MIR221

Summary

Gene Symbol: MIR221
Description: microRNA 221
Alias: MIRN221, miRNA221, mir-221
Species: human
Products:     MIR221

Top Publications

  1. Zhang C, Kang C, You Y, Pu P, Yang W, Zhao P, et al. Co-suppression of miR-221/222 cluster suppresses human glioma cell growth by targeting p27kip1 in vitro and in vivo. Int J Oncol. 2009;34:1653-60 pubmed
  2. Chen Y, Zaman M, Deng G, Majid S, Saini S, Liu J, et al. MicroRNAs 221/222 and genistein-mediated regulation of ARHI tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:76-86 pubmed publisher
    ..prostate cancer cells have decreased level of ARHI which could be caused by direct targeting of 3'UTR of ARHI by miR221/222...
  3. Hong F, Li Y, Xu Y, Zhu L. Prognostic significance of serum microRNA-221 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer. J Int Med Res. 2013;41:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that serum miR-221 may have a role as a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker, and may have potential as a therapeutic target in EOC. ..
  4. Rong M, Chen G, Dang Y. Increased miR-221 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its role in enhancing cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, miR-221 inhibitor could be useful to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. Thus miR-221 might be a critical targeted therapy strategy for HCC. ..
  5. Zhou Y, Liu C, Dai X, Zhang X, Wang O. Overexpression of miR-221 is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics and the BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas. Med Oncol. 2012;29:3360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-221 may be of potential importance in determining the aggressive properties of PTCs including the BRAF mutation, and it may further refine the risk stratification by BRAF mutation in PTCs...
  6. Pineau P, Volinia S, McJunkin K, Marchio A, Battiston C, Terris B, et al. miR-221 overexpression contributes to liver tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the use of synthetic inhibitors of miR-221 may prove to be a promising approach to liver cancer treatment. ..
  7. Zhang C, Zhang J, Zhang A, Wang Y, Han L, You Y, et al. PUMA is a novel target of miR-221/222 in human epithelial cancers. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:1621-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that PUMA is a direct target of miR-221/222 that functions as an endogenous apoptosis regulator in these epithelial cancers. ..
  8. Stinson S, Lackner M, Adai A, Yu N, Kim H, O Brien C, et al. TRPS1 targeting by miR-221/222 promotes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that by promoting EMT, miR-221/222 may contribute to the more aggressive clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancers. ..
  9. Felli N, Fontana L, Pelosi E, Botta R, Bonci D, Facchiano F, et al. MicroRNAs 221 and 222 inhibit normal erythropoiesis and erythroleukemic cell growth via kit receptor down-modulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18081-6 pubmed
    ..In erythropoietic (E) culture of cord blood CD34+ progenitor cells, the level of miR 221 and 222 is gradually and sharply down-modulated...
  10. Garofalo M, Di Leva G, Romano G, Nuovo G, Suh S, Ngankeu A, et al. miR-221&222 regulate TRAIL resistance and enhance tumorigenicity through PTEN and TIMP3 downregulation. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the MET oncogene is involved in miR-221&222 activation through the c-Jun transcription factor. ..

Detail Information

Publications63

  1. Zhang C, Kang C, You Y, Pu P, Yang W, Zhao P, et al. Co-suppression of miR-221/222 cluster suppresses human glioma cell growth by targeting p27kip1 in vitro and in vivo. Int J Oncol. 2009;34:1653-60 pubmed
  2. Chen Y, Zaman M, Deng G, Majid S, Saini S, Liu J, et al. MicroRNAs 221/222 and genistein-mediated regulation of ARHI tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:76-86 pubmed publisher
    ..prostate cancer cells have decreased level of ARHI which could be caused by direct targeting of 3'UTR of ARHI by miR221/222...
  3. Hong F, Li Y, Xu Y, Zhu L. Prognostic significance of serum microRNA-221 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer. J Int Med Res. 2013;41:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that serum miR-221 may have a role as a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker, and may have potential as a therapeutic target in EOC. ..
