Gene Symbol: MCM2
Description: minichromosome maintenance complex component 2
Alias: BM28, CCNL1, CDCL1, D3S3194, DFNA70, MITOTIN, cdc19, DNA replication licensing factor MCM2, cell devision cycle-like 1, cyclin-like 1, minichromosome maintenance deficient 2 (mitotin), minichromosome maintenance protein 2 homolog, nuclear protein BM28
Species: human
Products:     MCM2

Top Publications

  1. Todorov I, Pepperkok R, Philipova R, Kearsey S, Ansorge W, Werner D. A human nuclear protein with sequence homology to a family of early S phase proteins is required for entry into S phase and for cell division. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 1):253-65 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the nuclear protein BM28 is required for two events of the cell cycle, for the onset of DNA replication and for cell division.
  2. Sakwe A, Nguyen T, Athanasopoulos V, Shire K, Frappier L. Identification and characterization of a novel component of the human minichromosome maintenance complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3044-55 pubmed
    ..MCM-BP formed a complex with MCM3 to MCM7, which excluded MCM2; and, conversely, hexameric complexes of MCM2 to MCM7 lacked MCM-BP, indicating that MCM-BP can replace MCM2 in the ..
  3. Fujita M, Kiyono T, Hayashi Y, Ishibashi M. In vivo interaction of human MCM heterohexameric complexes with chromatin. Possible involvement of ATP. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10928-35 pubmed
    ..Nuclease digestion-immunoprecipitation techniques of the type described here should facilitate further elucidation of the mode of interaction between hMCMs and chromatin. ..
  4. Jiang W, McDonald D, Hope T, Hunter T. Mammalian Cdc7-Dbf4 protein kinase complex is essential for initiation of DNA replication. EMBO J. 1999;18:5703-13 pubmed
    ..Purified baculovirus-expressed HsCdc7-HsDbf4 selectively phosphorylates the MCM2 subunit of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein complex isolated by immunoprecipitation with MCM7 ..
  5. Masata M, Juda P, Raska O, Cardoso M, Raska I. A fraction of MCM 2 proteins remain associated with replication foci during a major part of S phase. Folia Biol (Praha). 2011;57:3-11 pubmed
    ..The fluorescence localization of the MCM 2 proteins and DNA replication may thus reflect an active function of MCM 2 proteins associated with the replication foci and partially explain one facet of the "MCM paradox". ..
  6. Wojnar A, Pula B, Piotrowska A, Jethon A, Kujawa K, Kobierzycki C, et al. Correlation of intensity of MT-I/II expression with Ki-67 and MCM-2 proteins in invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:3027-33 pubmed
    ..0018) and negatively with ER (p=0.0002) and PR (p=0.0056) expression. To conclude, MT-I/II may play a key role in IDC proliferation, but is not a useful prognostic factor of this disease. ..
  7. Gakiopoulou H, Korkolopoulou P, Levidou G, Thymara I, Saetta A, Piperi C, et al. Minichromosome maintenance proteins 2 and 5 in non-benign epithelial ovarian tumours: relationship with cell cycle regulators and prognostic implications. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:1124-34 pubmed
    ..0001 in both relationships). In conclusion, MCM-2 and MCM-5 proteins appear to be promising as prognostic markers in patients with ovarian adenocarcinomas. ..
  8. Yu Z, Feng D, Liang C. Pairwise interactions of the six human MCM protein subunits. J Mol Biol. 2004;340:1197-206 pubmed
    The eukaryotic minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins have six subunits, Mcm2 to 7p...
  9. Osaki M, Osaki M, Yamashita H, Shomori K, Yoshida H, Ito H. Expression of minichromosome maintenance-2 in human malignant fibrous histiocytomas: Correlations with Ki-67 and P53 expression, and apoptosis. Int J Mol Med. 2002;10:161-8 pubmed
    This study examined the clinicopathological significance of minichromosome maintenance-2 (MCM2) expression in 38 human malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs) and 36 benign fibrohistiocytic tumors (BFHTs) immunohistochemically, and in 9 ..

More Information


  1. Ishimi Y, Komamura Kohno Y, You Z, Omori A, Kitagawa M. Inhibition of Mcm4,6,7 helicase activity by phosphorylation with cyclin A/Cdk2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:16235-41 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that the inactivation of Mcm4,6,7 helicase activity by Cdk2 is a part of the system for regulating DNA replication. ..
  2. Liu M, Li J, Tian D, Huang B, Rosqvist S, Su M. MCM2 expression levels predict diagnosis and prognosis in gastric cardiac cancer. Histol Histopathol. 2013;28:481-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluate MCM protein 2 (MCM2), comparing it with the validated markers Ki67 and PCNA...
