MICA

Summary

Gene Symbol: MICA
Description: MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A
Alias: MIC-A, PERB11.1, MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A, HLA class I antigen, MHC class I chain-related protein A, MHC class I related chain A, MHC class I related sequence A, stress inducible class I homolog, truncated MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A
Species: human
Products:     MICA

Top Publications

  1. Singal D, Li J, Zhang G. Microsatellite polymorphism of the MICA gene and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001;19:451-2 pubmed
    We examined the role of MICA gene alleles in susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  2. Pollock R, Chandran V, Pellett F, Thavaneswaran A, Eder L, Barrett J, et al. The functional MICA-129 polymorphism is associated with skin but not joint manifestations of psoriatic disease independently of HLA-B and HLA-C. Tissue Antigens. 2013;82:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphism at amino acid 129 of the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA-129) categorizes alleles into strong and weak binders of the natural killer (NK) and T-cell receptor NKG2D...
  3. Garcia G, del Puerto F, Perez A, Sierra B, Aguirre E, Kikuchi M, et al. Association of MICA and MICB alleles with symptomatic dengue infection. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:904-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the association of nonclassical HLA class I MICA-MICB genes with disease outcome during DV infection...
  4. Kumar V, Yi Lo P, Sawai H, Kato N, Takahashi A, Deng Z, et al. Soluble MICA and a MICA variation as possible prognostic biomarkers for HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44743 pubmed
    MHC class I polypeptide-related chain A (MICA) molecule is induced in response to viral infection and various types of stress...
  5. Lopez Arbesu R, Ballina Garcia F, Alperi López M, Lopez Soto A, Rodriguez Rodero S, Martinez Borra J, et al. MHC class I chain-related gene B (MICB) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:426-30 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigate whether inhibitor of kappaB-like (IkappaBL), MICB or MICA located in the MHC class III region are the second susceptibility gene associated with RA...
  6. Salih H, Antropius H, Gieseke F, Lutz S, Kanz L, Rammensee H, et al. Functional expression and release of ligands for the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D in leukemia. Blood. 2003;102:1389-96 pubmed
    ..This led to the hypothesis that NKG2DLs play a critical role in tumor immune surveillance. The human NKG2DLs MICA and MICB are expressed on tumors of epithelial origin in vivo...
  7. Steinle A, Li P, Morris D, Groh V, Lanier L, Strong R, et al. Interactions of human NKG2D with its ligands MICA, MICB, and homologs of the mouse RAE-1 protein family. Immunogenetics. 2001;53:279-87 pubmed
    ..Among its ligands is the distant major histocompatibility complex class I homolog MICA, which has no function in antigen presentation but is induced by cellular stress...
  8. Ashiru O, Boutet P, Fernández Messina L, Agüera González S, Skepper J, Vales Gomez M, et al. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is suppressed by exposure to the human NKG2D ligand MICA*008 that is shed by tumor cells in exosomes. Cancer Res. 2010;70:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) gene family were identified as key enzymes in mediating MICA/B shedding from cells...
  9. Lucas D, Campillo J, López Hernández R, Martínez Garcia P, López Sánchez M, Botella C, et al. Allelic diversity of MICA gene and MICA/HLA-B haplotypic variation in a population of the Murcia region in southeastern Spain. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:655-60 pubmed publisher
    Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) is located at 46 kb centromeric of HLA-B. It is highly polymorphic and interacts with NKG2D, its receptor on the surface of NK, Tgammadelta and T CD8 lymphocytes...
  10. Groh V, Wu J, Yee C, Spies T. Tumour-derived soluble MIC ligands impair expression of NKG2D and T-cell activation. Nature. 2002;419:734-8 pubmed
    ..Ligands of NKG2D include the major histocompatibility complex class I homologues MICA and MICB, which function as signals of cellular stress...

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. Singal D, Li J, Zhang G. Microsatellite polymorphism of the MICA gene and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001;19:451-2 pubmed
    We examined the role of MICA gene alleles in susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  2. Pollock R, Chandran V, Pellett F, Thavaneswaran A, Eder L, Barrett J, et al. The functional MICA-129 polymorphism is associated with skin but not joint manifestations of psoriatic disease independently of HLA-B and HLA-C. Tissue Antigens. 2013;82:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphism at amino acid 129 of the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA-129) categorizes alleles into strong and weak binders of the natural killer (NK) and T-cell receptor NKG2D...
