Gene Symbol: MIR21
Description: microRNA 21
Alias: MIRN21, hsa-mir-21, miR-21, miRNA21
Species: human
Products:     MIR21

Top Publications

  1. Lou Y, Yang X, Wang F, Cui Z, Huang Y. MicroRNA-21 promotes the cell proliferation, invasion and migration abilities in ovarian epithelial carcinomas through inhibiting the expression of PTEN protein. Int J Mol Med. 2010;26:819-27 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest miR-21 may be important in the initiation and progression of EOC as an oncomiR, likely through regulating PTEN. ..
  2. Xu L, Wu Z, Chen Y, Zhu Q, Hamidi S, Navab R. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and apoptosis by targeting PTEN, RECK and Bcl-2 in lung squamous carcinoma, Gejiu City, China. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103698 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that miR-21 may play a vital role in tumorigenesis and progression of lung squamous cell carcinoma and suppression of miR-21 may be a novel approach for the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma. ..
  3. Muller V, Gade S, Steinbach B, Loibl S, von Minckwitz G, Untch M, et al. Changes in serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy: a translational research project within the Geparquinto trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014;147:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a specific influence of neoadjuvant therapy on the serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in breast cancer patients together with a prognostic value of miR-21. ..
  4. Dong G, Liang X, Wang D, Gao H, Wang L, Wang L, et al. High expression of miR-21 in triple-negative breast cancers was correlated with a poor prognosis and promoted tumor cell in vitro proliferation. Med Oncol. 2014;31:57 pubmed publisher
    ..And pro-apoptotic PTEN had been shown being targeted and downregulated. Therefore, our finding emphasized the oncogenic role of miR-21 in TNBC. ..
  5. Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Takeshita H, Konishi H, Nagata H, Hirajima S, et al. Prognostic impact of circulating miR-21 and miR-375 in plasma of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012;12 Suppl 1:S53-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Marquez R, Bandyopadhyay S, Wendlandt E, Keck K, Hoffer B, Icardi M, et al. Correlation between microRNA expression levels and clinical parameters associated with chronic hepatitis C viral infection in humans. Lab Invest. 2010;90:1727-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that miR-21 enhanced TGF-? signaling, further supporting a relationship between miR-21 and fibrosis. We suggest a model in which miR-21 targeting of SMAD7 could increase TGF-? signaling, leading to increased fibrogenesis. ..
  7. Reis P, Tomenson M, Cervigne N, Machado J, Jurisica I, Pintilie M, et al. Programmed cell death 4 loss increases tumor cell invasion and is regulated by miR-21 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:238 pubmed publisher
    ..PDCD4 association with nodal metastasis and invasion suggests that PDCD4 may be a clinically relevant biomarker with prognostic value in OSCC. ..
  8. Shin V, Jin H, Ng E, Cheng A, Chong W, Wong C, et al. NF-?B targets miR-16 and miR-21 in gastric cancer: involvement of prostaglandin E receptors. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Perhaps this study may shed light on the development of anticancer drugs to improve the chemosensitivity in smokers. ..
  9. Wang P, Zhuang L, Zhang J, Fan J, Luo J, Chen H, et al. The serum miR-21 level serves as a predictor for the chemosensitivity of advanced pancreatic cancer, and miR-21 expression confers chemoresistance by targeting FasL. Mol Oncol. 2013;7:334-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the serum level of miR-21 may serve as a predictor of chemosensitivity in advanced pancreatic cancer. Additionally, we identified a new mechanism of chemoresistance mediated by the effects of miR-21 on the FasL/Fas pathway. ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Seca H, Lima R, Lopes Rodrigues V, Guimarães J, Almeida G, Vasconcelos M. Targeting miR-21 induces autophagy and chemosensitivity of leukemia cells. Curr Drug Targets. 2013;14:1135-43 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of autophagy induction via miR-21 targeting and its involvement in drug sensitivity. ..
  2. Chen J, Wang X. MicroRNA-21 in breast cancer: diagnostic and prognostic potential. Clin Transl Oncol. 2014;16:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We will also discuss the issues and challenges of miR-21 as a potential biomarker in future clinical applications. ..
  3. Folini M, Gandellini P, Longoni N, Profumo V, Callari M, Pennati M, et al. miR-21: an oncomir on strike in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:12 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the notion that the oncogenic properties of miR-21 could be cell and tissue dependent and that the potential role of a given miRNA as a therapeutic target should be contextualized with respect to the disease. ..