  4. Rong M, Chen G, Dang Y. Increased miR-221 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its role in enhancing cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, miR-221 inhibitor could be useful to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. Thus miR-221 might be a critical targeted therapy strategy for HCC. ..
  5. Zhou Y, Liu C, Dai X, Zhang X, Wang O. Overexpression of miR-221 is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics and the BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas. Med Oncol. 2012;29:3360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-221 may be of potential importance in determining the aggressive properties of PTCs including the BRAF mutation, and it may further refine the risk stratification by BRAF mutation in PTCs...
  6. Pineau P, Volinia S, McJunkin K, Marchio A, Battiston C, Terris B, et al. miR-221 overexpression contributes to liver tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the use of synthetic inhibitors of miR-221 may prove to be a promising approach to liver cancer treatment. ..
  7. Zhang C, Zhang J, Zhang A, Wang Y, Han L, You Y, et al. PUMA is a novel target of miR-221/222 in human epithelial cancers. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:1621-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that PUMA is a direct target of miR-221/222 that functions as an endogenous apoptosis regulator in these epithelial cancers. ..
  8. Stinson S, Lackner M, Adai A, Yu N, Kim H, O Brien C, et al. TRPS1 targeting by miR-221/222 promotes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra41 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that by promoting EMT, miR-221/222 may contribute to the more aggressive clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancers. ..
  9. Felli N, Fontana L, Pelosi E, Botta R, Bonci D, Facchiano F, et al. MicroRNAs 221 and 222 inhibit normal erythropoiesis and erythroleukemic cell growth via kit receptor down-modulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18081-6 pubmed
    ..In erythropoietic (E) culture of cord blood CD34+ progenitor cells, the level of miR 221 and 222 is gradually and sharply down-modulated...
  10. Garofalo M, Di Leva G, Romano G, Nuovo G, Suh S, Ngankeu A, et al. miR-221&222 regulate TRAIL resistance and enhance tumorigenicity through PTEN and TIMP3 downregulation. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that the MET oncogene is involved in miR-221&222 activation through the c-Jun transcription factor. ..
  11. Medina R, Zaidi S, Liu C, Stein J, Van Wijnen A, Croce C, et al. MicroRNAs 221 and 222 bypass quiescence and compromise cell survival. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2773-80 pubmed publisher
  12. Dai R, Li J, Liu Y, Yan D, Chen S, Duan C, et al. miR-221/222 suppression protects against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis via p27(Kip1)- and MEK/ERK-mediated cell cycle regulation. Biol Chem. 2010;391:791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that suppression of miR-221/222 plays a crucial role in the protection against apoptosis induced by ER stress in HCC cells. ..
  13. Pu X, Huang G, Guo H, Guo C, Li H, Ye S, et al. Circulating miR-221 directly amplified from plasma is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker of colorectal cancer and is correlated with p53 expression. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:1674-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct amplification of plasma miR-221 can be used as a potential noninvasive molecular marker for diagnosis and prognosis of CRC and is correlated with p53 expression. ..
  14. Duncavage E, Goodgame B, Sezhiyan A, Govindan R, Pfeifer J. Use of microRNA expression levels to predict outcomes in resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1755-63 pubmed publisher
    ..If confirmed in prospective studies, miRNA expression in resected NSCLC could potentially identify those at high risk of relapse after surgery. ..
  15. Igoucheva O, Alexeev V. MicroRNA-dependent regulation of cKit in cutaneous melanoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:790-4 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that regulation of expression and functional activity of identified up-regulated miRNAs should be further studied in the context of malignant melanoma. ..
  16. Quintavalle C, Garofalo M, Zanca C, Romano G, Iaboni M, Del Basso De Caro M, et al. miR-221/222 overexpession in human glioblastoma increases invasiveness by targeting the protein phosphate PTP?. Oncogene. 2012;31:858-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-221 and -222 regulate glioma tumorigenesis at least in part through the control of PTP? protein expression. ..
