medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase


Gene Symbol: medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase
Description: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase medium chain
Alias: ACAD1, MCAD, MCADH, medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain, acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, testicular tissue protein Li 7
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. Yang B, Ding J, Zhou C, Dimachkie M, Sweetman L, Dasouki M, et al. Identification of a novel mutation in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2000;69:259-62 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis revealed a novel mutation G617T in exon 8 resulting in an arginine to leucine substitution at codon 206 (R206L). Both patients were compound heterozygous for this G617T and the common mutation A985G. ..
  2. Grosse S, Khoury M, Greene C, Crider K, Pollitt R. The epidemiology of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: an update. Genet Med. 2006;8:205-12 pubmed
    ..Systematic collection and analysis of follow-up data are still needed to ascertain the frequencies of outcomes in screened cohorts. ..
  3. O Reilly L, Andresen B, Engel P. Two novel variants of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). K364R, a folding mutation, and R256T, a catalytic-site mutation resulting in a well-folded but totally inactive protein. FEBS J. 2005;272:4549-57 pubmed
    Two novel rare mutations, MCAD approximately 842G-->C (R256T) and MCAD approximately 1166A-->G (K364R), have been investigated to assess how far the biochemical properties of the mutant proteins correlate with the clinical phenotype ..
  4. Waddell L, Wiley V, Carpenter K, Bennetts B, Angel L, Andresen B, et al. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: genotype-biochemical phenotype correlations. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;87:32-9 pubmed
    ..tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening is the potentially fatal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). In clinically presenting cases, 80% are homozygous for the common mutation, c.985A > G and 18% heterozygous...
  5. Yokota I, Indo Y, Coates P, Tanaka K. Molecular basis of medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. An A to G transition at position 985 that causes a lysine-304 to glutamate substitution in the mature protein is the single prevalent mutation. J Clin Invest. 1990;86:1000-3 pubmed
    We sequenced polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified variant medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) cDNAs in cultured fibroblasts from three MCAD-deficient patients...
  6. Tanaka K, Yokota I, Coates P, Strauss A, Kelly D, Zhang Z, et al. Mutations in the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene. Hum Mutat. 1992;1:271-9 pubmed
    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) catalyzes the first reaction of the beta-oxidation cycle for 4-10-carbon fatty acids...
  7. Smith E, Thomas C, McHugh D, Gavrilov D, Raymond K, Rinaldo P, et al. Allelic diversity in MCAD deficiency: the biochemical classification of 54 variants identified during 5 years of ACADM sequencing. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;100:241-50 pubmed publisher
    Medium-chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a commonly detected fatty acid oxidation disorder and its diagnosis relies on both biochemical and molecular analyses...
  8. ter Veld F, Mueller M, Kramer S, Haussmann U, Herebian D, Mayatepek E, et al. A novel tandem mass spectrometry method for rapid confirmation of medium- and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in newborns. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6449 pubmed publisher
    Newborn screening for medium- and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD and VLCAD, respectively) deficiency, using acylcarnitine profiling with tandem mass spectrometry, has increased the number of patients with fatty acid ..
  9. Derks T, Boer T, van Assen A, Bos T, Ruiter J, Waterham H, et al. Neonatal screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in The Netherlands: the importance of enzyme analysis to ascertain true MCAD deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2008;31:88-96 pubmed publisher
    The outcome was determined of population-wide neonatal screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in The Netherlands, between October 2003 and September 2005...

More Information


  1. Lehotay D, LePage J, Thompson J, Rockman Greenberg C. Blood acylcarnitine levels in normal newborns and heterozygotes for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: a relationship between genotype and biochemical phenotype?. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27:81-8 pubmed
    Patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency are unable to metabolize medium-chain fatty acids...
  2. Maier E, Liebl B, Röschinger W, Nennstiel Ratzel U, Fingerhut R, Olgemöller B, et al. Population spectrum of ACADM genotypes correlated to biochemical phenotypes in newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 2005;25:443-52 pubmed
    ..Our data might provide technical and medical guidance for decision making in the worldwide efforts to introduce MCADD population screening. ..