  4. Ren Y, Zhou X, Mei M, Yuan X, Han L, Wang G, et al. MicroRNA-21 inhibitor sensitizes human glioblastoma cells U251 (PTEN-mutant) and LN229 (PTEN-wild type) to taxol. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:27 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of miR-21 inhibitor and taxol could be an effective therapeutic strategy for controlling the growth of GBM by inhibiting STAT3 expression and phosphorylation. ..
  5. Li Y, Zhu X, Gu J, Dong D, Yao J, Lin C, et al. Anti-miR-21 oligonucleotide sensitizes leukemic K562 cells to arsenic trioxide by inducing apoptosis. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:948-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, AMO-miR-21 sensitized leukemic K562 cells to ATO by inducing apoptosis partially due to its up-regulation of PDCD4 protein level. The combination of ATO and AMO-miR-21 present therapeutic potential for CML. ..
  6. Zhou X, Zhang J, Jia Q, Ren Y, Wang Y, Shi L, et al. Reduction of miR-21 induces glioma cell apoptosis via activating caspase 9 and 3. Oncol Rep. 2010;24:195-201 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate that miR-21 plays a key role in regulating cell apoptosis in gliomas and may serve as a target for effective therapies. ..
  7. Yang C, Yue J, Fan M, Pfeffer L. IFN induces miR-21 through a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-dependent pathway as a suppressive negative feedback on IFN-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8108-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify miR-21 as a novel IFN target gene that functions as a key feedback regulator of IFN-induced apoptosis. ..
  8. Zheng J, Xue H, Wang T, Jiang Y, Liu B, Li J, et al. miR-21 downregulates the tumor suppressor P12 CDK2AP1 and stimulates cell proliferation and invasion. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:872-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that P12(CDK2AP1) is downregulated by miR-21 and that miR-21 promotes proliferation and invasion in cultured cells. ..
  9. Kim Y, Hwang S, Cho H, Shin K, Bae Y, Jung J. MicroRNA 21 regulates the proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and high-fat diet-induced obesity alters microRNA 21 expression in white adipose tissues. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of a luciferase construct containing the miR-21 target site from the STAT3 3'UTR was lower in LV-miR21-infected hASCs than in LV-miLacZ infected cells...
  10. Bourguignon L, Spevak C, Wong G, Xia W, Gilad E. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with protein kinase C(epsilon) promotes oncogenic signaling by the stem cell marker Nanog and the Production of microRNA-21, leading to down-regulation of the tumor suppressor protein PDCD4, anti-apoptosis, and chemotherap. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this newly discovered HA-CD44 signaling pathway should provide important drug targets for sensitizing tumor cell apoptosis and overcoming chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer cells. ..
  11. Rossi S, Shimizu M, Barbarotto E, Nicoloso M, Dimitri F, Sampath D, et al. microRNA fingerprinting of CLL patients with chromosome 17p deletion identify a miR-21 score that stratifies early survival. Blood. 2010;116:945-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the 21FK score represents a useful tool for distinguishing between good-prognosis and poor-prognosis CLL patients. ..
  12. Wang Z, Lu B, Wang H, Cheng Z, Yin Y. MicroRNA-21 modulates chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin by targeting PTEN. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..PTEN-siRNA could partially reverse the increased chemosensitivity of MCF-7/ADR cells induced by miR-21 inhibitor. Dysregulation of miR-21 plays critical roles in the ADR resistance of breast cancer, at least in part via targeting PTEN. ..
  13. Bihrer V, Waidmann O, Friedrich Rust M, Forestier N, Susser S, Haupenthal J, et al. Serum microRNA-21 as marker for necroinflammation in hepatitis C patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26971 pubmed publisher
    ..758) with a sensitivity of 53.3% and a specificity of 95.2%. The serum miR-21 level is a marker for necroinflammatory activity, but does not differ between patients with HCV and HCV-induced HCC. ..
  14. Vicinus B, Rubie C, Stegmaier N, Frick V, Kölsch K, Kauffels A, et al. miR-21 and its target gene CCL20 are both highly overexpressed in the microenvironment of colorectal tumors: significance of their regulation. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, investigating the cellular localization of miR-21 and its target CCL20 revealed that both molecules are expressed predominantly in the microenvironment of CRC tumors. ..