  17. Amankwah E, Anegbe E, Park H, Pow Sang J, Hakam A, Park J. miR-21, miR-221 and miR-222 expression and prostate cancer recurrence among obese and non-obese cases. Asian J Androl. 2013;15:226-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Future larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. ..
  18. Zhang C, Zhang J, Hao J, Shi Z, Wang Y, Han L, et al. High level of miR-221/222 confers increased cell invasion and poor prognosis in glioma. J Transl Med. 2012;10:119 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data indicate that miR-221 and miR-222 directly regulate cell invasion by targeting TIMP3 and act as prognostic factors for glioma patients. ..
  19. Frenquelli M, Muzio M, Scielzo C, Fazi C, Scarfo L, Rossi C, et al. MicroRNA and proliferation control in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: functional relationship between miR-221/222 cluster and p27. Blood. 2010;115:3949-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the miR-221/222 cluster modulates the expression of p27 protein in CLL cells and lead to suggest that miR-221/222 and p27 may represent a regulatory loop that helps maintaining CLL cells in a resting condition. ..
  20. Lambertini E, Lolli A, Vezzali F, Penolazzi L, Gambari R, Piva R. Correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:445 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that miR-221 expression is, in part, dependent on Slug in breast cancer cells, and that Slug plays a more important role than miR-221 in cell migration and invasion. ..
  21. Visone R, Russo L, Pallante P, De Martino I, Ferraro A, Leone V, et al. MicroRNAs (miR)-221 and miR-222, both overexpressed in human thyroid papillary carcinomas, regulate p27Kip1 protein levels and cell cycle. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007;14:791-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the data reported here demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 are endogenous regulators of p27(Kip1) protein expression, and thereby, the cell cycle. ..
  22. Stinson S, Lackner M, Adai A, Yu N, Kim H, O Brien C, et al. miR-221/222 targeting of trichorhinophalangeal 1 (TRPS1) promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. Sci Signal. 2011;4:pt5 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPS1 inhibited EMT by directly repressing expression of ZEB2 (Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2). Therefore, miR-221/222 may contribute to the aggressive clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancers. ..
  23. Zhao R, Wu J, Jia W, Gong C, Yu F, Ren Z, et al. Plasma miR-221 as a predictive biomarker for chemoresistance in breast cancer patients who previously received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Onkologie. 2011;34:675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..044) but not in the pathologic complete response rate (p = 0.477). Our results indicate that plasma miR-221 may be a predictive biomarker for sensitivity to NAC in breast cancer patients. ..
  24. Liu K, Li G, Fan C, Diao Y, Wu B, Li J. Increased Expression of MicroRNA-221 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance. J Int Med Res. 2012;40:467-74 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that miR-221 is a novel prognostic indicator in gastric cancer and may be a potential target for diagnosis and gene therapy. ..
  25. He H, Jazdzewski K, Li W, Liyanarachchi S, Nagy R, Volinia S, et al. The role of microRNA genes in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:19075-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that up-regulation of several miRs and regulation of KIT are involved in PTC pathogenesis, and that sequence changes in genes targeted by miRNAs can contribute to their regulation. ..
  26. Lupini L, Bassi C, Ferracin M, Bartonicek N, D Abundo L, Zagatti B, et al. miR-221 affects multiple cancer pathways by modulating the level of hundreds messenger RNAs. Front Genet. 2013;4:64 pubmed publisher
    ..The modulation of mRNA level of 602 genes confirms the ability of miR-221 to promote cancer by affecting multiple oncogenic pathways. ..
  27. Fu X, Wang Q, Chen J, Huang X, Chen X, Cao L, et al. Clinical significance of miR-221 and its inverse correlation with p27Kip¹ in hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:3029-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, miR-221 is important in tumorigenesis of HCC, possibly by specifically down-regulating p27(Kip1), a cell-cycle inhibitor. These results indicate miR-221 as a new therapeutic target in HCC. ..