  3. Blois B, Riddell C, Dooley K, Dyack S. Newborns with C8-acylcarnitine level over the 90th centile have an increased frequency of the common MCAD 985A>G mutation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28:551-6 pubmed
    Medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most commonly inherited defect of fatty acid oxidation...
  4. Matsubara Y, Narisawa K, Miyabayashi S, Tada K, Coates P, Bachmann C, et al. Identification of a common mutation in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;171:498-505 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is one of the most common recessively inherited metabolic diseases in man...
  5. Purevsuren J, Kobayashi H, Hasegawa Y, Mushimoto Y, Li H, Fukuda S, et al. A novel molecular aspect of Japanese patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD): c.449-452delCTGA is a common mutation in Japanese patients with MCADD. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;96:77-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests the genotypic difference between those of Caucasians and Japanese regarding MCADD. ..
  6. Maier E, Gersting S, Kemter K, Jank J, Reindl M, Messing D, et al. Protein misfolding is the molecular mechanism underlying MCADD identified in newborn screening. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1612-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the detailed insight into how ACADM missense mutations induce loss of MCAD function may provide guidance for risk assessment and counseling of patients, and in future may assist delineation ..
  7. Sturm M, Herebian D, Mueller M, Laryea M, Spiekerkoetter U. Functional effects of different medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase genotypes and identification of asymptomatic variants. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45110 pubmed publisher
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency (OMIM 201450) is the most common inherited disorder of fatty acid metabolism presenting with hypoglycaemia, hepatopathy and Reye-like symptoms during catabolism...
  8. Yokota I, Coates P, Hale D, Rinaldo P, Tanaka K. Molecular survey of a prevalent mutation, 985A-to-G transition, and identification of five infrequent mutations in the medium-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene in 55 patients with MCAD deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1991;49:1280-91 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is an inborn error of fatty-acid oxidation that is characterized by fasting intolerance and recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma which can be fatal...
  9. Kuchler B, Abdel Ghany A, Bross P, Nandy A, Rasched I, Ghisla S. Biochemical characterization of a variant human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a disease-associated mutation localized in the active site. Biochem J. 1999;337 ( Pt 2):225-30 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCADH) deficiency, an autosomal recessive inherited disorder, is the most common genetic disorder in mitochondrial beta-oxidation in humans...
  10. Nichols M, Saavedra Matiz C, Pass K, Caggana M. Novel mutations causing medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: under-representation of the common c.985 A > G mutation in the New York state population. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that p.K304E has a far lower representation in New York newborns with MCADD than current literature estimates and its full mutational spectrum is still unknown. ..
  11. Andresen B, Dobrowolski S, O Reilly L, Muenzer J, McCandless S, Frazier D, et al. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutations identified by MS/MS-based prospective screening of newborns differ from those observed in patients with clinical symptoms: identification and characterization of a new, prevalent mutation that resu. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68:1408-18 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most frequently diagnosed mitochondrial beta-oxidation defect, and it is potentially fatal...
  12. Andresen B, Bross P, Udvari S, Kirk J, Gray G, Kmoch S, et al. The molecular basis of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in compound heterozygous patients: is there correlation between genotype and phenotype?. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:695-707 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most commonly recognized defect of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. It is potentially fatal, but shows a wide clinical spectrum...
  13. Kelly D, Whelan A, Ogden M, Alpers R, Zhang Z, Bellus G, et al. Molecular characterization of inherited medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:9236-40 pubmed
    Deficiency of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is a common inherited defect in energy metabolism...
  14. Zschocke J, Schulze A, Lindner M, Fiesel S, Olgemöller K, Hoffmann G, et al. Molecular and functional characterisation of mild MCAD deficiency. Hum Genet. 2001;108:404-8 pubmed
    ..Enzyme studies showed residual MCAD activities between "classical" MCADD and heterozygotes...
  15. Ziadeh R, Hoffman E, Finegold D, Hoop R, Brackett J, Strauss A, et al. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Pennsylvania: neonatal screening shows high incidence and unexpected mutation frequencies. Pediatr Res. 1995;37:675-8 pubmed
    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) is a defect in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids...