  3. Ask K, Jasencakova Z, Menard P, Feng Y, Almouzni G, Groth A. Codanin-1, mutated in the anaemic disease CDAI, regulates Asf1 function in S-phase histone supply. EMBO J. 2012;31:2013-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This function is compromised by two CDAI mutations that impair complex formation with Asf1, providing insight into the molecular basis for CDAI disease. ..
  4. Kodani I, Shomori K, Osaki M, Kuratate I, Ryoke K, Ito H. Expression of minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2), Ki-67, and cell-cycle-related molecules, and apoptosis in the normal-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence of the oral mucosa. Pathobiology. 2001;69:150-8 pubmed
    ..of the oral epithelia analyzing the pathological significance of a new biomarker, minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)...
  5. Yang J, Ramnath N, Moysich K, Asch H, Swede H, Alrawi S, et al. Prognostic significance of MCM2, Ki-67 and gelsolin in non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:203 pubmed
    ..b>MCM2 is a member of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein family...
  6. Edwards M, Tutter A, Cvetic C, Gilbert C, Prokhorova T, Walter J. MCM2-7 complexes bind chromatin in a distributed pattern surrounding the origin recognition complex in Xenopus egg extracts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33049-57 pubmed
    The MCM2-7 complex is believed to function as the eukaryotic replicative DNA helicase...
  7. Cho W, Lee Y, Kong S, Hurwitz J, Lee J. CDC7 kinase phosphorylates serine residues adjacent to acidic amino acids in the minichromosome maintenance 2 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11521-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have mapped the sites in human Mcm2 protein that are phosphorylated by Cdc7...
  8. Werynska B, Pula B, Muszczyńska Bernhard B, Piotrowska A, Jethon A, Podhorska Okolow M, et al. Correlation between expression of metallothionein and expression of Ki-67 and MCM-2 proliferation markers in non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:2833-9 pubmed
    ..067). MT-I/II expression is evident in proliferating NSCLC neoplastic cells, pointing to the prognostic importance of parallel expression of MT-I/II and Ki-67. ..
  9. Giaginis C, Georgiadou M, Dimakopoulou K, Tsourouflis G, Gatzidou E, Kouraklis G, et al. Clinical significance of MCM-2 and MCM-5 expression in colon cancer: association with clinicopathological parameters and tumor proliferative capacity. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The current data suggest that MCM-2 protein expression is significantly associated with important clinicopathological characteristics for patients' management, being correlated with the cell proliferation state in colon cancer. ..
  10. Jasencakova Z, Scharf A, Ask K, Corpet A, Imhof A, Almouzni G, et al. Replication stress interferes with histone recycling and predeposition marking of new histones. Mol Cell. 2010;37:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..During recovery, histones stored with Asf1 are rapidly used as replication resumes. This shows that replication stress interferes with predeposition marking and histone recycling with potential impact on epigenetic stability. ..
  11. Masai H, Matsui E, You Z, Ishimi Y, Tamai K, Arai K. Human Cdc7-related kinase complex. In vitro phosphorylation of MCM by concerted actions of Cdks and Cdc7 and that of a criticial threonine residue of Cdc7 bY Cdks. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:29042-52 pubmed
    ..Among them, MCM2 protein, either in a free form or in a MCM2-4-6-7 complex, serves as an excellent substrate for huCdc7-ASK kinase ..
  12. Tsuji T, Ficarro S, Jiang W. Essential role of phosphorylation of MCM2 by Cdc7/Dbf4 in the initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4459-72 pubmed
    We report the identification of Cdc7/Dbf4 phosphorylation sites in human MCM2 and the determination of the role of Cdc7/Dbf4 phosphorylation of MCM2 in the initiation of DNA replication...
  13. Vargas P, Cheng Y, Barrett A, Craig G, Speight P. Expression of Mcm-2, Ki-67 and geminin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are warranted to assess the value of Mcm-2 as a predictor of recurrence and survival. ..
  14. Chuang L, Teixeira L, Wohlschlegel J, Henze M, Yates J, Mendez J, et al. Phosphorylation of Mcm2 by Cdc7 promotes pre-replication complex assembly during cell-cycle re-entry. Mol Cell. 2009;35:206-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The assembly of the pre-RC, which involves the loading of six MCM subunits (Mcm2-7), is a prerequisite for DNA replication...
  15. Cortez D, Glick G, Elledge S. Minichromosome maintenance proteins are direct targets of the ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10078-83 pubmed
    ..First, ATM phosphorylates MCM3 on S535 in response to ionizing radiation. Second, ATR phosphorylates MCM2 on S108 in response to multiple forms of DNA damage and stalling of replication forks...