  15. Davis B, Hilyard A, Lagna G, Hata A. SMAD proteins control DROSHA-mediated microRNA maturation. Nature. 2008;454:56-61 pubmed publisher
  16. Gabriely G, Wurdinger T, Kesari S, Esau C, Burchard J, Linsley P, et al. MicroRNA 21 promotes glioma invasion by targeting matrix metalloproteinase regulators. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5369-80 pubmed publisher
  17. Sarkar J, Gou D, Turaka P, Viktorova E, Ramchandran R, Raj J. MicroRNA-21 plays a role in hypoxia-mediated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings indicate that miR-21 plays a significant role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by regulating multiple gene targets. ..
  18. Iliopoulos D, Jaeger S, Hirsch H, Bulyk M, Struhl K. STAT3 activation of miR-21 and miR-181b-1 via PTEN and CYLD are part of the epigenetic switch linking inflammation to cancer. Mol Cell. 2010;39:493-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, STAT3 is not only a downstream target of IL-6 but, with miR-21, miR-181b-1, PTEN, and CYLD, is part of the positive feedback loop that underlies the epigenetic switch that links inflammation to cancer. ..
  19. Kumarswamy R, Volkmann I, Thum T. Regulation and function of miRNA-21 in health and disease. RNA Biol. 2011;8:706-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the critical functions of its target proteins in various signaling pathways, miR-21 has become an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation in various disease conditions. ..
  20. Jiang L, Lv X, Li J, Li J, Li X, Li W, et al. The status of microRNA-21 expression and its clinical significance in human cutaneous malignant melanoma. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the status of microRNA-21 might be an independent prognostic factor for patients with cutaneous melanoma, and microRNA-21 has the potential of being a novel molecular target for the treatment of human cutaneous melanoma. ..
  21. Zheng Y, Cui L, Sun W, Zhou H, Yuan X, Huo M, et al. MicroRNA-21 is a new marker of circulating tumor cells in gastric cancer patients. Cancer Biomark. 2011;10:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The area under ROC curve was up to 0.853 ± 0.086. This study highlights the potential of the detection of miR-21 in peripheral blood as a novel tool for monitoring CTCs in gastric cancer patients. ..
  22. Quintavalle C, Donnarumma E, Iaboni M, Roscigno G, Garofalo M, Romano G, et al. Effect of miR-21 and miR-30b/c on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:4001-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we show that high expression levels of miR-21 and -30b/c are needed to maintain the TRAIL-resistant phenotype, thus making these miRs as promising therapeutic targets for TRAIL resistance in glioma. ..
  23. Chan J, Krichevsky A, Kosik K. MicroRNA-21 is an antiapoptotic factor in human glioblastoma cells. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6029-33 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that aberrantly expressed miR-21 may contribute to the malignant phenotype by blocking expression of critical apoptosis-related genes. ..
  24. Qian B, Katsaros D, Lu L, Preti M, Durando A, Arisio R, et al. High miR-21 expression in breast cancer associated with poor disease-free survival in early stage disease and high TGF-beta1. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;117:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..08-4.00) despite no value for prognosis. The study supports the notion that miR-21 is an onco-microRNA for breast cancer. Elevated miR-21 expression may facilitate tumor progression, and TGF-beta may up-regulate its expression. ..
  25. Gong C, Yao Y, Wang Y, Liu B, Wu W, Chen J, et al. Up-regulation of miR-21 mediates resistance to trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, miR-21 overexpression contributes to trastuzumab resistance in HER2(+) breast cancers and antagonizing miR-21 demonstrates therapeutic potential by sensitizing the malignancy to anti-HER2 treatment. ..
  26. Asangani I, Rasheed S, Nikolova D, Leupold J, Colburn N, Post S, et al. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) post-transcriptionally downregulates tumor suppressor Pdcd4 and stimulates invasion, intravasation and metastasis in colorectal cancer. Oncogene. 2008;27:2128-36 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to show that Pdcd4 is negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, it is the first report to demonstrate that miR-21 induces invasion/intravasation/metastasis. ..
  27. Hiyoshi Y, Kamohara H, Karashima R, Sato N, Imamura Y, Nagai Y, et al. MicroRNA-21 regulates the proliferation and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:1915-22 pubmed publisher
    ..MicroRNA-21 targets PDCD4 at the posttranscriptional level and regulates cell proliferation and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. It may serve as a novel therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. ..
  28. du Rieu M, Torrisani J, Selves J, Al Saati T, Souque A, Dufresne M, et al. MicroRNA-21 is induced early in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma precursor lesions. Clin Chem. 2010;56:603-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrant microRNA production is an early event in the development of PanIN. Our findings indicate that miR-21 warrants further investigation as a marker for early detection of PDAC. ..