  3. Garcia G, del Puerto F, Perez A, Sierra B, Aguirre E, Kikuchi M, et al. Association of MICA and MICB alleles with symptomatic dengue infection. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:904-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the association of nonclassical HLA class I MICA-MICB genes with disease outcome during DV infection...
  4. Kumar V, Yi Lo P, Sawai H, Kato N, Takahashi A, Deng Z, et al. Soluble MICA and a MICA variation as possible prognostic biomarkers for HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44743 pubmed
    MHC class I polypeptide-related chain A (MICA) molecule is induced in response to viral infection and various types of stress...
  5. Lopez Arbesu R, Ballina Garcia F, Alperi López M, Lopez Soto A, Rodriguez Rodero S, Martinez Borra J, et al. MHC class I chain-related gene B (MICB) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:426-30 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigate whether inhibitor of kappaB-like (IkappaBL), MICB or MICA located in the MHC class III region are the second susceptibility gene associated with RA...
  6. Salih H, Antropius H, Gieseke F, Lutz S, Kanz L, Rammensee H, et al. Functional expression and release of ligands for the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D in leukemia. Blood. 2003;102:1389-96 pubmed
    ..This led to the hypothesis that NKG2DLs play a critical role in tumor immune surveillance. The human NKG2DLs MICA and MICB are expressed on tumors of epithelial origin in vivo...
  7. Steinle A, Li P, Morris D, Groh V, Lanier L, Strong R, et al. Interactions of human NKG2D with its ligands MICA, MICB, and homologs of the mouse RAE-1 protein family. Immunogenetics. 2001;53:279-87 pubmed
    ..Among its ligands is the distant major histocompatibility complex class I homolog MICA, which has no function in antigen presentation but is induced by cellular stress...
  8. Ashiru O, Boutet P, Fernández Messina L, Agüera González S, Skepper J, Vales Gomez M, et al. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is suppressed by exposure to the human NKG2D ligand MICA*008 that is shed by tumor cells in exosomes. Cancer Res. 2010;70:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) gene family were identified as key enzymes in mediating MICA/B shedding from cells...
  9. Lucas D, Campillo J, López Hernández R, Martínez Garcia P, López Sánchez M, Botella C, et al. Allelic diversity of MICA gene and MICA/HLA-B haplotypic variation in a population of the Murcia region in southeastern Spain. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:655-60 pubmed publisher
    Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) is located at 46 kb centromeric of HLA-B. It is highly polymorphic and interacts with NKG2D, its receptor on the surface of NK, Tgammadelta and T CD8 lymphocytes...
  10. Groh V, Wu J, Yee C, Spies T. Tumour-derived soluble MIC ligands impair expression of NKG2D and T-cell activation. Nature. 2002;419:734-8 pubmed
    ..Ligands of NKG2D include the major histocompatibility complex class I homologues MICA and MICB, which function as signals of cellular stress...
  11. Jinushi M, Vanneman M, Munshi N, Tai Y, Prabhala R, Ritz J, et al. MHC class I chain-related protein A antibodies and shedding are associated with the progression of multiple myeloma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..an activating receptor on natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T lymphocytes, and MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA), an NKG2D ligand induced in malignant plasma cells through DNA damage, contribute to the pathogenesis of MGUS and ..
  12. Lo P, Urabe Y, Kumar V, Tanikawa C, Koike K, Kato N, et al. Identification of a functional variant in the MICA promoter which regulates MICA expression and increases HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61279 pubmed publisher
    ..the association of SNP rs2596542 in the 5' flanking region of the MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) gene with the risk of HCV-induced HCC...
  13. Li P, Morris D, Willcox B, Steinle A, Spies T, Strong R. Complex structure of the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D and its MHC class I-like ligand MICA. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:443-51 pubmed
    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I homolog, MICA, is a stress-inducible ligand for NKG2D, a C-type lectin-like activating immunoreceptor...
  14. Kopp R, Glas J, Lau Werner U, Albert E, Weiss E. Association of MICA-TM and MICB C1_2_A microsatellite polymorphisms with tumor progression in patients with colorectal cancer. J Clin Immunol. 2009;29:545-54 pubmed publisher
    The major histocompatibility complex class I related A (MICA) and MICB molecules are ligands of NKG2D receptors on natural killer cells, gamma/delta T cells, and CD8ass T cells that mediate host antitumor immune response...
