methionine synthase reductase


Gene Symbol: methionine synthase reductase
Description: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase
Alias: MSR, cblE, methionine synthase reductase, [methionine synthase]-cobalamin methyltransferase (cob(II)alamin reducing), methionine synthase reductase, mitochondrial
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. Fredriksen A, Meyer K, Ueland P, Vollset S, Grotmol T, Schneede J. Large-scale population-based metabolic phenotyping of thirteen genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:856-65 pubmed
    ..1286A>C (known as 1298A>C; p.Glu429Ala); methionine synthase (MTR) c.2756A>G (p.Asp919Gly); methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) c.66A>G (p.Ile22Met); methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) c.1958G>A (p...
  2. Wang S, Qiao F, Feng L, Lv J. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in China. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008;9:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..explore the relationship between genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), the central enzymes in folate metabolism that affects DNA methylation and synthesis, and the ..
  3. Yates Z, Lucock M. Interaction between common folate polymorphisms and B-vitamin nutritional status modulates homocysteine and risk for a thrombotic event. Mol Genet Metab. 2003;79:201-13 pubmed
    ..and homocysteine remethylation via folate dependent methionine biosynthesis, namely 2756A-->G-MS/66A-->G-MSR and 677C-->T-MTHFR/1298A-->C-MTHFR...
  4. Brandalize A, Bandinelli E, dos Santos P, Schuler Faccini L. Maternal gene polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism as risk factors for Down syndrome offspring in Southern Brazil. Dis Markers. 2010;29:95-101 pubmed publisher
  5. Olteanu H, Munson T, Banerjee R. Differences in the efficiency of reductive activation of methionine synthase and exogenous electron acceptors between the common polymorphic variants of human methionine synthase reductase. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13378-85 pubmed
    b>Methionine synthase reductase (MSR) catalyzes the conversion of the inactive form of human methionine synthase to the active state of the enzyme...
  6. Barbosa P, Stabler S, Machado A, Braga R, Hirata R, Hirata M, et al. Association between decreased vitamin levels and MTHFR, MTR and MTRR gene polymorphisms as determinants for elevated total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62:1010-21 pubmed
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G gene polymorphisms and total homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and S-..
  7. Wolthers K, Scrutton N. Protein interactions in the human methionine synthase-methionine synthase reductase complex and implications for the mechanism of enzyme reactivation. Biochemistry. 2007;46:6696-709 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal activation domain also interacts with methionine synthase reductase (MSR), a NADPH-dependent diflavin oxidoreductase required for the reductive regeneration of ..
  8. Lissowska J, Gaudet M, Brinton L, Chanock S, Peplonska B, Welch R, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study and meta-analyses. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2696-703 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this report does not support a substantial overall association between the evaluated polymorphisms in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk. ..
  9. Wilson A, Leclerc D, Rosenblatt D, Gravel R. Molecular basis for methionine synthase reductase deficiency in patients belonging to the cblE complementation group of disorders in folate/cobalamin metabolism. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:2009-16 pubmed
    b>Methionine synthase reductase (MSR) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of folate/cobalamin metabolism leading to hyperhomocysteinemia, hypo- methioninemia and megaloblastic anemia...

More Information


  1. Jokic M, Brcic Kostic K, Stefulj J, Catela Ivkovic T, Božo L, Gamulin M, et al. Association of MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, RFC1, and DHFR gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to sporadic colon cancer. DNA Cell Biol. 2011;30:771-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific combinations of alleles of these two polymorphisms showed a protective but also a risk effect on colon cancer susceptibility. ..
  2. Pardini B, Kumar R, Naccarati A, Prasad R, Forsti A, Polakova V, et al. MTHFR and MTRR genotype and haplotype analysis and colorectal cancer susceptibility in a case-control study from the Czech Republic. Mutat Res. 2011;721:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..For MTRR, additional studies on larger populations are needed to clarify the possible role of variation in this gene in colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  3. Zhang F, Terry M, Hou L, Chen J, Lissowska J, Yeager M, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in folate metabolism and the risk of stomach cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:115-21 pubmed
    ..Our study did not identify strong genetic determinants in the folate metabolism pathway for stomach cancer risk. ..
  4. Moore L, Malats N, Rothman N, Real F, Kogevinas M, Karami S, et al. Polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism and trans-sulfuration pathway genes and susceptibility to bladder cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2452-8 pubmed
    ..Additional work is needed to comprehensively evaluate genomic variation in CTH and related genes in the trans-sulfuration pathway and bladder cancer risk. ..