  29. Tao J, Lu Q, Wu D, Li P, Xu B, Qing W, et al. microRNA-21 modulates cell proliferation and sensitivity to doxorubicin in bladder cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the miR-21 induced BCL-2 up-regulation could be cancelled by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. These data verified the oncogenic role of miR-21 in TCCs and may usher in new therapeutic strategies in treating this disease. ..
  30. Fu X, Han Y, Wu Y, Zhu X, Lu X, Mao F, et al. Prognostic role of microRNA-21 in various carcinomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011;41:1245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that miR-21 detection has a prognostic value in patients with cancer, especially in HNSCC and digestion system cancers. ..
  31. Song J, Hu B, Qu H, Bi C, Huang X, Zhang M. Mechanical stretch modulates microRNA 21 expression, participating in proliferation and apoptosis in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47657 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether the expression of microRNA 21 (miR-21) is modulated by stretch and is involved in stretch-induced proliferation and apoptosis of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs)...
  32. Mei Y, Bian C, Li J, Du Z, Zhou H, Yang Z, et al. miR-21 modulates the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway by regulating SPRY2 expression during human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1374-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The ERK-MAPK signaling pathway was regulated by Sprouty2 (SPRY2) expression via a miR-21-mediated mechanism during MSC differentiation. ..
  33. Huang T, Wu F, Loeb G, Hsu R, Heidersbach A, Brincat A, et al. Up-regulation of miR-21 by HER2/neu signaling promotes cell invasion. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18515-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a mechanism for HER2/neu-induced cancer cell invasion via miRNA deregulation. In addition, our results identify miR-21 as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of breast cancer invasion and metastasis. ..
  34. Bourguignon L, Earle C, Wong G, Spevak C, Krueger K. Stem cell marker (Nanog) and Stat-3 signaling promote MicroRNA-21 expression and chemoresistance in hyaluronan/CD44-activated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2012;31:149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel Nanog/Stat-3 signaling pathway-specific mechanism involved in miR-21 production is significant for the formation of future intervention strategies in the treatment of HA/CD44-activated HNSCC. ..
  35. Gwak H, Kim T, Jo G, Kim Y, Kwak H, Kim J, et al. Silencing of microRNA-21 confers radio-sensitivity through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway and enhancing autophagy in malignant glioma cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47449 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that miR-21 is a pivotal molecule for circumventing radiation-induced cell death in malignant glioma cells through the regulation of autophagy and provide a novel phenomenon for the acquisition of radio-resistance. ..
  36. Tang D, Shen Y, Wang M, Yang R, Wang Z, Sui A, et al. Identification of plasma microRNAs as novel noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013;22:540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma miR-21, miR-145, and miR-155 have strong potential as novel noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer. ..
  37. Chang S, Jiang W, Smith I, Poeta L, Begum S, Glazer C, et al. MicroRNA alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2791-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These differentially expressed microRNAs may be of interest as potential novel oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in HNSCC. Mir-21 is a putative oncogenic microRNA in head and neck cancer. ..
  38. Fleissner F, Jazbutyte V, Fiedler J, Gupta S, Yin X, Xu Q, et al. Short communication: asymmetric dimethylarginine impairs angiogenic progenitor cell function in patients with coronary artery disease through a microRNA-21-dependent mechanism. Circ Res. 2010;107:138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified a novel miR-21-dependent mechanism of ADMA-mediated APC dysfunction. MiR-21 antagonism therefore emerges as an interesting strategy to improve dysfunctional APCs in patients with coronary artery disease. ..
  39. Chen T, Chang S, Huang C, Wang K, Yeh K, Liu C, et al. The prognostic significance of APC gene mutation and miR-21 expression in advanced-stage colorectal cancer. Colorectal Dis. 2013;15:1367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..APC mutation and miR-21 expression could be used to predict the clinical outcome of CRC, especially in patients with advanced disease. ..
  40. Tao T, Wang Y, Luo H, Yao L, Wang L, Wang J, et al. Involvement of FOS-mediated miR-181b/miR-21 signalling in the progression of malignant gliomas. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:3055-63 pubmed publisher
  41. Li T, Li D, Sha J, Sun P, Huang Y. MicroRNA-21 directly targets MARCKS and promotes apoptosis resistance and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;383:280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene therapy using miR-21 inhibition strategy may therefore be useful as a prostate cancer therapy. ..