  16. Holland L, Gauthier L, Bell Rogers P, Yankulov K. Distinct parts of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 associate with histone H3/H4 and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:5192-202 pubmed
    ..In the present study we have analyzed in detail the interaction between MCM2 and pol II holoenzyme...
  17. Tan D, Huberman J, Hyland A, Loewen G, Brooks J, Beck A, et al. MCM2--a promising marker for premalignant lesions of the lung: a cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2001;1:6 pubmed
    ..Here we compared the sensitivities of a classic proliferation marker, Ki-67, with a new proliferation marker, MCM2, in 41 bronchial biopsy specimens representing normal mucosa, metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ...
  18. Davey M, Indiani C, O Donnell M. Reconstitution of the Mcm2-7p heterohexamer, subunit arrangement, and ATP site architecture. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:4491-9 pubmed
    The Mcm2-7p heterohexamer is the presumed replicative helicase in eukaryotic cells. Each of the six subunits is required for replication...
  19. Bell S, Dutta A. DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Annu Rev Biochem. 2002;71:333-74 pubmed
    ..We emphasize recent progress in determining the function of the different replication factors once they have been assembled at the origin. ..
  20. Malaney P, Palumbo E, Semidey Hurtado J, Hardee J, Stanford K, Kathiriya J, et al. PTEN Physically Interacts with and Regulates E2F1-mediated Transcription in Lung Cancer. Cell Cycle. 2018;17:947-962 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein 1/Tripartite Motif Containing 28 MAF1 Repressor of RNA polymerase III transcription MAF1 homolog MCM2 Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2 miRNA micro RNA MTF1 Metal-Regulatory Transcription Factor 1 PARP ..
  21. Kren B, Unger G, Abedin M, Vogel R, Henzler C, Ahmed K, et al. Preclinical evaluation of cyclin dependent kinase 11 and casein kinase 2 survival kinases as RNA interference targets for triple negative breast cancer therapy. Breast Cancer Res. 2015;17:19 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA expression levels of CDC2L1, CDC2L2, CCNL1, CCNL2, CSNK2A1, CSNK2A2, and CSNK2B genes in breast cancer subtypes were analyzed...
  22. Haridoss S, Yovchev M, Schweizer H, Megherhi S, Beecher M, Locker J, et al. Activin A is a prominent autocrine regulator of hepatocyte growth arrest. Hepatol Commun. 2017;1:852-870 pubmed publisher
    ..genes (Ki-67, E2F transcription factor 1 [E2F1], minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 [Mcm2], forkhead box M1 [FoxM1]) and senescence-related genes (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B [p15..
  23. Gold N, Gowen C, Lussier F, Cautha S, Mahadevan R, Martin V. Metabolic engineering of a tyrosine-overproducing yeast platform using targeted metabolomics. Microb Cell Fact. 2015;14:73 pubmed publisher
    ..The T21E mutant of pyruvate kinase Cdc19 was hypothesized to slow the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate and accumulate the former as precursor ..
  24. Naumov A, Kratzer S, Ting L, Kim K, Suvorova E, White M. The Toxoplasma Centrocone Houses Cell Cycle Regulatory Factors. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..maintenance complex, and the loss of ECR1 led to increased stability of a key member of this complex, MCM2. ECR1 also forms a stable complex with the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-related kinase, Tgondii Crk5 ..
  25. Mai Y, Li Y, Li R, Li W, Huang X, Mo Z, et al. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the marine fish parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. Vet Parasitol. 2015;211:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..differences in molecular weights and isoelectric points; 4 proteins (vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit α, mcm2-3-5 family protein, 26S proteasome subunit P45 family protein and dnaK protein) were highly expressed only in ..
  26. Mincheva A, Todorov I, Werner D, Fink T, Lichter P. The human gene for nuclear protein BM28 (CDCL1), a new member of the early S-phase family of proteins, maps to chromosome band 3q21. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1994;65:276-7 pubmed
    ..Using total plasmid DNA containing the complete coding sequence of the BM28 gene (CDCL1, for cdc-like 1) as a probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have mapped the gene to chromosome band ..
  27. Kohzaki H, Asano M, Murakami Y. DNA replication machinery is required for development in Drosophila. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2018;23:493-505 pubmed
    ..comparing the phenotypes of RNAi knockdown and deletion or point mutants of the components of DNA licensing factor, MCM2, MCM4 and Cdt1...