  16. Marangoni A, Fiorino E, Gilardi F, Aldini R, Scotti E, Nardini P, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae acute liver infection affects hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice. Atherosclerosis. 2015;241:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that C. pneumoniae mouse liver infection induces dyslipidemic effects with significant modifications of genes involved in lipid metabolism. ..
  17. Jiang M, Liu L, Mei H, Li X, Cheng J, Cai Y. Detection of inborn errors of metabolism using GC-MS: over 3 years of experience in southern China. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015;28:375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Urease pretreatment is useful for the diagnosis of NICCD. In southern China, the majority of IEM were amino acid disorders and organic acid disorders. FAO disorders were relatively rare, which we need to investigate further. ..
  18. Zhou Y, Lin S, Zhang L, Li Y. Resveratrol prevents renal lipotoxicity in high-fat diet-treated mouse model through regulating PPAR-α pathway. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;411:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..001), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 (p < 0.05), and medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) (p < 0...
  19. Lou P, Lucchinetti E, Scott K, Huang Y, Gandhi M, Hersberger M, et al. Alterations in fatty acid metabolism and sirtuin signaling characterize early type-2 diabetic hearts of fructose-fed rats. Physiol Rep. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Along with increased oxidative stress, this may represent one of the earliest signs of dysfunction that will ultimately lead to inflammation and remodeling in the diabetic heart. ..
  20. Hao E, Mukhopadhyay P, Cao Z, Erdélyi K, Holovac E, Liaudet L, et al. Cannabidiol Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Modulating Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis. Mol Med. 2015;21:38-45 pubmed publisher
  21. Baruteau J, Sachs P, Broue P, Brivet M, Abdoul H, Vianey Saban C, et al. Clinical and biological features at diagnosis in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation defects: a French pediatric study of 187 patients. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2013;36:795-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The poor long-term prognoses reported are a strong argument for inclusion of FAODs in newborn screening programs. ..
  22. Zhao Y, Ling F, Griffin T, He T, Towner R, Ruan H, et al. Up-regulation of the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) genes in white adipose tissue of Id1 protein-deficient mice: implications in the protection against diet and age-induced glucose intoleran. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:29112-22 pubmed publisher
  23. Zhu Y, Soto J, Anderson B, Riehle C, Zhang Y, Wende A, et al. Regulation of fatty acid metabolism by mTOR in adult murine hearts occurs independently of changes in PGC-1α. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, mTOR regulates mitochondrial fatty acid utilization but not glucose utilization in the heart via mechanisms that are independent of changes in PGC expression. ..
  24. Ohnogi H, Hayami S, Kudo Y, Deguchi S, Mizutani S, Enoki T, et al. Angelica keiskei extract improves insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in rats fed a high-fructose drink. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:928-32 pubmed
    ..Treatment with AE enhanced the expression of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACO1), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) genes...
  25. Larrandaburu M, Matte U, Noble A, Olivera Z, Sanseverino M, Nacul L, et al. Ethics, genetics and public policies in Uruguay: newborn and infant screening as a paradigm. J Community Genet. 2015;6:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It illustrates how Uruguay is developing public policies in the genomic era, based both on science and bioethics. ..
  26. Wang H, Peng H, Chien Y, Chen Y, Lu N, Yang S. Effects of Fish Oil on Lipid Metabolism and Its Molecular Biological Regulators in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, mRNA levels of fatty acid-oxidative enzymes, such as medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1) were significantly elevated in the EF57 group than those in E group...
  27. Seki M, Powers J, Maruyama S, Zuriaga M, Wu C, Kurishima C, et al. Acute and Chronic Increases of Circulating FSTL1 Normalize Energy Substrate Metabolism in Pacing-Induced Heart Failure. Circ Heart Fail. 2018;11:e004486 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a novel function for FSTL1 and provide the first direct evidence that a circulating cardiokine/myokine can alter myocardial and systemic energy substrate metabolism, in vivo. ..