  42. Kadera B, Li L, Toste P, Wu N, Adams C, Dawson D, et al. MicroRNA-21 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor-associated fibroblasts promotes metastasis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71978 pubmed publisher
    ..Dysregulation of miR regulatory networks in PDAC tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) have not been previously described. In this study, we show that miR-21 expression in TAFs promotes TC invasion...
  43. Stagakis E, Bertsias G, Verginis P, Nakou M, Hatziapostolou M, Kritikos H, et al. Identification of novel microRNA signatures linked to human lupus disease activity and pathogenesis: miR-21 regulates aberrant T cell responses through regulation of PDCD4 expression. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:1496-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulated miR-21 affects PDCD4 expression and regulates aberrant T cell responses in human SLE. ..
  44. Vang S, Wu H, Fischer A, Miller D, MacLaughlan S, Douglass E, et al. Identification of ovarian cancer metastatic miRNAs. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58226 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that cancer cells in omental tumors express key miRNAs differently than primary tumors, and that at least some of these microRNAs may be critical regulators of the emergence of drug resistant disease. ..
  45. Olivieri F, Spazzafumo L, Santini G, Lazzarini R, Albertini M, Rippo M, et al. Age-related differences in the expression of circulating microRNAs: miR-21 as a new circulating marker of inflammaging. Mech Ageing Dev. 2012;133:675-85 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-?R2 mRNA, a validated miR-21 target, showed the highest expression in the leukocytes from a subset of the octogenarians. Our findings suggest that miR-21 may be a new biomarker of inflammation. ..
  46. Zeng Z, Wang J, Zhao L, Hu P, Zhang H, Tang X, et al. Potential role of microRNA-21 in the diagnosis of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73278 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we aimed to assess the potential diagnostic value of miR-21 for gastric cancer in this study...
  47. Wu L, Li G, Feng D, Qin H, Gong L, Zhang J, et al. MicroRNA-21 expression is associated with overall survival in patients with glioma. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:200 pubmed publisher
    ..The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1445749171109834. ..
  48. Selaru F, Olaru A, Kan T, David S, Cheng Y, Mori Y, et al. MicroRNA-21 is overexpressed in human cholangiocarcinoma and regulates programmed cell death 4 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3. Hepatology. 2009;49:1595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-21 is overexpressed in human CCAs. Furthermore, miR-21 may be oncogenic, at least in part, by inhibiting PDCD4 and TIMP3. Finally, these data suggest that TIMP3 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in the biliary tree. ..
  49. Qin W, Zhao B, Shi Y, Yao C, Jin L, Jin Y. BMPRII is a direct target of miR-21. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:618-23 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that miR-21 may have a potential role in regulating the malignancy and metastatic abilities of prostate cancer cells and in self-renewal of stem cells by regulating the expression of BMPRII. ..
  50. Ji R, Cheng Y, Yue J, Yang J, Liu X, Chen H, et al. MicroRNA expression signature and antisense-mediated depletion reveal an essential role of MicroRNA in vascular neointimal lesion formation. Circ Res. 2007;100:1579-88 pubmed
    ..MiRNAs may be a new therapeutic target for proliferative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, postangioplasty restenosis, transplantation arteriopathy, and stroke. ..
  51. Xiong B, Cheng Y, Ma L, Zhang C. MiR-21 regulates biological behavior through the PTEN/PI-3 K/Akt signaling pathway in human colorectal cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-21 targets PTEN at the post-transcriptional level and regulates cell proliferation and invasion in CRC. It may serve as a novel therapeutic target in CRC. ..
  52. Xu J, Wu C, Che X, Wang L, Yu D, Zhang T, et al. Circulating microRNAs, miR-21, miR-122, and miR-223, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or chronic hepatitis. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that serum miR-21, miR-122 and miR-223 are elevated in patients with HCC or chronic hepatitis and these miRNAs have strong potential to serve as novel biomarkers for liver injury but not specifically for HCC. ..
  53. Li J, Huang H, Sun L, Yang M, Pan C, Chen W, et al. MiR-21 indicates poor prognosis in tongue squamous cell carcinomas as an apoptosis inhibitor. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:3998-4008 pubmed publisher
    ..We aim to examine miR-21 expression in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC) and correlate it with patient clinical status, and to investigate its contribution to TSCC cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis...
