantini A, Guadagnoli M, et al. The inhibition of the highly expressed miR-221 and miR-222 impairs the growth of prostate carcinoma xenografts in mice. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4029 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that modulating miR-221/222 levels may have a therapeutic potential in prostate carcinoma. ..
  7. Sun T, Wang Q, Balk S, Brown M, Lee G, Kantoff P. The role of microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest the involvement of miR-221 and miR-222 in the development or maintenance of the CRPC phenotype. ..
  8. Jiang F, Zhao W, Zhou L, Zhang L, Liu Z, Yu D. miR-222 regulates the cell biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma by targeting PUMA. Oncol Rep. 2014;31:1255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that miR-222 targets the expression of PUMA in OSCC cells and affects cell growth, invasive and apoptotic abilities. Thus, PUMA may be a possible new target for the treatment of OSCC. ..
  9. Mardente S, Mari E, Consorti F, Di Gioia C, Negri R, Etna M, et al. HMGB1 induces the overexpression of miR-222 and miR-221 and increases growth and motility in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:2285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The overexpression of oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 caused by HMGB1 is associated with an increase in malignancy scores, namely cell growth and motility. ..

More Information


  1. Hao J, Zhang C, Zhang A, Wang K, Jia Z, Wang G, et al. miR-221/222 is the regulator of Cx43 expression in human glioblastoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:1504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that miR-221/222 function as oncogenic microRNAs in human gliomas, at least in part, by targeting Cx43. ..
  2. Dentelli P, Rosso A, Orso F, Olgasi C, Taverna D, Brizzi M. microRNA-222 controls neovascularization by regulating signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A expression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1562-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified STAT5A as a novel miR-222 target, and this finding opens up new perspectives for treatment of vascular diseases. ..
  3. Liu X, Yu J, Jiang L, Wang A, Shi F, Ye H, et al. MicroRNA-222 regulates cell invasion by targeting matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2009;6:131-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that hsa-miR-222 plays an important role in OTSCC invasion, and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for OTSCC patients at risk of metastatic disease. ..
  4. Mattia G, Errico M, Felicetti F, Petrini M, Bottero L, Tomasello L, et al. Constitutive activation of the ETS-1-miR-222 circuitry in metastatic melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:953-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in vivo studies confirmed the contribution of miR-222 to the increased invasive potential obtained by ETS- silencing. ..
  5. Gillies J, Lorimer I. Regulation of p27Kip1 by miRNA 221/222 in glioblastoma. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:2005-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that p27(Kip1) is a direct target for microRNAs 221 and 222, and suggest a role for these microRNAs in promoting the aggressive growth of human glioblastoma. ..
  6. Zhang C, Zhang J, Zhang A, Shi Z, Han L, Jia Z, et al. MiR-221 and miR-222 target PUMA to induce cell survival in glioblastoma. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:229 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, these data indicate for the first time that miR-221/222 directly regulate apoptosis by targeting PUMA in glioblastoma and that miR-221/222 could be potential therapeutic targets for glioblastoma intervention. ..
  7. Zhong S, Li W, Chen Z, Xu J, Zhao J. MiR-222 and miR-29a contribute to the drug-resistance of breast cancer cells. Gene. 2013;531:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The most importance is that we identify two miRNAs (miR-222 and miR-29a) involved in drug-resistance, at least in part via targeting PTEN. ..
  8. Galardi S, Mercatelli N, Giorda E, Massalini S, Frajese G, Ciafrè S, et al. miR-221 and miR-222 expression affects the proliferation potential of human prostate carcinoma cell lines by targeting p27Kip1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23716-24 pubmed
  9. Ueda R, Kohanbash G, Sasaki K, Fujita M, Zhu X, Kastenhuber E, et al. Dicer-regulated microRNAs 222 and 339 promote resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes by down-regulation of ICAM-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10746-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests development of novel miR-targeted therapy to promote cytolysis of tumor cells. ..
  10. Greither T, Grochola L, Udelnow A, Lautenschlager C, Wurl P, Taubert H. Elevated expression of microRNAs 155, 203, 210 and 222 in pancreatic tumors is associated with poorer survival. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the putative target genes for these microRNAs suggest a complex signaling network that can affect PDAC tumorigenesis and tumor progression...