  28. Park J, Lee E, Esau C, Schmittgen T. Antisense inhibition of microRNA-21 or -221 arrests cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and sensitizes the effects of gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreas. 2009;38:e190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that antisense to miR-21 and miR-221 results in significant cell killing under various conditions and that antisense oligonucleotides targeted to miRNA represents a potential new therapy for pancreatic cancer. ..
  29. Gramantieri L, Fornari F, Ferracin M, Veronese A, Sabbioni S, Calin G, et al. MicroRNA-221 targets Bmf in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlates with tumor multifocality. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:5073-81 pubmed publisher
  30. Li Y, Song Y, Li F, Yang T, Lu Y, Geng Y. MicroRNA-221 regulates high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:81-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that manipulation of the miR-221-c-kit pathway may offer a novel strategy for treatment of vascular dysfunction in diabetic patients. ..
  31. Davis B, Hilyard A, Nguyen P, Lagna G, Hata A. Induction of microRNA-221 by platelet-derived growth factor signaling is critical for modulation of vascular smooth muscle phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:3728-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that PDGF signaling, by modulating the expression of miR-221, regulates two critical determinants of the vSMC phenotype; they are SMC gene expression and cell proliferation. ..
  32. Panarelli N, Chen Y, Zhou X, Kitabayashi N, Yantiss R. MicroRNA expression aids the preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pancreas. 2012;41:685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..001, respectively). Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas show differential expression of miRNAs compared to benign pancreatic lesions. A select panel of miRNAs aids the distinction between pancreatic lesions in cytology specimens. ..
  33. Yoon S, Chun S, Han E, Choi J, Jang S, Koh S, et al. Deregulated expression of microRNA-221 with the potential for prognostic biomarkers in surgically resected hepatocellular carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:1391-400 pubmed publisher
  34. Galardi S, Mercatelli N, Giorda E, Massalini S, Frajese G, Ciafrè S, et al. miR-221 and miR-222 expression affects the proliferation potential of human prostate carcinoma cell lines by targeting p27Kip1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23716-24 pubmed
  35. Miller T, Ghoshal K, Ramaswamy B, Roy S, Datta J, Shapiro C, et al. MicroRNA-221/222 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting p27Kip1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding also provides the rationale for the application of altered expression of specific miRNAs as a predictive tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer marker. ..
  36. He X, Guo A, Xu C, Chang Y, Xiang G, Gong J, et al. Bioinformatics analysis identifies miR-221 as a core regulator in hepatocellular carcinoma and its silencing suppresses tumor properties. Oncol Rep. 2014;32:1200-10 pubmed publisher
  37. Zhang X, Mao H, Chen J, Wen S, Li D, Ye M, et al. Increased expression of microRNA-221 inhibits PAK1 in endothelial progenitor cells and impairs its function via c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:404-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings demonstrate that miR-221 affects the MEK/ERK pathway by targeting PAK1 to inhibit the proliferation of EPCs. ..
  38. Ogawa T, Enomoto M, Fujii H, Sekiya Y, Yoshizato K, Ikeda K, et al. MicroRNA-221/222 upregulation indicates the activation of stellate cells and the progression of liver fibrosis. Gut. 2012;61:1600-9 pubmed
    ..miR-221/222 may be new markers for stellate cell activation and liver fibrosis progression. ..
  39. Sun T, Wang X, He H, Sweeney C, Liu S, Brown M, et al. MiR-221 promotes the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of HECTD2 and RAB1A. Oncogene. 2014;33:2790-800 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that a major biological consequence of upregulation of miR-221 is reprogramming of AR signaling, which in turn may mediate the transition to the CRPC phenotype. ..