  54. Yan L, Wu Q, Zhang Y, Li Y, Liao D, Hou J, et al. Knockdown of miR-21 in human breast cancer cell lines inhibits proliferation, in vitro migration and in vivo tumor growth. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R2 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that inhibitory strategies against miR-21 using peptide nucleic acids (PNAs)-antimiR-21 may provide potential therapeutic applications in breast cancer treatment. ..
  55. Li Y, Zhao S, Zhen Y, Li Q, Teng L, Asai A, et al. A miR-21 inhibitor enhances apoptosis and reduces G(2)-M accumulation induced by ionizing radiation in human glioblastoma U251 cells. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2011;28:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-21 inhibitor can increase IR-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in U251 glioblastoma cells, at least in part by abrogating G(2)-M arrest, and that Cdc25A is a potential target of miR-21. ..
  56. Yamamichi N, Shimomura R, Inada K, Sakurai K, Haraguchi T, Ozaki Y, et al. Locked nucleic acid in situ hybridization analysis of miR-21 expression during colorectal cancer development. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern may have clinical application as a biomarker for colorectal cancer development and might be emphasized by self-reinforcing regulatory systems integrated with the miR-21 gene, which has been previously shown in cell culture. ..
  57. Bornachea O, Santos M, Martínez Cruz A, García Escudero R, Dueñas M, Costa C, et al. EMT and induction of miR-21 mediate metastasis development in Trp53-deficient tumours. Sci Rep. 2012;2:434 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data identify novel molecular mechanisms leading to metastasis in vivo originated by p53 loss in epithelia. ..
  58. Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Tsujiura M, Konishi H, Takeshita H, Nagata H, et al. Prognostic impact of circulating miR-21 in the plasma of patients with gastric carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:271-6 pubmed
    ..These findings contribute to the stratification of patients in order to identify those who need meticulous follow-up for early detection of recurrence and additional or alternative treatments of GC. ..
  59. Kumar S, Keerthana R, Pazhanimuthu A, Perumal P. Overexpression of circulating miRNA-21 and miRNA-146a in plasma samples of breast cancer patients. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2013;50:210-4 pubmed
    ..However, further studies with larger number of patients and control individuals are needed to confirm the results. ..
  60. Connolly E, Melegari M, Landgraf P, Tchaikovskaya T, Tennant B, Slagle B, et al. Elevated expression of the miR-17-92 polycistron and miR-21 in hepadnavirus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma contributes to the malignant phenotype. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:856-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of assays presented here supports a role for these miRNAs in the maintenance of the malignant transformation of hepatocytes. ..
  61. Dey N, Ghosh Choudhury N, Kasinath B, Choudhury G. TGF?-stimulated microRNA-21 utilizes PTEN to orchestrate AKT/mTORC1 signaling for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42316 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncover an essential role of TGF?-induced expression of miR-21, which targets PTEN to initiate a non-canonical signaling circuit involving Akt/mTORC1 axis for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein synthesis. ..
  62. Vinciguerra M, Sgroi A, Veyrat Durebex C, Rubbia Brandt L, Buhler L, Foti M. Unsaturated fatty acids inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) via microRNA-21 up-regulation in hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2009;49:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrant up-regulation of microRNA-21 expression by excessive circulating levels of fatty acids exemplify a novel regulatory mechanism by which fatty acids affect PTEN expression and trigger liver disorders. ..
  63. Yamanaka Y, Tagawa H, Takahashi N, Watanabe A, Guo Y, Iwamoto K, et al. Aberrant overexpression of microRNAs activate AKT signaling via down-regulation of tumor suppressors in natural killer-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Blood. 2009;114:3265-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results provide important new insight into the pathogenesis of NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia and suggest targeting miR-21 and/or miR-155 may represent a useful approach to treating NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia. ..
  64. Liu M, Tang Q, Qiu M, Lang N, Li M, Zheng Y, et al. miR-21 targets the tumor suppressor RhoB and regulates proliferation, invasion and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:2998-3005 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that miR-21 is a regulator of RhoB expression and RhoB could be a useful target in exploring the potential therapeutic benefits of miR-21 mediated tumor cell behaviors in colorectal cancer. ..
  65. Si M, Zhu S, Wu H, Lu Z, Wu F, Mo Y. miR-21-mediated tumor growth. Oncogene. 2007;26:2799-803 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that miR-21 functions as an oncogene and modulates tumorigenesis through regulation of genes such as bcl-2 and thus, it may serve as a novel therapeutic target. ..