  11. Miller T, Ghoshal K, Ramaswamy B, Roy S, Datta J, Shapiro C, et al. MicroRNA-221/222 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting p27Kip1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding also provides the rationale for the application of altered expression of specific miRNAs as a predictive tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer marker. ..
  12. Zhang J, Han L, Ge Y, Zhou X, Zhang A, Zhang C, et al. miR-221/222 promote malignant progression of glioma through activation of the Akt pathway. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:913-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that miR-221/222 co-enhance the glioma malignant phenotype via activation of the Akt pathway mediated by regulation of common gene expression. ..
  13. Lee C, He H, Jiang Y, Di Y, Yang F, Li J, et al. Elevated expression of tumor miR-222 in pancreatic cancer is associated with Ki67 and poor prognosis. Med Oncol. 2013;30:700 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest the potential of micro-RNA-222 as a prognostic biomarker for the pancreatic cancer. ..
  14. Cochrane D, Cittelly D, Howe E, Spoelstra N, McKinsey E, Lapara K, et al. MicroRNAs link estrogen receptor alpha status and Dicer levels in breast cancer. Horm Cancer. 2010;1:306-19 pubmed publisher
  15. Wong Q, Ching A, Chan A, Choy K, To K, Lai P, et al. MiR-222 overexpression confers cell migratory advantages in hepatocellular carcinoma through enhancing AKT signaling. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:867-75 pubmed publisher
    ..0066). Our study showed that miR-222 overexpression is common in HCC and could confer metastatic potentials in HCC cells, possibly through activating AKT signaling. ..
  16. Chen Y, Zaman M, Deng G, Majid S, Saini S, Liu J, et al. MicroRNAs 221/222 and genistein-mediated regulation of ARHI tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:76-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Genistein, a potential nontoxic chemopreventive agent, restores expression of ARHI and may be an important dietary therapeutic agent for treating prostate cancer. ..
  17. Stinson S, Lackner M, Adai A, Yu N, Kim H, O Brien C, et al. TRPS1 targeting by miR-221/222 promotes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that by promoting EMT, miR-221/222 may contribute to the more aggressive clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancers. ..
  18. Garofalo M, Di Leva G, Romano G, Nuovo G, Suh S, Ngankeu A, et al. miR-221&222 regulate TRAIL resistance and enhance tumorigenicity through PTEN and TIMP3 downregulation. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the MET oncogene is involved in miR-221&222 activation through the c-Jun transcription factor. ..
  19. Zhang C, Zhang J, Zhang A, Wang Y, Han L, You Y, et al. PUMA is a novel target of miR-221/222 in human epithelial cancers. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:1621-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that PUMA is a direct target of miR-221/222 that functions as an endogenous apoptosis regulator in these epithelial cancers. ..
  20. Felli N, Fontana L, Pelosi E, Botta R, Bonci D, Facchiano F, et al. MicroRNAs 221 and 222 inhibit normal erythropoiesis and erythroleukemic cell growth via kit receptor down-modulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18081-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the results on kit+ erythroleukemic cells suggest a potential role of these miRs in cancer therapy. ..
  21. Medina R, Zaidi S, Liu C, Stein J, Van Wijnen A, Croce C, et al. MicroRNAs 221 and 222 bypass quiescence and compromise cell survival. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2773-80 pubmed publisher
  22. Zhang C, Zhang J, Hao J, Shi Z, Wang Y, Han L, et al. High level of miR-221/222 confers increased cell invasion and poor prognosis in glioma. J Transl Med. 2012;10:119 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data indicate that miR-221 and miR-222 directly regulate cell invasion by targeting TIMP3 and act as prognostic factors for glioma patients. ..
  23. Quintavalle C, Garofalo M, Zanca C, Romano G, Iaboni M, Del Basso De Caro M, et al. miR-221/222 overexpession in human glioblastoma increases invasiveness by targeting the protein phosphate PTP?. Oncogene. 2012;31:858-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-221 and -222 regulate glioma tumorigenesis at least in part through the control of PTP? protein expression. ..