  5. Peyrin Biroulet L, Guéant Rodriguez R, Chen M, Bronowicki J, Bigard M, Gueant J. Association of MTRR 66A>G polymorphism with superoxide dismutase and disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:399-406 pubmed
    ..The association of MTRR 66A>G polymorphism with oxidant stress and disease activity provides rationale for screening vitamin deficiencies in these patients. ..
  6. Zavadakova P, Fowler B, Suormala T, Novotna Z, Mueller P, Hennermann J, et al. cblE type of homocystinuria due to methionine synthase reductase deficiency: functional correction by minigene expression. Hum Mutat. 2005;25:239-47 pubmed
    ..enzyme might be activated by two different reducing systems, mutations were reported in only the methionine synthase reductase gene (MTRR) in cblE patients...
  7. Suzuki T, Matsuo K, Hasegawa Y, Hiraki A, Wakai K, Hirose K, et al. One-carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: case-control study. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1439-46 pubmed methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G) and thymidylate synthase (TS), influence folate metabolism and thus might impact on HNSCC ..
  8. Marchal C, Redondo M, Reyes Engel A, Perea Milla E, Gaitan M, Machuca J, et al. Association between polymorphisms of folate-metabolizing enzymes and risk of prostate cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008;34:805-10 pubmed
    ..reductase (MTHFR, 677CT and 1298AC), methionine synthase (MTR, 2756AC) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, 66AC) provoke variations in enzyme activity, which can lead to alterations in the metabolism of ..
  9. Verkleij Hagoort A, van Driel L, Lindemans J, Isaacs A, Steegers E, Helbing W, et al. Genetic and lifestyle factors related to the periconception vitamin B12 status and congenital heart defects: a Dutch case-control study. Mol Genet Metab. 2008;94:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and transcobalamin II (TC) genes and maternal intake and serum concentrations of vitamin B12 in ..
  10. Fintelman Rodrigues N, Correa J, Santos J, Pimentel M, Santos Rebouças C. Investigation of CBS, MTR, RFC-1 and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. Dis Markers. 2009;26:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that maternal folate-related polymorphisms studied here have no influence on trisomy 21 susceptibility in subjects of Brazilian population. ..
  11. Shi Q, Zhang Z, Li G, Pillow P, Hernandez L, Spitz M, et al. Polymorphisms of methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase and risk of lung cancer: a case-control analysis. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005;15:547-55 pubmed
    ..Methionine synthase (MS; gene symbol, MTR) and methionine synthase reductase (MSR; gene symbol, MTRR) play important roles in the folate metabolism pathway...
  12. O Leary V, Mills J, Pangilinan F, Kirke P, Cox C, Conley M, et al. Analysis of methionine synthase reductase polymorphisms for neural tube defects risk association. Mol Genet Metab. 2005;85:220-7 pubmed
    b>Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) regenerates methylated cobalamin levels from the oxidised cob(II)alamin form and in so doing plays a crucial role in maintaining the active state of methionine synthase (MTR)...
  13. Stolzenberg Solomon R, Qiao Y, Abnet C, Ratnasinghe D, Dawsey S, Dong Z, et al. Esophageal and gastric cardia cancer risk and folate- and vitamin B(12)-related polymorphisms in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:1222-6 pubmed
    ..and three polymorphisms in two genes that code for enzymes that require folate and B(12) as cofactors: methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C...
  14. Doolin M, Barbaux S, McDonnell M, Hoess K, Whitehead A, Mitchell L. Maternal genetic effects, exerted by genes involved in homocysteine remethylation, influence the risk of spina bifida. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71:1222-6 pubmed
    ..involved in homocysteine remethylation/methionine biosynthesis--methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G--provided evidence that both variants influence the risk of spina bifida via the maternal ..
  15. Olteanu H, Banerjee R. Human methionine synthase reductase, a soluble P-450 reductase-like dual flavoprotein, is sufficient for NADPH-dependent methionine synthase activation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:35558-63 pubmed
    ..Identification of mutations in the gene encoding a putative methionine synthase reductase in the cblE class of patients with an isolated functional deficiency of methionine synthase suggested ..