  66. Kimura S, Naganuma S, Susuki D, Hirono Y, Yamaguchi A, Fujieda S, et al. Expression of microRNAs in squamous cell carcinoma of human head and neck and the esophagus: miR-205 and miR-21 are specific markers for HNSCC and ESCC. Oncol Rep. 2010;23:1625-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that miR-205 might be a specific marker miRNA of both normal and malignant squamous epithelia, while miR-21 might be a putative oncogenic miRNA in HNSCC and ESCC. ..
  67. Yao Q, Xu H, Zhang Q, Zhou H, Qu L. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;388:539-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies. ..
  68. Bhatti I, Lee A, James V, Hall R, Lund J, Tufarelli C, et al. Knockdown of microRNA-21 inhibits proliferation and increases cell death by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15:199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..01). miRNA expression profiles may be used as biomarkers for detecting pancreatic cancer. Moreover, miR-21 could be a predictor of disease progression and a possible therapeutic target in part by upregulating PDCD4 in pancreatic cancer. ..
  69. Conti A, Aguennouz M, La Torre D, Tomasello C, Cardali S, Angileri F, et al. miR-21 and 221 upregulation and miR-181b downregulation in human grade II-IV astrocytic tumors. J Neurooncol. 2009;93:325-32 pubmed publisher
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    ..545, 95 % CI, 1.002-2.381]. In conclusion, we have shown that miR-21 is located in both tumor cells and tumor blood vessels and that its level in the tumor cell compartment holds unfavorable prognostic value in gliomas. ..
  71. Zhang Z, Li Z, Gao C, Chen P, Chen J, Liu W, et al. miR-21 plays a pivotal role in gastric cancer pathogenesis and progression. Lab Invest. 2008;88:1358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a potential regulatory pathway in which H. pylori infection upregulates expression of miR-21, which in turn downregulates RECK, and then leads to the development of gastric cancer. ..
  72. Grignol V, Fairchild E, Zimmerer J, Lesinski G, Walker M, Magro C, et al. miR-21 and miR-155 are associated with mitotic activity and lesion depth of borderline melanocytic lesions. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:1023-9 pubmed publisher
    ..MicroRNA expression profiles can be used to characterise atypical melanocytic lesions. ..
  73. Markou A, Tsaroucha E, Kaklamanis L, Fotinou M, Georgoulias V, Lianidou E. Prognostic value of mature microRNA-21 and microRNA-205 overexpression in non-small cell lung cancer by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Clin Chem. 2008;54:1696-704 pubmed publisher
    ..027), whereas overexpression of mature miR-205 did not. Our results suggest that overexpression of mature miR-21 is an independent negative prognostic factor for OS in NSCLC patients. ..
  74. Valeri N, Gasparini P, Braconi C, Paone A, Lovat F, Fabbri M, et al. MicroRNA-21 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil by down-regulating human DNA MutS homolog 2 (hMSH2). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21098-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that the down-regulation of the MMR mutator gene associated with miR-21 overexpression may be an important clinical indicator of therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer. ..
  75. Kim Y, Hwang S, Bae Y, Jung J. MiR-21 regulates adipogenic differentiation through the modulation of TGF-beta signaling in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Stem Cells. 2009;27:3093-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of a luciferase construct containing the miR-21 target site from the TGFBR2 3'UTR was lower in LV-miR21-infected hASCs than in LV-miLacZ infected cells...
  76. Deftereos G, Corrie S, Feng Q, Morihara J, Stern J, Hawes S, et al. Expression of mir-21 and mir-143 in cervical specimens ranging from histologically normal through to invasive cervical cancer. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28423 pubmed publisher
    ..Mir-21 may be of some utility in predictive screening, given that we observed a significant correlation between mir-21 expression level and worsening histological diagnosis of cervical cancer. ..
  77. Bullock M, Pickard K, Nielsen B, Sayan A, Jenei V, Mellone M, et al. Pleiotropic actions of miR-21 highlight the critical role of deregulated stromal microRNAs during colorectal cancer progression. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e684 pubmed publisher
  78. Mishra S, Deng J, Gowda P, Rao M, Lin C, Chen C, et al. Androgen receptor and microRNA-21 axis downregulates transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) expression in prostate cancer. Oncogene. 2014;33:4097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting miR-21 alone or in combination with AR may restore the tumor inhibitory activity of TGF? in prostate cancer. ..