  24. Visone R, Russo L, Pallante P, De Martino I, Ferraro A, Leone V, et al. MicroRNAs (miR)-221 and miR-222, both overexpressed in human thyroid papillary carcinomas, regulate p27Kip1 protein levels and cell cycle. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007;14:791-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the data reported here demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 are endogenous regulators of p27(Kip1) protein expression, and thereby, the cell cycle. ..
  25. Xu K, Liang X, Shen K, Sun L, Cui D, Zhao Y, et al. MiR-222 modulates multidrug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma by down-regulating ADAM-17. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:2168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that miR-222 could play a role in the development of MDR by modulation of ADAM-17, the new MDR treatment target in colorectal carcinoma cells. ..
  26. Rommer A, Steinleitner K, Hackl H, Schneckenleithner C, Engelmann M, Scheideler M, et al. Overexpression of primary microRNA 221/222 in acute myeloid leukemia. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:364 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of some miRNAs is strongly regulated at the posttranscriptional level in AML. Pri-miR-221/222 represents a novel molecular marker and putative oncogene in this disease. ..
  27. Nardelli C, Granata I, Iaffaldano L, D Argenio V, Del Monaco V, Maruotti G, et al. miR-138/miR-222 Overexpression Characterizes the miRNome of Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Obesity. Stem Cells Dev. 2017;26:4-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This raises the possibility of using diet-based strategies to normalize the perinatal miRNome in obesity. ..
  28. Li Y, Gu J, Lu H. The GAS5/miR-222 Axis Regulates Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells Through the PTEN/Akt/mTOR Pathway. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:3426-3437 pubmed publisher
    ..GAS5/miR-222 axis regulated proliferation of GC cells through the PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway, which facilitated the development of lncRNA-directed therapy against this deadly disease. ..
  29. Chen W, Liu X, Lv M, Chen L, Zhao J, Zhong S, et al. Exosomes from drug-resistant breast cancer cells transmit chemoresistance by a horizontal transfer of microRNAs. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95240 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that drug-resistant breast cancer cells may spread resistance capacity to sensitive ones by releasing exosomes and that such effects could be partly attributed to the intercellular transfer of specific miRNAs. ..
  30. Zhao J, Chu Z, Hu Y, Lin J, Wang Z, Jiang M, et al. Targeting the miR-221-222/PUMA/BAK/BAX Pathway Abrogates Dexamethasone Resistance in Multiple Myeloma. Cancer Res. 2015;75:4384-4397 pubmed publisher
  31. Ferracin M, Zagatti B, Rizzotto L, Cavazzini F, Veronese A, Ciccone M, et al. MicroRNAs involvement in fludarabine refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:123 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this work indicates that specific microRNAs can be used to predict fludarabine resistance and may potentially be used as therapeutic targets, therefore establishing an important starting point for future studies. ..
  32. Hua Y, Larsen N, Kalyana Sundaram S, Kjems J, Chinnaiyan A, Peter M. miRConnect 2.0: identification of oncogenic, antagonistic miRNA families in three human cancers. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:179 pubmed publisher
    ..miRConnect 2.0 is useful for identifying activities of miRNAs that are relevant to primary cancers. The new correlation data on miRNAs and mRNAs deregulated in three primary cancers are available at miRConnect.org. ..
  33. Jansen F, Yang X, Baumann K, Przybilla D, Schmitz T, Flender A, et al. Endothelial microparticles reduce ICAM-1 expression in a microRNA-222-dependent mechanism. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:2202-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In pathological hyperglycaemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-222-dependent anti-inflammatory effects are reduced. ..
  34. Mardente S, Mari E, Massimi I, Fico F, Faggioni A, Pulcinelli F, et al. HMGB1-Induced Cross Talk between PTEN and miRs 221/222 in Thyroid Cancer. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:512027 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly identified pathway HMGB1/RAGE/miR221/222 may represent an effective way of tumor escape from immune surveillance that could be used to develop new therapeutic strategies against anaplastic tumors. ..
  35. Zeng L, Hu Z, Li K, Xia K. miR-222 attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death by targeting the PPP2R2A/Akt/mTOR Axis in bladder cancer cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, miR-222 may be a novel therapeutic target for bladder cancer. ..