  28. Ohn J, Hwang J, Moon M, Ahn H, Kim H, Koo Y, et al. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) deficiency protects myocardia from lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186021 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed the reduced expression of PPAR?1 and PPAR? target genes such as CD36, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by SHP KO after HFD. ..
  29. Gregersen N, Andresen B, Bross P, Winter V, Rudiger N, Engst S, et al. Molecular characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: identification of a lys329 to glu mutation in the MCAD gene, and expression of inactive mutant enzyme protein in E. coli. Hum Genet. 1991;86:545-51 pubmed
    ..A series of experiments has established the molecular defect in the medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene in a family with MCAD deficiency...
  30. Zhao Q, Yang R, Wang J, Hu D, Li F. PPARα activation protects against cholestatic liver injury. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9967 pubmed publisher
    ..and triglyceride, and the reduced expression of four fatty acid β-oxidation (β-FAO) relevant genes (Cpt1b, Cpt2, Mcad and Hadha), indicating the disruption of β-FAO...
  31. Al Jasmi F, Al Shamsi A, Hertecant J, Al Hamad S, Souid A. Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the United Arab Emirates: Disorders Detected by Newborn Screening (2011-2014). JIMD Rep. 2016;28:127-135 pubmed
    ..424C>A (found in Somalians) were associated with undetectable biotinidase activity. Thus, the high prevalence of IEM in our region is amenable to newborn and premarital screening, which is expected to halt most of these diseases. ..
  32. Lang T. Adult presentations of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). J Inherit Metab Dis. 2009;32:675-683 pubmed publisher
    ..A history of unexplained sibling death may also raise the index of suspicion. There also needs to be appropriate clinical support for those patients identified clinically or as a result of family studies (sibling or parent). ..
  33. Kim Y, Lee J, Ahn S, Kim B, Kang D, Kim J, et al. Nonatheroscleotic Isolated Middle Cerebral Artery Disease May Be Early Manifestation of Moyamoya Disease. Stroke. 2016;47:2229-35 pubmed publisher
    Middle cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease (MCAD) is not an uncommon cause of ischemic stroke in young Asians...
  34. Bernardo B, Weeks K, Pongsukwechkul T, Gao X, Kiriazis H, Cemerlang N, et al. Gene delivery of medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase induces physiological cardiac hypertrophy and protects against pathological remodelling. Clin Sci (Lond). 2018;132:381-397 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD, key regulator of fatty acid oxidation) is positively modulated in the heart by the cardioprotective kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K(p110α))...
  35. Nennstiel Ratzel U, Arenz S, Maier E, Knerr I, Baumkötter J, Röschinger W, et al. Reduced incidence of severe metabolic crisis or death in children with medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency homozygous for c.985A>G identified by neonatal screening. Mol Genet Metab. 2005;85:157-9 pubmed
    ..Logrank test showed a significant reduction of severe metabolic crises in the screened cohort (p<0.01). Neonatal screening appears to reduce the rate of severe metabolic crisis or death in the most prevalent subset of MCADD. ..
  36. Vengalil S, Preethish Kumar V, Polavarapu K, Christopher R, Gayathri N, Natarajan A, et al. Fatty acid oxidation defects presenting as primary myopathy and prominent dropped head syndrome. Neuromuscul Disord. 2017;27:986-996 pubmed publisher
    ..The fatty acid oxidation defects identified were sub-grouped into: medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)?=?4; very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)?=?7; MADD?=?6; ..
  37. Karaceper M, Chakraborty P, Coyle D, Wilson K, Kronick J, Hawken S, et al. The health system impact of false positive newborn screening results for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: a cohort study. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016;11:12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is particularly important as additional disorders are added to expanded screening panels, yielding important clinical benefits for affected children but also a higher frequency of false positive findings. ..
  38. Han M, Evsikov A, Zhang L, Lastra Vicente R, Linask K. Embryonic exposures of lithium and homocysteine and folate protection affect lipid metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation. Reprod Toxicol. 2016;61:82-96 pubmed publisher
    ..High folate supplementation protected normal heart-placental function, gene expression and lipid localization. ..