  15. Kohga K, Takehara T, Tatsumi T, Miyagi T, Ishida H, Ohkawa K, et al. Anticancer chemotherapy inhibits MHC class I-related chain a ectodomain shedding by downregulating ADAM10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8050-7 pubmed publisher
    MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) is a ligand for the NKG2D-activating immunoreceptor that mediates activation of natural killer (NK) cells...
  16. Li K, Mandai M, Hamanishi J, Matsumura N, Suzuki A, Yagi H, et al. Clinical significance of the NKG2D ligands, MICA/B and ULBP2 in ovarian cancer: high expression of ULBP2 is an indicator of poor prognosis. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:641-52 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the clinical significance of the expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B and ULBP2 in ovarian cancer...
  17. Tamaki S, Kawakami M, Yamanaka Y, Shimomura H, Imai Y, Ishida J, et al. Relationship between soluble MICA and the MICA A5.1 homozygous genotype in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Immunol. 2009;130:331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..can promote the lysis of target cells by binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) proteins. Polymorphisms in MICA may influence its binding to the NKG2D...
  18. Kloss M, Decker P, Baltz K, Baessler T, Jung G, Rammensee H, et al. Interaction of monocytes with NK cells upon Toll-like receptor-induced expression of the NKG2D ligand MICA. J Immunol. 2008;181:6711-9 pubmed
    ..b>MICA expression was associated with CD80, MHC class I and MHC class II up-regulation, secretion of proinflammatory ..
  19. Jinushi M, Takehara T, Tatsumi T, Hiramatsu N, Sakamori R, Yamaguchi S, et al. Impairment of natural killer cell and dendritic cell functions by the soluble form of MHC class I-related chain A in advanced human hepatocellular carcinomas. J Hepatol. 2005;43:1013-20 pubmed
    MHC class I-related chain A (MICA), a human ligand of natural killer (NK) cell stimulatory receptor NKG2D, is expressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC)...
  20. Schepis D, D AMATO M, Studahl M, Bergstr m T, K rre K, Berg L. Herpes simplex virus infection downmodulates NKG2D ligand expression. Scand J Immunol. 2009;69:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Total cellular MICA contents remained unchanged, suggesting masking, internalization or intracellular retention of MICA as possible ..
  21. Groh V, Steinle A, Bauer S, Spies T. Recognition of stress-induced MHC molecules by intestinal epithelial gammadelta T cells. Science. 1998;279:1737-40 pubmed
    ..The expression of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related molecule, MICA, matches this localization...
  22. Chen D, Juko Pecirep I, Hammer J, Ivansson E, Enroth S, Gustavsson I, et al. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility loci for cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:624-33 pubmed publisher
    ..were associated with cervical cancer: the first is adjacent to the MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A gene (MICA) (rs2516448; OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.31 to 1.54; P = 1...
  23. Tamaki S, Sanefuzi N, Kawakami M, Aoki K, Imai Y, Yamanaka Y, et al. Association between soluble MICA levels and disease stage IV oral squamous cell carcinoma in Japanese patients. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:88-93 pubmed publisher
    The soluble form of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) is released from the surface of tumor cells of epithelial origin...
  24. Cosman D, Mullberg J, Sutherland C, Chin W, Armitage R, Fanslow W, et al. ULBPs, novel MHC class I-related molecules, bind to CMV glycoprotein UL16 and stimulate NK cytotoxicity through the NKG2D receptor. Immunity. 2001;14:123-33 pubmed
    ..Masking of NK cell recognition of ULBP or MIC antigens by UL16 provides a potential mechanism by which human cytomegalovirus-infected cells might evade attack by the immune system. ..
  25. Chung Ji L, Yann Jinn L, Hsin Fu L, Ching Wen D, Che Shoa C, Yi Shing L, et al. The increase in the frequency of MICA gene A6 allele in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med. 2002;31:323-8 pubmed
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was reported to be associated with immune function. The MICA (MHC class I chain-related gene A) is expressed by keratinocytes and other epithelial cells, and its encoded protein interacts with gamma/..
  26. Menier C, Riteau B, Carosella E, Rouas Freiss N. MICA triggering signal for NK cell tumor lysis is counteracted by HLA-G1-mediated inhibitory signal. Int J Cancer. 2002;100:63-70 pubmed
    b>MICA, a highly glycosylated membrane-anchored cell-surface MHC Class I-related chain, has recently been reported to activate NK cell cytolytic responses in epithelial tumors...