  79. Bakirtzi K, Hatziapostolou M, Karagiannides I, Polytarchou C, Jaeger S, Iliopoulos D, et al. Neurotensin signaling activates microRNAs-21 and -155 and Akt, promotes tumor growth in mice, and is increased in human colon tumors. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1749-61.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of NTR1, miR-21, and miR-155 increase in human colon tumor samples and correlate with tumor stage. ..
  80. Wang X, Wang W, Zhang Z, Zhao J, Tan X, Luo J. Overexpression of miRNA-21 promotes radiation-resistance of non-small cell lung cancer. Radiat Oncol. 2013;8:146 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased miRNA-21 expression promoted the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by irradiation. miRNA-21 may be considered as a potential novel target for future development of specific therapeutic interventions in NSCLC. ..
  81. Habbe N, Koorstra J, Mendell J, Offerhaus G, Ryu J, Feldmann G, et al. MicroRNA miR-155 is a biomarker of early pancreatic neoplasia. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:340-6 pubmed
    ..Misexpression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In contrast, miRNA abnormalities in pancreatic cancer precursor lesions have not been documented...
  82. Song B, Wang C, Liu J, Wang X, Lv L, Wei L, et al. MicroRNA-21 regulates breast cancer invasion partly by targeting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 expression. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:29 pubmed publisher
    ..As knockdown of miR-21 increased TIMP3 protein expression and luciferase reporter activity, our data suggests that miR-21 could promote invasion in breast cancer cells via its regulation of TIMP3. ..
  83. Gaur A, Holbeck S, Colburn N, Israel M. Downregulation of Pdcd4 by mir-21 facilitates glioblastoma proliferation in vivo. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:580-90 pubmed publisher
  84. Niu J, Shi Y, Tan G, Yang C, Fan M, Pfeffer L, et al. DNA damage induces NF-?B-dependent microRNA-21 up-regulation and promotes breast cancer cell invasion. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21783-95 pubmed publisher
  85. Meisgen F, Xu N, Wei T, Janson P, Obad S, Broom O, et al. MiR-21 is up-regulated in psoriasis and suppresses T cell apoptosis. Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:312-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that miR-21 suppresses apoptosis in activated T cells, and thus, overexpression of miR-21 may contribute to T cell-derived psoriatic skin inflammation. ..
  86. Zhang Y, Yue Z, Wang P, Li Y, Xin J, Pang M, et al. Cisplatin upregulates MSH2 expression by reducing miR-21 to inhibit A549 cell growth. Biomed Pharmacother. 2013;67:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that cisplatin could upregulate the expression of MSH2 through downregulating miR-21 to inhibit A549 cell proliferation, which provides new gene targets for drug design or cancer therary. ..
  87. Zhu S, Wu H, Wu F, Nie D, Sheng S, Mo Y. MicroRNA-21 targets tumor suppressor genes in invasion and metastasis. Cell Res. 2008;18:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, suppression of mir-21 may provide a novel approach for the treatment of advanced cancers. ..
  88. Han M, Liu M, Wang Y, Mo Z, Bi X, Liu Z, et al. Re-expression of miR-21 contributes to migration and invasion by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition consistent with cancer stem cell characteristics in MCF-7 cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;363:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that re-expression of miR-21 is responsible for migration and invasion by activating the EMT process and enhancing the characteristics of CSCs in MCF-7 cells. ..
  89. Ozgun A, Karagoz B, Bilgi O, Tunçel T, Baloglu H, Kandemir E. MicroRNA-21 as an indicator of aggressive phenotype in breast cancer. Onkologie. 2013;36:115-8 pubmed publisher
    ..004). These results show that miR-21 is an indicator of an aggressive breast cancer phenotype and that it may be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer in the future. ..
  90. Vergho D, Kneitz S, Rosenwald A, Scherer C, Spahn M, Burger M, et al. Combination of expression levels of miR-21 and miR-126 is associated with cancer-specific survival in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:25 pubmed publisher
    ..A combined expression level of miR-21 and miR-126 accurately predicted CSS in two independent RCC cohorts and seems feasible for clinical application in assessing prognosis. ..
  91. Zhu Q, Wang Z, Hu Y, Li J, Li X, Zhou L, et al. miR-21 promotes migration and invasion by the miR-21-PDCD4-AP-1 feedback loop in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:1660-8 pubmed publisher
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    ..These data suggest that miR-21 expression is increased in pancreatic cancer cells and that miR-21 contributes to the cell proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer. ..