  39. Roh J, Lee H, Woo S, Yoon M, Kim J, Park S, et al. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;171:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with GGH(4), the individual components or curcmumin increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial (CPT-1, MCAD, and VLCAD) and peroxisomal (ACOX and thiolase) PPARα target genes...
  40. Andresen B, Jensen T, Bross P, Knudsen I, Winter V, Kølvraa S, et al. Disease-causing mutations in exon 11 of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1994;54:975-88 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most commonly recognized defect of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation in humans. It is a potentially fatal, autosomal recessive inherited defect...
  41. Ashfaq A, Chapital A, Johnson D, Staley L, Arabia F, Harold K. Safety and Feasibility of Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery in Patients With Mechanical Circulatory Assist Devices. Surg Innov. 2016;23:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods A retrospective review was conducted on 302 patients who underwent MCAD placement from 2005 to 2012...
  42. Muroya Y, Ito O. Effect of clofibrate on fatty acid metabolism in the kidney of puromycin-induced nephrotic rats. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2016;20:862-870 pubmed publisher
    ..It decreased renal expressions of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), cytochrome P450 (CYP)4A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and estrogen-..
  43. Cho S, So W, Roh H. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Peripheral Neuroplasticity-Related Growth Factors, Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..before and after the training, and the cerebral blood flow velocities (peak systolic [MCAs], end diastolic [MCAd], mean cerebral blood flow velocities [MCAm], and pulsatility index [PI]) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were ..
  44. Sente T, Van Berendoncks A, Fransen E, Vrints C, Hoymans V. Tumor necrosis factor-? impairs adiponectin signalling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and myogenesis in primary human myotubes cultures. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310:H1164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results suggest that an increased inflammatory constitution contributes to adiponectin resistance and confers alterations in skeletal muscle differentiation, growth, and function. ..
  45. Tan J, Chen D, Li Z, Huang J, Yan T, Cai R. [An analysis of clinical characteristics and gene mutation in two patients with medium- and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2016;18:1019-1025 pubmed
    ..Genetic analyses of the ACADM and ACADS genes are helpful for the diagnosis of medium- and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. ..
  46. Schreiber S, Knutti D, Brogli K, Uhlmann T, Kralli A. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 regulates the expression and activity of the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9013-8 pubmed
    ..or of PGC-1 mutants that interact selectively with different types of nuclear receptors, shows that PGC-1 can induce the fatty acid oxidation enzyme MCAD (medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) in an ERRalpha-dependent manner.
  47. Parker A. Binding of the human "electron transferring flavoprotein" (ETF) to the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) involves an arginine and histidine residue. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003;18:453-62 pubmed
    ..between the "electron transferring flavoprotein" (ETF) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) enables successful flavin to flavin electron transfer, crucial for the beta-oxidation of fatty acids...
  48. Korman S, Gutman A, Brooks R, Sinnathamby T, Gregersen N, Andresen B. Homozygosity for a severe novel medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutation IVS3-1G > C that leads to introduction of a premature termination codon by complete missplicing of the MCAD mRNA and is associated with phenotypic diversity rangin. Mol Genet Metab. 2004;82:121-9 pubmed
    ..Urine organic acid and bloodspot acylcarnitine analysis were consistent with MCADD. He was homozygous for a novel MCAD splice mutation, IVS3-1G > C...
  49. Wang Y, Mukhopadhyay P, Cao Z, Wang H, Feng D, Hasko G, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates alcohol-induced liver steatosis, metabolic dysregulation, inflammation and neutrophil-mediated injury. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12064 pubmed publisher
    ..dysregulation and steatosis by restoring changes in hepatic mRNA or protein expression of ACC-1, FASN, PPARα, MCAD, ADIPOR-1, and mCPT-1...
  50. Niu Z, Shi Q, Zhang W, Shu Y, Yang N, Chen B, et al. Caspase-1 cleaves PPAR? for potentiating the pro-tumor action of TAMs. Nat Commun. 2017;8:766 pubmed publisher
    ..truncated PPAR? translocates to mitochondria, where it directly interacts with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)...