  27. Lu M, Xia B, Ge L, Li Y, Zhao J, Chen F, et al. Role of major histocompatibility complex class I-related molecules A*A5.1 allele in ulcerative colitis in Chinese patients. Immunology. 2009;128:e230-6 pubmed publisher
    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related molecules A (MICA) is a stress-inducible cell surface antigen that is recognized by intestinal epithelial Vdelta1 gammadelta T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells ..
  28. Waldhauer I, Goehlsdorf D, Gieseke F, Weinschenk T, Wittenbrink M, Ludwig A, et al. Tumor-associated MICA is shed by ADAM proteases. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6368-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the prototypical NKG2DL MICA is released by proteolytic cleavage in the stalk of the MICA ectodomain, where deletions, but not alanine ..
  29. Tamaki S, Sanefuzi N, Ohgi K, Imai Y, Kawakami M, Yamamoto K, et al. An association between the MICA-A5.1 allele and an increased susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma in Japanese patients. J Oral Pathol Med. 2007;36:351-6 pubmed
    Recently, a new polymorphic gene family called the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) was discovered about 40 kb centromeric to HLA-B gene...
  30. Fodil N, Pellet P, Laloux L, Hauptmann G, Theodorou I, Bahram S. MICA haplotypic diversity. Immunogenetics. 1999;49:557-60 pubmed
  31. Kumar V, Kato N, Urabe Y, Takahashi A, Muroyama R, Hosono N, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies a susceptibility locus for HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Genet. 2011;43:455-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a previously unidentified locus in the 5' flanking region of MICA on 6p21.33 (rs2596542, P(combined) = 4.21 × 10(-13), odds ratio = 1...
  32. Chalupny N, Rein Weston A, Dosch S, Cosman D. Down-regulation of the NKG2D ligand MICA by the human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein UL142. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;346:175-81 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the viral gene product UL142 is able to down-regulate another NKG2D ligand, MICA, leading to protection from NK cytotoxicity...
  33. Salvarani C, Boiardi L, Mantovani V, Olivieri I, Ciancio G, Cantini F, et al. Association of MICA alleles and HLA-B51 in Italian patients with Behçet's disease. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:1867-70 pubmed
    To evaluate the distribution of the MHC class I chain related gene A transmembrane (MICA-TM) alleles in Italian patients with Behçet's disease (BD), and to investigate the relative contribution of MICA alleles and HLA-B51 in the ..
  34. Lopez Vazquez A, Rodrigo L, Fuentes D, Riestra S, Bousono C, Garcia Fernandez S, et al. MHC class I chain related gene A (MICA) modulates the development of coeliac disease in patients with the high risk heterodimer DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201. Gut. 2002;50:336-40 pubmed
    ..primers (PCR-SSP) at HLA-B, DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci and for exon 5 of the MHC class I chain related gene A (MICA). No differences were found in the frequency of the DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 heterodimer in either group...
  35. Jinushi M, Takehara T, Tatsumi T, Kanto T, Groh V, Spies T, et al. Expression and role of MICA and MICB in human hepatocellular carcinomas and their regulation by retinoic acid. Int J Cancer. 2003;104:354-61 pubmed
    ..Distant MHC class I homologs MICA and MICB are recently identified human ligands for NK cell activating receptor NKG2D...
  36. Gambelunghe G, Gerli R, Bocci E, Del Sindaco P, Ghaderi M, Sanjeevi C, et al. Contribution of MHC class I chain-related A (MICA) gene polymorphism to genetic susceptibility for systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:287-92 pubmed
    To evaluate the contribution of the MHC class I chain-related A (MICA) gene polymorphism to the genetic risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  37. Lavado Valenzuela R, Benavides M, Carabantes F, Alonso A, Caballero A. MHC class I chain-related gene A transmembrane polymorphism in Spanish women with breast cancer. Tissue Antigens. 2009;74:46-9 pubmed publisher
    The NKG2D-major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) system plays a key role in the antitumoral immune response. We studied five alleles of a microsatellite in the MICA transmembrane region; one of which (MICA-A5...