  16. Naushad S, Prayaga A, Digumarti R, Gottumukkala S, Kutala V. Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) expression is epigenetically regulated by one-carbon metabolism in invasive duct cell carcinoma of breast. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;361:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..CIMP phenotype of BNIP3 showed positive association with tubule formation (P = 0.034) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G (P = 0...
  17. Zhao J, Yang X, Gong X, Gu Z, Duan W, Wang J, et al. Functional variant in methionine synthase reductase intron-1 significantly increases the risk of congenital heart disease in the Han Chinese population. Circulation. 2012;125:482-90 pubmed publisher
    Homocysteine is known to be an independent risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD). Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is essential for the adequate remethylation of homocysteine, which is the dominant pathway for homocysteine ..
  18. Shaw G, Lu W, Zhu H, Yang W, Briggs F, Carmichael S, et al. 118 SNPs of folate-related genes and risks of spina bifida and conotruncal heart defects. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations do not implicate a particular folate transport or metabolism gene to be strongly associated with risks for spina bifida or conotruncal defects. ..
  19. Wilson A, Platt R, Wu Q, Leclerc D, Christensen B, Yang H, et al. A common variant in methionine synthase reductase combined with low cobalamin (vitamin B12) increases risk for spina bifida. Mol Genet Metab. 1999;67:317-23 pubmed
    ..We now report a polymorphism in methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), the enzyme that activates cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase...
  20. de Vogel S, Wouters K, Gottschalk R, Van Schooten F, de Goeij A, De Bruine A, et al. Genetic variants of methyl metabolizing enzymes and epigenetic regulators: associations with promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:3086-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The incomplete overlap between CIMP, MLH1 hypermethylation, and microsatellite instability indicates that these related "methylation phenotypes" may not be similar and should be investigated separately. ..
  21. Wettergren Y, Odin E, Carlsson G, Gustavsson B. MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms in relation to p16INK4A hypermethylation in mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer. Mol Med. 2010;16:425-32 pubmed publisher
    ..methyl-associated genes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), were analyzed in the same patient cohort to find a possible link between these genetic ..
  22. Guimarães J, Ayrizono M, Coy C, Lima C. Gene polymorphisms involved in folate and methionine metabolism and increased risk of sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR A1298C and C677T), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), and thymidylate synthase (TS 2R/3R) in 113 patients with sporadic colorectal ..
  23. Christensen K, Zada Y, Rohlicek C, Andelfinger G, Michaud J, Bigras J, et al. Risk of congenital heart defects is influenced by genetic variation in folate metabolism. Cardiol Young. 2013;23:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..677C.T, MTHFR c.1298A.C, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) c.66A.G, and reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1) c.80A...
  24. Zhu H, Wicker N, Shaw G, Lammer E, Hendricks K, Suarez L, et al. Homocysteine remethylation enzyme polymorphisms and increased risks for neural tube defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2003;78:216-21 pubmed
    ..purpose of this study is to investigate whether gene polymorphisms of methionine synthase (MTR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) are involved in the risk for NTDs, specifically spina bifida...
  25. Gaughan D, Kluijtmans L, Barbaux S, McMaster D, Young I, Yarnell J, et al. The methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphism is a novel genetic determinant of plasma homocysteine concentrations. Atherosclerosis. 2001;157:451-6 pubmed
    ..One such enzyme, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), maintains adequate levels of methylcob(III)alamin, the activated cofactor for methionine ..
  26. Lee H, Jeong Y, Lee S, Cha K, Song S, Kim N, et al. Association study of four polymorphisms in three folate-related enzyme genes with non-obstructive male infertility. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:3162-70 pubmed
    ..Each SNP of the three enzymes may have a different impact on the folate cycle during spermatogenesis. ..
  27. Yamada K, Gravel R, Toraya T, Matthews R. Human methionine synthase reductase is a molecular chaperone for human methionine synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9476-81 pubmed
    Sustained activity of mammalian methionine synthase (MS) requires MS reductase (MSR), but there have been few studies of the interactions between these two proteins...
  28. Zijno A, Andreoli C, Leopardi P, Marcon F, Rossi S, Caiola S, et al. Folate status, metabolic genotype, and biomarkers of genotoxicity in healthy subjects. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1097-103 pubmed
    ..acid, homocysteine and vitamin B12, and by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms was investigated in 191 healthy subjects...