  51. Maehara K, Hida T, Abe Y, Koga A, Ota K, Kutoh E. Functional interference between estrogen-related receptor alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/9-cis-retinoic acid receptor alpha heterodimer complex in the nuclear receptor response element-1 of the medium chain acyl-coenzyme A. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003;31:47-60 pubmed
    ..Nuclear receptor response element-1 (NRRE-1) from the human medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene promoter was shown to contain three hexamer elements (site 1 through 3) that are known to interact with a ..
  52. Małecki J, Ho A, Moen A, Dahl H, Falnes P. Human METTL20 is a mitochondrial lysine methyltransferase that targets the β subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFβ) and modulates its activity. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the previous naming of similar enzymes, we suggest the renaming of human METTL20 to ETFβ-KMT. ..
  53. Thodi G, Georgiou V, Molou E, Loukas Y, Dotsikas Y, Biti S, et al. Characterization of the molecular spectrum of Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in a Greek newborns cohort: identification of a novel variant. Clin Biochem. 2012;45:1167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this variant along with the c.985A>G allele could constitute a panel for both prenatal and neonatal MCADD screening in the Greek population. ..
  54. Guo X, Ran C, Zhang Z, He S, Jin M, Zhou Z. The Growth-Promoting Effect of Dietary Nucleotides in Fish Is Associated with an Intestinal Microbiota-Mediated Reduction in Energy Expenditure. J Nutr. 2017;147:781-788 pubmed publisher
    ..FA oxidation [carnitine:palmitoyl transferase 1a (cpt1a) and medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (mcad)] in liver and muscle...
  55. Illig T, Gieger C, Zhai G, Römisch Margl W, Wang Sattler R, Prehn C, et al. A genome-wide perspective of genetic variation in human metabolism. Nat Genet. 2010;42:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5 x 10(-179). These loci explained 5.6%-36.3% of the observed variance in metabolite concentrations. For several loci, associations with clinically relevant parameters have been reported previously. ..
  56. Shiou Y, Huang I, Lin H, Lee H. High fat diet aggravates atrial and ventricular remodeling of hypertensive heart disease in aging rats. J Formos Med Assoc. 2018;117:621-631 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Hypertensive heart disease in aging rats was aggravated by HFD with worse atrial, ventricular remodeling and associated with left ventricular systolic function impairment. ..
  57. Ding J, Yang B, Bao Y, Roe C, Chen Y. Identification of a new mutation in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1992;50:229-33 pubmed
    A mutation involving an A-to-G nucleotide replacement at position 985 of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) cDNA was found in homozygous form in 18 unrelated MCAD-deficient families and in heterozygous form in 4 families...
  58. Jank J, Maier E, Reiβ D, Haslbeck M, Kemter K, Truger M, et al. The domain-specific and temperature-dependent protein misfolding phenotype of variant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93852 pubmed publisher
    ..the impact of thermal stress revealed that mutations in the ACADM gene lower the temperature threshold at which MCAD loss-of-function occurs...
  59. Leone T, Cresci S, Carter M, Zhang Z, Lala D, Strauss A, et al. The human medium chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene promoter consists of a complex arrangement of nuclear receptor response elements and Sp1 binding sites. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:16308-14 pubmed
    ..beta-oxidation enzyme, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), is regulated among tissues during development and in response to alterations in substrate availability...
  60. Bross P, Engst S, Strauss A, Kelly D, Rasched I, Ghisla S. Characterization of wild-type and an active site mutant of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase after expression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:7116-9 pubmed
    The cDNA of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCADH) was modified by in vitro mutagenesis, and the sequence encoding the mature form of MCADH was introduced into an inducible expression plasmid...
  61. Wang S, Fernhoff P, Hannon W, Khoury M. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency human genome epidemiology review. Genet Med. 1999;1:332-9 pubmed
    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is a tetrameric flavoprotein essential for the beta-oxidation of medium chain fatty acids. MCAD deficiency (MCADD) is an inherited error of fatty acid metabolism...