  38. Gonzalez S, Martinez Borra J, Torre Alonso J, Gonzalez Roces S, Sánchez del Río J, Rodriguez Perez A, et al. The MICA-A9 triplet repeat polymorphism in the transmembrane region confers additional susceptibility to the development of psoriatic arthritis and is independent of the association of Cw*0602 in psoriasis. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42:1010-6 pubmed
    ..To examine whether MICA (class I major histocompatibility complex chain-related gene A) confers additional susceptibility, trinucleotide ..
  39. McSharry B, Burgert H, Owen D, Stanton R, Prod homme V, Sester M, et al. Adenovirus E3/19K promotes evasion of NK cell recognition by intracellular sequestration of the NKG2D ligands major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related proteins A and B. J Virol. 2008;82:4585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..enhances synthesis of the NKG2D ligands, major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB), their expression on the cell surface is actively suppressed...
  40. Hue S, Monteiro R, Berrih Aknin S, Caillat Zucman S. Potential role of NKG2D/MHC class I-related chain A interaction in intrathymic maturation of single-positive CD8 T cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:1909-17 pubmed
    The nonclassical MHC class I molecule MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) interacts with the NKG2D receptor expressed at the surface of most peripheral CD8 T cells, gammadelta T cells, and NK cells...
  41. Groh V, Rhinehart R, Secrist H, Bauer S, Grabstein K, Spies T. Broad tumor-associated expression and recognition by tumor-derived gamma delta T cells of MICA and MICB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6879-84 pubmed
    Human MHC class I-related molecules, MICA and MICB, are stress-induced antigens that are recognized by a subset of gamma delta T cells expressing the variable region Vdelta1...
  42. Mei B, Luo Q, Du K, Huo Z, Wang F, Yu P. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and related tubal pathology in infertile women. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:3090-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) gene is highly polymorphic as a potential host genetic candidate...
  43. Martinez A, Fernandez Arquero M, Balsa A, Rubio A, Alves H, Pascual Salcedo D, et al. Primary association of a MICA allele with protection against rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:1261-5 pubmed
    To determine whether major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) independently of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE)...
  44. Nuckel H, Switala M, Sellmann L, Horn P, Durig J, Duhrsen U, et al. The prognostic significance of soluble NKG2D ligands in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 2010;24:1152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The flow cytometric analysis of MICA on CLL cells and natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) receptors on NK cells was performed after thawing of ..
  45. Jiang X, Zou Y, Huo Z, Yu P. Association of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A microsatellite polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma in South China Han population. Tissue Antigens. 2011;78:143-7 pubmed publisher
    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related gene A (MICA) is a stress-induced antigen and plays a key role in anti-infectious and anti-tumoral immune responses...
  46. Bahram S, Bresnahan M, Geraghty D, Spies T. A second lineage of mammalian major histocompatibility complex class I genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:6259-63 pubmed
    ..The MICA gene in this family is located near HLA-B and is by far the most divergent mammalian MHC class I gene known...
  47. Venkataraman G, Suciu D, Groh V, Boss J, Spies T. Promoter region architecture and transcriptional regulation of the genes for the MHC class I-related chain A and B ligands of NKG2D. J Immunol. 2007;178:961-9 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results reveal distinct modes of activation of the genes for the MIC ligands of NKG2D and provide a molecular framework for analyses of gene regulation under different cellular insult conditions. ..
  48. Wiemann K, Mittrücker H, Feger U, Welte S, Yokoyama W, Spies T, et al. Systemic NKG2D down-regulation impairs NK and CD8 T cell responses in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;175:720-9 pubmed
    ..persistent NKG2D ligand expression in vivo by using transgenic mice expressing MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) under control of the H2-K(b) promoter...
  49. Gasser S, Orsulic S, Brown E, Raulet D. The DNA damage pathway regulates innate immune system ligands of the NKG2D receptor. Nature. 2005;436:1186-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, the DNA damage response, previously shown to arrest the cell cycle and enhance DNA repair functions, or to trigger apoptosis, may also participate in alerting the immune system to the presence of potentially dangerous cells. ..
  50. Zhang Y, Lazaro A, Lavingia B, Stastny P. Typing for all known MICA alleles by group-specific PCR and SSOP. Hum Immunol. 2001;62:620-31 pubmed
    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene (MICA) is a recently discovered polymorphic gene in the HLA region expressed mainly by certain epithelial cells, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and monocytes...