  29. Chango A, Fillon Emery N, Mircher C, Blehaut H, Lambert D, Herbeth B, et al. No association between common polymorphisms in genes of folate and homocysteine metabolism and the risk of Down's syndrome among French mothers. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:166-9 pubmed
    ..Recent evidence has suggested that 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and/or methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) might contribute to the maternal risk of trisomy 21...
  30. Vaughn J, Bailey L, Shelnutt K, Dunwoody K, Maneval D, Davis S, et al. Methionine synthase reductase 66A->G polymorphism is associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentration when combined with the homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C->T variant. J Nutr. 2004;134:2985-90 pubmed
    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) are important for homocysteine remethylation...
  31. Le Marchand L, Donlon T, Hankin J, Kolonel L, Wilkens L, Seifried A. B-vitamin intake, metabolic genes, and colorectal cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13:239-48 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest that the relationships between CRC and the MTHFR A1298C and CBS 844ins68 polymorphisms warrant further study. ..
  32. Amorim M, Lima M. MTRR 66A>G polymorphism as maternal risk factor for Down syndrome: a meta-analysis. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013;17:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent reports have investigated possible genetic factors that may increase maternal risk for DS. Methionine synthase reductase (5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase MTRR) plays an important role in ..
  33. James S, Pogribna M, Pogribny I, Melnyk S, Hine R, Gibson J, et al. Abnormal folate metabolism and mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene may be maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:495-501 pubmed
    ..6; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.8; P < 0.03). The results of this initial study indicate that folate metabolism is abnormal in mothers of children with Down syndrome and that this may be explained, in part, by a mutation in the MTHFR gene. ..
  34. Jacques P, Bostom A, Selhub J, Rich S, Ellison R, Eckfeldt J, et al. Effects of polymorphisms of methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase on total plasma homocysteine in the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2003;166:49-55 pubmed
    ..Common variants of two other enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism, methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase, have also been identified...
  35. Sharp L, Little J. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism and colorectal neoplasia: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:423-43 pubmed
    ..reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS exon 8, 68-base-pair insertion), and thymidylate ..
  36. Leclerc D, Wilson A, Dumas R, Gafuik C, Song D, Watkins D, et al. Cloning and mapping of a cDNA for methionine synthase reductase, a flavoprotein defective in patients with homocystinuria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3059-64 pubmed predicted binding sites for FMN, FAD, and NADPH, we have cloned a cDNA corresponding to the "methionine synthase reductase" reducing system required for maintenance of the methionine synthase in a functional state...
  37. O Leary V, Parle McDermott A, Molloy A, Kirke P, Johnson Z, Conley M, et al. MTRR and MTHFR polymorphism: link to Down syndrome?. Am J Med Genet. 2002;107:151-5 pubmed
    ..genes encoding the folate metabolizing enzymes methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G) have been linked to the etiology of Down syndrome...
  38. Otani T, Iwasaki M, Hanaoka T, Kobayashi M, Ishihara J, Natsukawa S, et al. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and vitamin B2 intake, genetic polymorphisms of related enzymes, and risk of colorectal cancer in a hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53:42-50 pubmed
    ..02) with colorectal cancer, although the other polymorphisms did not interact with any nutrient intake. In conclusion, the study did not support the existing hypothesis of gene-nutrient interaction in colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  39. Terruzzi I, Senesi P, Fermo I, Lattuada G, Luzi L. Are genetic variants of the methyl group metabolism enzymes risk factors predisposing to obesity?. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007;30:747-53 pubmed
    ..of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT G742A) and cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS ..
  40. van Beynum I, Kouwenberg M, Kapusta L, den Heijer M, van der Linden I, Daniels O, et al. MTRR 66A>G polymorphism in relation to congenital heart defects. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:1317-23 pubmed
    ..The methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) enzyme restores methionine synthase (MTR) enzyme activity and therefore plays an essential role ..
  41. Zeng W, Liu L, Tong Y, Liu H, Dai L, Mao M. A66G and C524T polymorphisms of the methionine synthase reductase gene are associated with congenital heart defects in the Chinese Han population. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:2597-605 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is one of the key regulatory enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine...
  42. Han D, Shen C, Meng X, Bai J, Chen F, Yu Y, et al. Methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism contributes to tumor susceptibility: evidence from 35 case-control studies. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:805-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene is involved in tumorigenesis by regulating DNA methylation through activation of methionine synthase (MTR)...