  62. Santos L, Patterson A, Moreea S, Lippiatt C, Walter J, Henderson M. Acute liver failure in pregnancy associated with maternal MCAD deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007;30:103 pubmed
    ..We describe acute liver failure associated with an undiagnosed maternal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency...
  63. Kelly D, Kim J, Billadello J, Hainline B, Chu T, Strauss A. Nucleotide sequence of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA and its expression in enzyme-deficient human tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:4068-72 pubmed
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; acyl-CoA: (acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase, EC is one of three similar enzymes that catalyze the initial step of fatty acid beta-oxidation...
  64. Hara K, Tajima G, Okada S, Tsumura M, Kagawa R, Shirao K, et al. Significance of ACADM mutations identified through newborn screening of MCAD deficiency in Japan. Mol Genet Metab. 2016;118:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..2000, there has been a remarkable increase in Japanese patients diagnosed with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency...
  65. Kormanik K, Kang H, Cuebas D, Vockley J, Mohsen A. Evidence for involvement of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the metabolism of phenylbutyrate. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107:684-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular modeling suggests that medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC, a key enzyme in straight chain fatty acid ?-oxidation, could utilize phenylbutyryl-CoA as substrate...
  66. Finocchiaro G, Ito M, Tanaka K. Purification and properties of short chain acyl-CoA, medium chain acyl-CoA, and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenases from human liver. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:7982-9 pubmed
    ..The pattern of substrate specificity for these enzymes determined using ETF as electron acceptor significantly differed from that determined using PMS. All of them were severely inhibited by (methylenecyclopropyl)acetyl-CoA. ..
  67. Brackett J, Sims H, Steiner R, Nunge M, Zimmerman E, deMartinville B, et al. A novel mutation in medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase causes sudden neonatal death. J Clin Invest. 1994;94:1477-83 pubmed
    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common known genetic disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Most (approximately 80%) cases are homozygous for a single mutation: A to G replacement at nucleotide 985 (A985G)...
  68. Bartha J, Bugatto F, Fernández Deudero A, Fernández Macías R, Perdomo G. Tissue specific expression of human fatty acid oxidation enzyme genes in late pregnancy. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:200 pubmed
    ..We have measured by Real-time PCR the levels of long- and medium -chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD and MCAD), two acyl-CoA dehydrogenases that catalyze the initial step in the mitochondrial FAO spiral...
  69. Hanley P, Gopalan K, Lareau R, Srivastava D, von Meltzer M, Daut J. Beta-oxidation of 5-hydroxydecanoate, a putative blocker of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. J Physiol. 2003;547:387-93 pubmed
    ..whether activated 5-HD, 5-hydroxydecanoyl-CoA (5-HD-CoA), is a substrate for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), the committed step of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway...
  70. Peterson K, Galitz D, Srivastava D. Influence of excision of a methylene group from Glu-376 (Glu376-->Asp mutation) in the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction. Biochemistry. 1998;37:1697-705 pubmed
    The human liver medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-catalyzed reaction proceeds via abstraction of an alpha-proton from the acyl-CoA substrates by the carboxyl group of Glu-376...
  71. Touw C, Smit G, De Vries M, De Klerk J, Bosch A, Visser G, et al. Risk stratification by residual enzyme activity after newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehyrogenase deficiency: data from a cohort study. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012;7:30 pubmed publisher
    Since the introduction of medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in population newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) programs, subjects have been identified with variant ACADM (gene encoding MCAD enzyme) genotypes that ..
  72. Kølvraa S, Gregersen N, Blakemore A, Schneidermann A, Winter V, Andresen B, et al. The most common mutation causing medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype in the region of the gene. Hum Genet. 1991;87:425-8 pubmed
    RFLP haplotypes in the region containing the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene on chromosome 1 have been determined in patients with MCAD deficiency...
  73. Lee H, Wang M, Paschke R, Nandy A, Ghisla S, Kim J. Crystal structures of the wild type and the Glu376Gly/Thr255Glu mutant of human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase: influence of the location of the catalytic base on substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 1996;35:12412-20 pubmed
    Crystal structures of the wild type human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCADH) and a double mutant in which its active center base-arrangement has been altered to that of long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCADH), Glu376Gly/..