  28. Zhang R, Wu J, Ferrandon S, Glowacki K, Houghton J. Targeting GLI by GANT61 involves mechanisms dependent on inhibition of both transcription and DNA licensing. Oncotarget. 2016;7:80190-80207 pubmed publisher
    ..By co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, GLI1 co-localized with the DNA licensing factors ORC4, CDT1, and MCM2. Significant co-localization of GLI1 and ORC4 was inhibited by GANT61, and enrichment of ORC4 occurred at the GLI ..
  29. Sheu Y, Kinney J, Stillman B. Concerted activities of Mcm4, Sld3, and Dbf4 in control of origin activation and DNA replication fork progression. Genome Res. 2016;26:315-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The replicative helicase Mcm2-7 functions in both initiation and fork progression and thus is an important target of regulation...
  30. Conesa Zamora P, Trujillo Santos J, Orantes Casado F, Ortiz Reina S, Torres Moreno D, Pérez Guillermo M. Analysis of performance characteristics of five cell cycle-related immunohistochemical markers and human papillomavirus genotyping in the diagnosis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma precursor lesions. Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2012;34:49-55 pubmed
    ..Use of ProEx C alone or in combination with p16 could provide useful information for SIL diagnosis. ..
  31. Quaglia A, McStay M, Stoeber K, Loddo M, Caplin M, Fanshawe T, et al. Novel markers of cell kinetics to evaluate progression from cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2006;26:424-32 pubmed
    ..Immunoperoxidase for MCM2, geminin and Ki67 was performed and the percentage of positive cells counted...
  32. Moskot M, Jakóbkiewicz Banecka J, Smolińska E, Piotrowska E, Węgrzyn G, Gabig Cimińska M. Effects of flavonoids on expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA replication in human fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;407:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..It considerably reduced the efficiency of expression of genes coding for MCM2-7 and MCM10 helicases, as well as some other proteins involved in the S phase control...
  33. Yu J, Wang R, Wu J, Dang Z, Zhang Q, Li B. Knockdown of Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins Inhibits Foci Forming of Mediator of DNA-Damage Checkpoint 1 in Response to DNA Damage in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma TE-1 Cells. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2016;81:1221-1228 pubmed
    ..b>MCM2 and MCM6 were knocked down by shRNAs, after which chromatin fraction and foci forming of MDC1 upon bleomycin-..
  34. Yu J, Liang Q, Wang J, Wang K, Gao J, Zhang J, et al. REC8 functions as a tumor suppressor and is epigenetically downregulated in gastric cancer, especially in EBV-positive subtype. Oncogene. 2017;36:182-193 pubmed publisher
    ..of REC8 is mediated at least in part by the downregulation of genes involved in cell growth (G6PD, SLC2A1, NOL3, MCM2, SNAI1 and SNAI2), and the upregulation of apoptosis/migration inhibitors (GADD45G and LDHA) and tumor suppressors (..
  35. O Donnell M, Li H. The Eukaryotic Replisome Goes Under the Microscope. Curr Biol. 2016;26:R247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent structures of eukaryotic replisome components include the Mcm2-7 complex, the CMG helicase, DNA polymerases, a Ctf4 trimer hub and the first look at a core replisome of 20 ..
  36. Sun J, Evrin C, Samel S, Fernández Cid A, Riera A, Kawakami H, et al. Cryo-EM structure of a helicase loading intermediate containing ORC-Cdc6-Cdt1-MCM2-7 bound to DNA. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:944-51 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotes, the Cdt1-bound replicative helicase core MCM2-7 is loaded onto DNA by the ORC-Cdc6 ATPase to form a prereplicative complex (pre-RC) with an MCM2-7 double hexamer encircling DNA...
  37. Nowińska K, Chmielewska M, Piotrowska A, Pula B, Pastuszewski W, Krecicki T, et al. Correlation between levels of expression of minichromosome maintenance proteins, Ki-67 proliferation antigen and metallothionein I/II in laryngeal squamous cell cancer. Int J Oncol. 2016;48:635-45 pubmed publisher
    b>MCM2, MCM3 and MCM7 are minichromosome maintenance proteins found in dividing cells and they play a role in DNA synthesis. Increased MCM expression level is observed in cells of different cancer types...
  38. Khambata Ford S, Liu Y, Gleason C, Dickson M, Altman R, Batzoglou S, et al. Identification of promoter regions in the human genome by using a retroviral plasmid library-based functional reporter gene assay. Genome Res. 2003;13:1765-74 pubmed
    ..This method promises to be a useful genome-wide function-based approach that can complement existing methods to look for promoters. ..