  51. Karacki P, Gao X, Thio C, Thomas D, Goedert J, Vlahov D, et al. MICA and recovery from hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections. Genes Immun. 2004;5:261-6 pubmed
    The polymorphic MHC class I chain-related A (MICA) gene encodes a ligand that has different binding affinities for the NKG2D activating receptor of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells...
  52. Powell E, Shi L, Drummond P, Smith E. Frequency and distribution in three ethnic populations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MICA gene. Mutat Res. 2001;432:47-51 pubmed
    The Homo sapiens major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 chain related gene A (MICA) was scanned for novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a panel of DNA samples from African-, Japanese- and Mexican-Americans...
  53. Groh V, Rhinehart R, Randolph Habecker J, Topp M, Riddell S, Spies T. Costimulation of CD8alphabeta T cells by NKG2D via engagement by MIC induced on virus-infected cells. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:255-60 pubmed
    ..Combined triggering of TCR-CD3 complexes and NKG2D induced interleukin 2 production and T cell proliferation. Thus NKG2D functioned as a costimulatory receptor that can substitute for CD28. ..
  54. Gong Z, Luo Q, Lin L, Su Y, Peng H, Du K, et al. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012;45:222-9 pubmed
    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) is a highly polymorphic gene located within the MHC class I region of the human genome...
  55. Luo Q, Lin L, Gong Z, Mei B, Xu Y, Huo Z, et al. Positive association of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A polymorphism with leukemia susceptibility in the people of Han nationality of Southern China. Tissue Antigens. 2011;78:178-84 pubmed publisher
    To assess the potential contribution of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) polymorphisms toward the pathogenesis of leukemia, 107 leukemia patients and 162 ethnically matched controls from Hunan province, ..
  56. Zwirner N, Fernandez Vina M, Stastny P. MICA, a new polymorphic HLA-related antigen, is expressed mainly by keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and monocytes. Immunogenetics. 1998;47:139-48 pubmed
    b>MICA is a new polymorphic gene in the HLA region expressed in epithelial cell lines and gastrointestinal epithelium...
  57. Tieng V, Le Bouguenec C, du Merle L, Bertheau P, Desreumaux P, Janin A, et al. Binding of Escherichia coli adhesin AfaE to CD55 triggers cell-surface expression of the MHC class I-related molecule MICA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2977-82 pubmed
    b>MICA are distant homologs of MHC class I molecules expressed in the normal intestinal epithelium...
  58. Lopez Vazquez A, Rodrigo L, Fuentes D, Riestra S, Bousoño C, Garcia Fernandez S, et al. MICA-A5.1 allele is associated with atypical forms of celiac disease in HLA-DQ2-negative patients. Immunogenetics. 2002;53:989-91 pubmed
    ..We also studied the distribution of MICA transmembrane alleles in the two clinical forms of the disease...
  59. Elsner L, Flügge P, Lozano J, Muppala V, Eiz Vesper B, Demiroglu S, et al. The endogenous danger signals HSP70 and MICA cooperate in the activation of cytotoxic effector functions of NK cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:992-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..human NK cells to kill target cells expressing major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecule A (MICA) in a natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D-) dependent manner...
  60. Pende D, Rivera P, Marcenaro S, Chang C, Biassoni R, Conte R, et al. Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A and UL16-binding protein expression on tumor cell lines of different histotypes: analysis of tumor susceptibility to NKG2D-dependent natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6178-86 pubmed
    ..In this study, we analyzed the expression and the functional relevance of MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) and UL16 binding protein (ULBP), the major cellular ligands for human NKG2D, in human tumor cell lines of ..
  61. Groh V, Bahram S, Bauer S, Herman A, Beauchamp M, Spies T. Cell stress-regulated human major histocompatibility complex class I gene expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12445-50 pubmed
    ..They are ubiquitously expressed and regulated by interferon gamma. Two highly divergent human MHC class I genes, MICA and MICB, are regulated by promoter heat shock elements similar to those of HSP70 genes...
  62. Das H, Groh V, Kuijl C, Sugita M, Morita C, Spies T, et al. MICA engagement by human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells enhances their antigen-dependent effector function. Immunity. 2001;15:83-93 pubmed
    ..We show here that the stress-inducible molecule, MICA, is induced on the surface of dendritic and epithelial cells by infection with M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo...