  43. Botto L, Yang Q. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants and congenital anomalies: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:862-77 pubmed
    ..g., cystathionine-beta-synthase and methionine synthase reductase)...
  44. Locke A, Dooley K, Tinker S, Cheong S, Feingold E, Allen E, et al. Variation in folate pathway genes contributes to risk of congenital heart defects among individuals with Down syndrome. Genet Epidemiol. 2010;34:613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..folate pathway genes: 5,10-methylenetetrahyrdofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), and the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1, RFC1)...
  45. Hazra A, Fuchs C, Kawasaki T, Kirkner G, Hunter D, Ogino S. Germline polymorphisms in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and DNA methylation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:331-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these exploratory data provide suggestive evidence for the association of MTHFR 429 Ala/ Ala and TCN2 259 Arg/Arg and CIMP status in colorectal cancer. ..
  46. Kwak S, Kim U, Cho H, Lee H, Kim H, Kim N, et al. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene polymorphisms as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean population. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:2807-11 pubmed
    ..Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) play an essential role in both DNA synthesis and methylation and polymorphisms in the MTHFR ..
  47. Coppede F, Migheli F, Bargagna S, Siciliano G, Antonucci I, Stuppia L, et al. Association of maternal polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes with chromosome damage and risk of Down syndrome offspring. Neurosci Lett. 2009;449:15-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A>G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A>G, and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 28bp repeat and 1494del6...
  48. Theodoratou E, Farrington S, Tenesa A, McNeill G, Cetnarskyj R, Barnetson R, et al. Dietary vitamin B6 intake and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence from larger cohort and experimental studies is now required to confirm and define the anticarcinogenic actions of vitamin B6 and to explore the mechanisms by which this effect is mediated. ..
  49. Boyles A, Billups A, Deak K, Siegel D, Mehltretter L, Slifer S, et al. Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1547-52 pubmed
  50. Elmore C, Wu X, Leclerc D, Watson E, Bottiglieri T, Krupenko N, et al. Metabolic derangement of methionine and folate metabolism in mice deficient in methionine synthase reductase. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;91:85-97 pubmed
    ..We have constructed a mouse model with a gene trap insertion in the Mtrr gene specifying methionine synthase reductase, an enzyme essential for the activity of methionine synthase...
  51. Gast A, Bermejo J, Flohr T, Stanulla M, Burwinkel B, Schrappe M, et al. Folate metabolic gene polymorphisms and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case-control study. Leukemia. 2007;21:320-5 pubmed
    ..03). Our results suggest that, besides a weak association of childhood ALL with the 66A>G polymorphism, haplotypes within the MTRR gene may, in part, account for population-based differences in risk. ..
  52. Furness D, Fenech M, Khong Y, Romero R, Dekker G. One-carbon metabolism enzyme polymorphisms and uteroplacental insufficiency. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:276.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal and fetal DNA samples were genotyped for methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) G1958A...
  53. Sun X, Sun M, Jia B, Qin Z, Yang K, Chen C, et al. A Glycine soja methionine sulfoxide reductase B5a interacts with the Ca(2+) /CAM-binding kinase GsCBRLK and activates ROS signaling under carbonate alkaline stress. Plant J. 2016;86:514-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize a methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) B protein GsMSRB5a as a GsCBRLK interactor by using Y2H and BiFc assays...
  54. Montjean D, Benkhalifa M, Dessolle L, Cohen Bacrie P, Belloc S, Siffroi J, et al. Polymorphisms in MTHFR and MTRR genes associated with blood plasma homocysteine concentration and sperm counts. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Although no association was observed with reduced sperm counts, the MTHFR 665TT genotype is associated with a significant increase in blood plasma homocysteine levels. ..
  55. Xu W, Zhang L, Wu X, Jin F. Association between Methionine Synthase Reductase A66G Polymorphism and Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2017;27:37-46 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene 66A>G polymorphism and male infertility susceptibility. Studies were identified in PubMed and Embase databases...
  56. Ravel C, Chantot Bastaraud S, Chalmey C, Barreiro L, Aknin Seifer I, Pfeffer J, et al. Lack of association between genetic polymorphisms in enzymes associated with folate metabolism and unexplained reduced sperm counts. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6540 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the incidence of polymorphisms in the genes MTHFR (R68Q, A222V and E429A), Methionine synthase reductase MTRR; (I22M and S175L) and Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS; G307S)...