  40. Zhang J, Han L, Ge Y, Zhou X, Zhang A, Zhang C, et al. miR-221/222 promote malignant progression of glioma through activation of the Akt pathway. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:913-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that miR-221/222 co-enhance the glioma malignant phenotype via activation of the Akt pathway mediated by regulation of common gene expression. ..
  41. Lu Q, Lu C, Zhou G, Zhang W, Xiao H, Wang X. MicroRNA-221 silencing predisposed human bladder cancer cells to undergo apoptosis induced by TRAIL. Urol Oncol. 2010;28:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..MiRNA-221 silencing rendered human bladder cancer T24 cells to undergo apoptosis induced by TRAIL. Our findings suggest a potential role of suppressing miRNA-221 in human bladder cancer therapy. ..
  42. Park J, Kogure T, Nuovo G, Jiang J, He L, Kim J, et al. miR-221 silencing blocks hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes survival. Cancer Res. 2011;71:7608-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings offer a preclinical proof of efficacy for chol-anti-miR-221 in a valid orthotopic mouse model of HCC, suggesting that this targeted agent could benefit treatment for patients with advanced HCC. ..
  43. Sun K, Wang W, Zeng J, Wu C, Lei S, Li G. MicroRNA-221 inhibits CDKN1C/p57 expression in human colorectal carcinoma. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32:375-84 pubmed publisher
  44. Rao X, Di Leva G, Li M, Fang F, Devlin C, Hartman Frey C, et al. MicroRNA-221/222 confers breast cancer fulvestrant resistance by regulating multiple signaling pathways. Oncogene. 2011;30:1082-97 pubmed publisher
  45. Hwang M, Yu N, Stinson S, Yue P, Newman R, Allan B, et al. miR-221/222 targets adiponectin receptor 1 to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66502 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ADIPOR1 may play an important role in breast cancer progression and metastasis, and could potentially offer an alternative therapeutic strategy for basal-like breast cancer patients. ..
  46. Di Leva G, Gasparini P, Piovan C, Ngankeu A, Garofalo M, Taccioli C, et al. MicroRNA cluster 221-222 and estrogen receptor alpha interactions in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:706-21 pubmed publisher
  47. Fornari F, Gramantieri L, Ferracin M, Veronese A, Sabbioni S, Calin G, et al. MiR-221 controls CDKN1C/p57 and CDKN1B/p27 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene. 2008;27:5651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a basis toward the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking miR-221 in HCC. ..
  48. Garofalo M, Quintavalle C, Di Leva G, Zanca C, Romano G, Taccioli C, et al. MicroRNA signatures of TRAIL resistance in human non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2008;27:3845-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we show that high expression levels of miR-221 and -222 are needed to maintain the TRAIL-resistant phenotype, thus making these miRs as promising therapeutic targets or diagnostic tool for TRAIL resistance in NSCLC. ..
  49. Mercatelli N, Coppola V, Bonci D, Miele F, Costantini A, Guadagnoli M, et al. The inhibition of the highly expressed miR-221 and miR-222 impairs the growth of prostate carcinoma xenografts in mice. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4029 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that modulating miR-221/222 levels may have a therapeutic potential in prostate carcinoma. ..
  50. Zheng C, Yinghao S, Li J. MiR-221 expression affects invasion potential of human prostate carcinoma cell lines by targeting DVL2. Med Oncol. 2012;29:815-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We also suggest that miR-221 may control the migration of AIPC cells through DVL2, working as a key regulator in advanced CaP. The role of miR-221 in other target mRNA needs to be further investigated. ..
  51. Kang S, Ha Y, Kim S, Kang S, Park H, Lee J, et al. Do microRNA 96, 145 and 221 expressions really aid in the prognosis of prostate carcinoma?. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To utilize miRNA as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice, more research is needed to understand miRNA mechanisms, identify miRNA targets, and further characterize miRNA function. ..
  52. Sun T, Wang Q, Balk S, Brown M, Lee G, Kantoff P. The role of microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest the involvement of miR-221 and miR-222 in the development or maintenance of the CRPC phenotype. ..