  74. Maydan G, Andresen B, Madsen P, Zeigler M, Raas Rothschild A, Zlotogorski A, et al. TAT gene mutation analysis in three Palestinian kindreds with oculocutaneous tyrosinaemia type II; characterization of a silent exonic transversion that causes complete missplicing by exon 11 skipping. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006;29:620-6 pubmed
    ..1249C > T (R417X) exon 12 nonsense mutation (previously reported in a French patient) was identified in both patients from the third kindred, enabling successful prenatal diagnosis of an unaffected fetus using chorionic villous tissue...
  75. Tajima G, Hara K, Tsumura M, Kagawa R, Okada S, Sakura N, et al. Screening of MCAD deficiency in Japan: 16years' experience of enzymatic and genetic evaluation. Mol Genet Metab. 2016;119:322-328 pubmed publisher
    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a representative disorder of fatty acid oxidation and is one of the most prevalent inborn errors of metabolism among Caucasian populations...
  76. Battaile K, McBurney M, Van Veldhoven P, Vockley J. Human long chain, very long chain and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are specific for the S-enantiomer of 2- methylpentadecanoyl-CoA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1390:333-8 pubmed
    ..No activity was measurable with R-2-methylpentadecanoyl-CoA. Purified medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) could also utilize S-2-methylpentadecanoyl-CoA as a substrate, but not R-2-methylpentadecanoyl-CoA...
  77. Duran M, Hofkamp M, Rhead W, Saudubray J, Wadman S. Sudden child death and 'healthy' affected family members with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. Pediatrics. 1986;78:1052-7 pubmed
    ..Careful monitoring of at-risk patients during a minor illness is necessary. ..
  78. Woo H, Park H, Lee Y, Lee D, Ki C, Lee S, et al. Clinical, biochemical and genetic analyses in two Korean patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Korean J Lab Med. 2011;31:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This report presents evidence of the biochemical and molecular features of MCADD in Korean patients and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the c.461T>G mutation in the ACADM gene. ..
  79. Bruun G, Doktor T, Andresen B. A synonymous polymorphic variation in ACADM exon 11 affects splicing efficiency and may affect fatty acid oxidation. Mol Genet Metab. 2013;110:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..based metabolic profiling, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs211718C>T, located far upstream of the MCAD gene (ACADM) was found to be associated with serum concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines indicating ..
  80. Ventura F, Leandro P, Luz A, Rivera I, Silva M, Ramos R, et al. Retrospective study of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Portugal. Clin Genet. 2014;85:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the particularity of the MCADD population investigated, the G985 allele was found in linkage disequilibrium with H1(112) haplotype. Furthermore, two novel haplotypes, H5(212) and H6(122) were revealed. ..
  81. He M, Pei Z, Mohsen A, Watkins P, Murdoch G, Van Veldhoven P, et al. Identification and characterization of new long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;102:418-29 pubmed publisher
    ..ACAD9 was most highly expressed in the granular layer, ACAD11 in the white matter, and MCAD in the molecular layer and axons of specific neurons...
  82. Al Hassnan Z, Imtiaz F, Al Amoudi M, Rahbeeni Z, Al Sayed M, Al Owain M, et al. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Saudi Arabia: incidence, genotype, and preventive implications. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33 Suppl 3:S263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of a founder mutation for MCADD has important implications for the preventive screening programs not only in Saudi Arabia but potentially also in other countries in the region. ..
  83. Ahrens Nicklas R, Pyle L, Ficicioglu C. Morbidity and mortality among exclusively breastfed neonates with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Genet Med. 2016;18:1315-1319 pubmed publisher
    Despite greatly improved morbidity and mortality among infants with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) since the implementation of universal newborn screening (NBS), a population of neonates still becomes ill before ..
  84. Blakemore A, Singleton H, Pollitt R, Engel P, Kolvraa S, Gregersen N, et al. Frequency of the G985 MCAD mutation in the general population. Lancet. 1991;337:298-9 pubmed