  36. Qin B, Cao Y, Yang H, Xiao B, Lu Z. MicroRNA-221/222 regulate ox-LDL-induced endothelial apoptosis via Ets-1/p21 inhibition. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;405:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that manipulation of the miR-221/222-Ets-1-p21 pathway may offer a novel strategy for treatment of endothelial apoptosis and atherosclerosis. ..
  37. Ying X, Wu Q, Wu X, Zhu Q, Wang X, Jiang L, et al. Epithelial ovarian cancer-secreted exosomal miR-222-3p induces polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. Oncotarget. 2016;7:43076-43087 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations propose tumor-derived exosomal miR-222-3p is an effective regulator in the polarization of tumor-promoting M2 macrophages and may be a biomarker of EOC. ..
  38. Ning T, Zhang H, Wang X, Li S, Zhang L, Deng T, et al. miR-221 and miR-222 synergistically regulate hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 to promote cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancer. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317701636 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data illustrated a novel pathway comprising miR-221and miR-222 and hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in gastric cancer, which is a potential target for future clinical use. ..
  39. Wei F, Ma C, Zhou T, Dong X, Luo Q, Geng L, et al. Exosomes derived from gemcitabine-resistant cells transfer malignant phenotypic traits via delivery of miRNA-222-3p. Mol Cancer. 2017;16:132 pubmed publisher
    ..The exosomic miR-222-3p level in sera may be a potential prognostic biomarker for predicting gemcitabine sensitivity in NSCLC patients. ..
  40. Bandopadhyay M, Banerjee A, Sarkar N, Panigrahi R, Datta S, Pal A, et al. Tumor suppressor micro RNA miR-145 and onco micro RNAs miR-21 and miR-222 expressions are differentially modulated by hepatitis B virus X protein in malignant hepatocytes. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:721 pubmed publisher
    ..The study throws light into possible way by which HBx protein acts through microRNA and thereby regulates host functioning. It might suggest new therapeutic strategies against hepatic cancer. ..
  41. Wurz K, Garcia R, Goff B, Mitchell P, Lee J, Tewari M, et al. MiR-221 and MiR-222 alterations in sporadic ovarian carcinoma: Relationship to CDKN1B, CDKNIC and overall survival. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010;49:577-84 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In contrast, CDKN1B expression was not associated with miR-221 or miR-222 expression. Neither somatic mutations nor methylation of the studied region explained the alterations in miR-221 and miR-222 expression in most carcinomas. ..
  42. Pons A, Nomdedeu B, Navarro A, Gaya A, Gel B, Diaz T, et al. Hematopoiesis-related microRNA expression in myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50:1854-9 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-222 ( p = 0.0023) and miR-181a ( p = 0.014) expression was higher in AML than in MDS in both BM and PB. This study adds further evidence to the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of MDS and their transformation into AML. ..
  43. Quintavalle C, Mangani D, Roscigno G, Romano G, Díaz Lagares A, Iaboni M, et al. MiR-221/222 target the DNA methyltransferase MGMT in glioma cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74466 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis. ..
  44. Yu D, Wu Y, Zhang X, Lv M, Chen W, Chen X, et al. Exosomes from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells transmit drug resistance partly by delivering miR-222. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:3227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, exosomes are effective in transmitting drug resistance and the delivery of miR-222 via exosomes may be a mechanism. ..
  45. Sun T, Yang M, Chen S, Balk S, Pomerantz M, Hsieh C, et al. The altered expression of MiR-221/-222 and MiR-23b/-27b is associated with the development of human castration resistant prostate cancer. Prostate. 2012;72:1093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests that altered miR-221/-222 and miR-23b/-27b expression may be associated with the CRPC process. ..
  46. Gui B, Hsieh C, Kantoff P, Kibel A, Jia L. Androgen receptor-mediated downregulation of microRNA-221 and -222 in castration-resistant prostate cancer. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184166 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed light on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of miRNAs in PCa and suggest context-dependent targeting of oncogenic miRNAs. ..
  47. Li M, Pan S, Qiu A. Roles of microRNA-221/222 in type 2 diabetic patients with post-menopausal breast cancer. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-221/222 may participate in the occurrence and progression of T2DM with post-menopausal breast cancer via down-regulation of CAVl. ..