  53. Wurz K, Garcia R, Goff B, Mitchell P, Lee J, Tewari M, et al. MiR-221 and MiR-222 alterations in sporadic ovarian carcinoma: Relationship to CDKN1B, CDKNIC and overall survival. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010;49:577-84 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In contrast, CDKN1B expression was not associated with miR-221 or miR-222 expression. Neither somatic mutations nor methylation of the studied region explained the alterations in miR-221 and miR-222 expression in most carcinomas. ..
  54. Mardente S, Mari E, Consorti F, Di Gioia C, Negri R, Etna M, et al. HMGB1 induces the overexpression of miR-222 and miR-221 and increases growth and motility in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:2285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The overexpression of oncogenic miR-221 and miR-222 caused by HMGB1 is associated with an increase in malignancy scores, namely cell growth and motility. ..
  55. Hao J, Zhang C, Zhang A, Wang K, Jia Z, Wang G, et al. miR-221/222 is the regulator of Cx43 expression in human glioblastoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:1504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that miR-221/222 function as oncogenic microRNAs in human gliomas, at least in part, by targeting Cx43. ..
  56. Quintavalle C, Mangani D, Roscigno G, Romano G, Díaz Lagares A, Iaboni M, et al. MiR-221/222 target the DNA methyltransferase MGMT in glioma cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74466 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, chronic miR-221/222-mediated MGMT downregulation may render cells unable to repair genetic damage. This, associated also to miR-221/222 oncogenic potential, may poor GBM prognosis. ..
  57. Gillies J, Lorimer I. Regulation of p27Kip1 by miRNA 221/222 in glioblastoma. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:2005-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that p27(Kip1) is a direct target for microRNAs 221 and 222, and suggest a role for these microRNAs in promoting the aggressive growth of human glioblastoma. ..
  58. Acunzo M, Visone R, Romano G, Veronese A, Lovat F, Palmieri D, et al. miR-130a targets MET and induces TRAIL-sensitivity in NSCLC by downregulating miR-221 and 222. Oncogene. 2012;31:634-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that miR-130a reduced migratory capacity of NSCLC. A better understanding of MET-miR-221 and 222 axis regulation in drug resistance is the key in developing new strategies in NSCLC therapy. ..
  59. Spahn M, Kneitz S, Scholz C, Stenger N, Rudiger T, Strobel P, et al. Expression of microRNA-221 is progressively reduced in aggressive prostate cancer and metastasis and predicts clinical recurrence. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:394-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that progressive miR-221 downregulation hallmarks metastasis and presents a novel prognostic marker in high risk PCa. This suggests that miR-221 has potential as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in PCa. ..
  60. Zhang C, Zhang J, Zhang A, Shi Z, Han L, Jia Z, et al. MiR-221 and miR-222 target PUMA to induce cell survival in glioblastoma. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:229 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, these data indicate for the first time that miR-221/222 directly regulate apoptosis by targeting PUMA in glioblastoma and that miR-221/222 could be potential therapeutic targets for glioblastoma intervention. ..
  61. Mayoral R, Pipkin M, Pachkov M, van Nimwegen E, Rao A, Monticelli S. MicroRNA-221-222 regulate the cell cycle in mast cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:433-45 pubmed
    ..Our study provides further insights on miR-221-222 transcriptional regulation as well as evidences that miR-221-222 regulate cell cycle checkpoints in mast cells in response to acute activation stimuli. ..
  62. Xuan H, Xue W, Pan J, Sha J, Dong B, Huang Y. Downregulation of miR-221, -30d, and -15a contributes to pathogenesis of prostate cancer by targeting Bmi-1. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2015;80:276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that miR-221 and miR-30d are candidate tumor suppressor miRNAs in prostate cancer and therefore serve as potential clinical classification markers and therapeutic targets for human prostate cancer. ..