  63. Chitadze G, Lettau M, Bhat J, Wesch D, Steinle A, Furst D, et al. Shedding of endogenous MHC class I-related chain molecules A and B from different human tumor entities: heterogeneous involvement of the "a disintegrin and metalloproteases" 10 and 17. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:1557-66 pubmed publisher
    The interaction of the MHC class I-related chain molecules A and B (MICA and MICB) with the corresponding natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor triggers cytotoxic effector activity of natural killer cells and certain T-cell ..
  64. Eleme K, Taner S, Önfelt B, Collinson L, McCann F, Chalupny N, et al. Cell surface organization of stress-inducible proteins ULBP and MICA that stimulate human NK cells and T cells via NKG2D. J Exp Med. 2004;199:1005-10 pubmed
    Cell surface proteins major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related chain A (MICA) and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP) 1, 2, and 3 are up-regulated upon infection or tumor transformation and can activate human natural killer (NK) ..
  65. Xiao P, Xue L, Che L, Peng J, Wu H, Li Y, et al. Expression and roles of MICA in human osteosarcoma. Histopathology. 2008;52:640-2 pubmed publisher
  66. Zhu F, Zhao H, He Y, Zhang W, He J, Xu X, et al. Distribution of MICA diversity in the Chinese Han population by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing for exons 2-6. Tissue Antigens. 2009;73:358-63 pubmed publisher
    Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is located 46 kb centromeric to HLA-B locus and encodes a stress-inducible protein...
  67. Tosh K, Ravikumar M, Bell J, Meisner S, Hill A, Pitchappan R. Variation in MICA and MICB genes and enhanced susceptibility to paucibacillary leprosy in South India. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2880-7 pubmed
    ..associations with the HLA-DRB1 locus, we have identified significant association with a functional variant of the MICA gene as well as a microsatellite in the flanking region of the MICB gene...
  68. Madjd Z, Spendlove I, Moss R, Bevin S, Pinder S, Watson N, et al. Upregulation of MICA on high-grade invasive operable breast carcinoma. Cancer Immun. 2007;7:17 pubmed
    The MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) is frequently expressed on the surface of intestinal epithelium and by many epithelial tumours...
  69. Gonzalez S, Brautbar C, Martinez Borra J, Lopez Vazquez A, Segal R, Blanco Gelaz M, et al. Polymorphism in MICA rather than HLA-B/C genes is associated with psoriatic arthritis in the Jewish population. Hum Immunol. 2001;62:632-8 pubmed
    ..other closely related class I loci, such as the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), might play a role in disease development...
  70. Tian W, Cai J, Wang F, Li L. MICA polymorphism in a northern Chinese Han population: The identification of a new MICA allele, MICA*059. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:423-7 pubmed publisher
    The major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in humans, located 46 kb centromeric to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B, is highly polymorphic...
  71. Pyo C, Hur S, Kim Y, Choi H, Kim T, Kim T. Distribution of MICA alleles and haplotypes associated with HLA in the Korean population. Hum Immunol. 2003;64:378-84 pubmed
    The MICA (MHC class I chain-related gene A) is a polymorphic gene located 46 kb centromeric of the HLA-B gene, and is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells and intestinal mucosa...
  72. Ashiru O, Bennett N, Boyle L, Thomas M, Trowsdale J, Wills M. NKG2D ligand MICA is retained in the cis-Golgi apparatus by human cytomegalovirus protein UL142. J Virol. 2009;83:12345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..UL142 is known to down-modulate surface expression of MHC class I-related chain A (MICA), which is a ligand of the activating NK receptor NKG2D...
  73. Mok J, Lee Y, Kim J, Lee E, Song Y, Park M, et al. Association of MICA polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis patients in Koreans. Hum Immunol. 2003;64:1190-4 pubmed
    To investigate whether genetic variations of MICA are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the (GCT)n microsatellite polymorphism of the transmembrane domain was analyzed in 144 Korean patients with RA and in 297 ..
  74. Wu J, Song Y, Bakker A, Bauer S, Spies T, Lanier L, et al. An activating immunoreceptor complex formed by NKG2D and DAP10. Science. 1999;285:730-2 pubmed
    ..with NKG2D, a receptor for the stress-inducible and tumor-associated major histocompatibility complex molecule MICA. Within the DAP10 cytoplasmic domain, an Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-binding site was capable of recruiting the p85 ..