  48. Felicetti F, De Feo A, Coscia C, Puglisi R, Pedini F, Pasquini L, et al. Exosome-mediated transfer of miR-222 is sufficient to increase tumor malignancy in melanoma. J Transl Med. 2016;14:56 pubmed publisher
  49. Liu Y, Zhang C, Chen C, Yan D, Chen S, Li J, et al. [The role of mir-221/222 in inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced human hepatocarcinoma cell apoptosis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2011;19:191-5 pubmed publisher
  50. Gullà A, Di Martino M, Gallo Cantafio M, Morelli E, Amodio N, Botta C, et al. A 13 mer LNA-i-miR-221 Inhibitor Restores Drug Sensitivity in Melphalan-Refractory Multiple Myeloma Cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:1222-33 pubmed publisher
  51. Wei Y, Lai X, Yu S, Chen S, Ma Y, Zhang Y, et al. Exosomal miR-221/222 enhances tamoxifen resistance in recipient ER-positive breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;147:423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are the first to show that secreted miR-221/222 serves as signaling molecules to mediate communication of tamoxifen resistance. ..
  52. Ozdoğan H, Gur Dedeoglu B, Oztemur Islakoglu Y, Aydos A, Köse S, Atalay A, et al. DICER1 gene and miRNA dysregulation in mesenchymal stem cells of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloblastic leukemia. Leuk Res. 2017;63:62-71 pubmed publisher
  53. Zhu N, Zhang D, Chen S, Liu X, Lin L, Huang X, et al. Endothelial enriched microRNAs regulate angiotensin II-induced endothelial inflammation and migration. Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings present possible therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. ..
  54. Dai R, Li J, Liu Y, Yan D, Chen S, Duan C, et al. miR-221/222 suppression protects against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis via p27(Kip1)- and MEK/ERK-mediated cell cycle regulation. Biol Chem. 2010;391:791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that suppression of miR-221/222 plays a crucial role in the protection against apoptosis induced by ER stress in HCC cells. ..
  55. Cao Y, Yu S, Wang Y, Guo G, Ding Q, An R. MicroRNA-dependent regulation of PTEN after arsenic trioxide treatment in bladder cancer cell line T24. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The synergy effect between miRNA-19a and arsenic trioxide that advocates targeting the mir-19a may represent a potential approach to enhance the efficacy and safety of ATO to treat bladder cancer by a decrease in dose. ..
  56. Kreil S, Hochhaus A, Cross N, Chase A. A high-throughput candidate gene mutation screen in lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative neoplasias. Leuk Res. 2009;33:e168-9 pubmed publisher
  57. Amankwah E, Anegbe E, Park H, Pow Sang J, Hakam A, Park J. miR-21, miR-221 and miR-222 expression and prostate cancer recurrence among obese and non-obese cases. Asian J Androl. 2013;15:226-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Future larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. ..
  58. Xu Q, Li P, Chen X, Zong L, Jiang Z, Nan L, et al. miR-221/222 induces pancreatic cancer progression through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases. Oncotarget. 2015;6:14153-64 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that overexpressed miR-221/222 may play an oncogenic role in pancreatic cancer by inducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, thus leading to cancer cell invasion. ..
  59. Gehrau R, Mas V, Villamil F, Dumur C, Mehta N, Suh J, et al. MicroRNA signature at the time of clinical HCV recurrence associates with aggressive fibrosis progression post-liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven microRNAs were successfully validated in the validation set using QPCR. We have identified a 9-microRNA signature able to identify early post-LT patients at high risk of severe HCVrec during long-term follow-up. ..
  60. Qian K, Hu L, Chen H, Li H, Liu N, Li Y, et al. Hsa-miR-222 is involved in differentiation of endometrial stromal cells in vitro. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4734-43 pubmed publisher
  61. Frenquelli M, Muzio M, Scielzo C, Fazi C, Scarfo L, Rossi C, et al. MicroRNA and proliferation control in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: functional relationship between miR-221/222 cluster and p27. Blood. 2010;115:3949-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the miR-221/222 cluster modulates the expression of p27 protein in CLL cells and lead to suggest that miR-221/222 and p27 may represent a regulatory loop that helps maintaining CLL cells in a resting condition. ..
  62. Lee J, Zhao J, Clifton Bligh R, Gill A, Gundara J, Ip J, et al. MicroRNA-222 and microRNA-146b are tissue and circulating biomarkers of recurrent papillary thyroid cancer. Cancer. 2013;119:4358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential of these miRNAs as tumor biomarkers to improve patient stratification according to the risk of recurrence and as circulating biomarkers for PTC surveillance warrants further study. ..
  63. Blandamura S, Alessandrini L, Bertorelle R, Simonato F, Guzzardo V, Valentini E, et al. Multiple sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors concomitant with ampullary adenocarcinoma: a case report with KIT and PDGFRA mutational analysis and miR-221/222 expression profile. Pathol Res Pract. 2014;210:392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our data support an independent origin of the two GISTs. Determining whether these tumors are multiple primaries or recurrencies is helpful to predict their malignancy and to select proper treatment. ..
  64. Ihle M, Trautmann M, Kuenstlinger H, Huss S, Heydt C, Fassunke J, et al. miRNA-221 and miRNA-222 induce apoptosis via the KIT/AKT signalling pathway in gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Mol Oncol. 2015;9:1421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, overexpression of these miRNAs seems to functionally counteract oncogenic signalling pathways in GIST. ..
  65. Fu Z, Qian F, Yang X, Jiang H, Chen Y, Liu S. Circulating miR-222 in plasma and its potential diagnostic and prognostic value in gastric cancer. Med Oncol. 2014;31:164 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggested that circulating miR-222 in plasma might be a potential and useful noninvasive biomarker for the early detection and prognosis of GC. ..
  66. Bayrak O, Gulluoglu S, Aydemir E, Ture U, Acar H, Atalay B, et al. MicroRNA expression profiling reveals the potential function of microRNA-31 in chordomas. J Neurooncol. 2013;115:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our profiling may be the first step toward delineating the differential regulation of cancer-related genes in chordomas, helping to reveal the mechanisms of initiation and progression. ..
  67. Petrovic N, Davidovic R, Jovanovic Cupic S, Krajnovic M, Lukic S, Petrovic M, et al. Changes in miR-221/222 Levels in Invasive and In Situ Carcinomas of the Breast: Differences in Association with Estrogen Receptor and TIMP3 Expression Levels. Mol Diagn Ther. 2016;20:603-615 pubmed
  68. Yan J, Guo D, Yang S, Sun H, Wu B, Zhou D. Inhibition of miR-222-3p activity promoted osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs by regulating Smad5-RUNX2 signal axis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;470:498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that suppression of miR-222-3p activity promoted osteogenic differentiation hBMSCs through regulating Smad5-RUNX2 signaling axis. ..
  69. Ichimura A, Ruike Y, Terasawa K, Shimizu K, Tsujimoto G. MicroRNA-34a inhibits cell proliferation by repressing mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 during megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:1016-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the results highlight an important regulatory role for miR-34a in the process of megakaryocytic differentiation, especially in the arrest of cell growth, which is a prerequisite for cells to enter differentiation. ..
  70. Tsunoda T, Takashima Y, Yoshida Y, Doi K, Tanaka Y, Fujimoto T, et al. Oncogenic KRAS regulates miR-200c and miR-221/222 in a 3D-specific manner in colorectal cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:2453-9 pubmed
    ..Oncogenic KRAS regulates 3D-specific molecules, possibly being associated with colorectal tumor development in vivo. ..
  71. Stinson S, Lackner M, Adai A, Yu N, Kim H, O Brien C, et al. miR-221/222 targeting of trichorhinophalangeal 1 (TRPS1) promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. Sci Signal. 2011;4:pt5 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPS1 inhibited EMT by directly repressing expression of ZEB2 (Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2). Therefore, miR-221/222 may contribute to the aggressive clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancers. ..
  72. Li B, Lu Y, Wang H, Han X, Mao J, Li J, et al. miR-221/222 enhance the tumorigenicity of human breast cancer stem cells via modulation of PTEN/Akt pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;79:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..This is achieved possibly through targeting PTEN/Akt pathway. miR-221/222 might be a novel therapeutic candidate for human breast cancer. ..
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