  39. Jin Y, Dai Z. USO1 promotes tumor progression via activating Erk pathway in multiple myeloma cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;78:264-271 pubmed publisher
    ..Before and after knockdown of USO1, the expression of the proliferation-related genes cyclin D1, Mcm2 and PCNA in MM cells was determined by qRT-PCR and western blot assay...
  40. Izumi M, Mizuno T, Yanagi K, Sugimura K, Okumura K, Imamoto N, et al. The Mcm2-7-interacting domain of human mini-chromosome maintenance 10 (Mcm10) protein is important for stable chromatin association and origin firing. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13008-13021 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified and characterized the Mcm2-7-interacting domain in human Mcm10...
  41. Abe S, Yamamoto K, Kurata M, Abe Suzuki S, Horii R, Akiyama F, et al. Targeting MCM2 function as a novel strategy for the treatment of highly malignant breast tumors. Oncotarget. 2015;6:34892-909 pubmed publisher
    Highly malignant tumors express high levels of the minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2) protein, which is associated with advanced tumor grade, advanced stage, and poor prognosis...
  42. Hizume K, Kominami H, Kobayashi K, Yamada H, Araki H. Flexible DNA Path in the MCM Double Hexamer Loaded on DNA. Biochemistry. 2017;56:2435-2445 pubmed publisher
    ..not completely pass through both holes of the MCM hexamers, possibly because the DNA exited from the gap between Mcm2 and Mcm5...
  43. Wang M, Yang Y, Jin Q, Shang L, Zhang J. Function of miR-25 in the invasion and metastasis of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells and bioinformatical analysis of the miR-106b-25 cluster. Exp Ther Med. 2018;15:440-446 pubmed publisher
    ..The PPI network revealed that PTEN, TP53, MDM2, E2F1, PRMT5, MCM2, RB1, CDKN1A, SHAD7 and EZH2 may serve core roles within the network and associate with one another during the ..
  44. Huang J, Liu S, Bellani M, Thazhathveetil A, Ling C, de Winter J, et al. The DNA translocase FANCM/MHF promotes replication traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks. Mol Cell. 2013;52:434-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that translocase-based mechanisms enable DNA synthesis to continue past ICLs and that these lesions are not always absolute blocks to replication. ..
  45. Nakatsuru S, Sudo K, Nakamura Y. Isolation and mapping of a human gene (MCM2) encoding a product homologous to yeast proteins involved in DNA replication. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;68:226-30 pubmed
    From a human fetal-lung cDNA library, we isolated a gene, human MCM2, whose nucleotide sequence predicts a protein product homologous to the yeast nuclear proteins MCM2, MCM3, CDC21, and CDC46...
  46. Saade E, Mechold U, Kulyyassov A, Vertut D, Lipinski M, Ogryzko V. Analysis of interaction partners of H4 histone by a new proteomics approach. Proteomics. 2009;9:4934-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we report all components of the licensing MCM2-7 complex and the apoptosis-related DAXX protein among the interaction partners of the soluble H4...
  47. Kusunoki S, Ishimi Y. Interaction of human minichromosome maintenance protein-binding protein with minichromosome maintenance 2-7. FEBS J. 2014;281:1057-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the interaction of human MCM-BP with MCM2-7 and structural maintenance of chromosome 3 in synchronized HeLa cells by immunoprecipitation...
  48. Riera A, Barbon M, Noguchi Y, Reuter L, Schneider S, Speck C. From structure to mechanism-understanding initiation of DNA replication. Genes Dev. 2017;31:1073-1088 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus on the minichromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) proteins, which form the core of the eukaryotic replication fork, as this complex undergoes major structural ..
  49. Tian L, Liu J, Xia G, Chen B. RNAi-mediated knockdown of MCM7 gene on CML cells and its therapeutic potential for leukemia. Med Oncol. 2017;34:21 pubmed publisher
    MCM7 is one of the subunits of MCM2-7 complex, which is essential to DNA replication licensing and the control of cell cycle progression...
  50. Vijayraghavan S, Tsai F, Schwacha A. A Checkpoint-Related Function of the MCM Replicative Helicase Is Required to Avert Accumulation of RNA:DNA Hybrids during S-phase and Ensuing DSBs during G2/M. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006277 pubmed publisher
    The Mcm2-7 complex is the catalytic core of the eukaryotic replicative helicase. Here, we identify a new role for this complex in maintaining genome integrity...
  51. Marnerides A, Vassilakopoulos T, Boltetsou E, Levidou G, Angelopoulou M, Thymara I, et al. Immunohistochemical expression and prognostic significance of CCND3, MCM2 and MCM7 in Hodgkin lymhoma. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:3585-94 pubmed
    ..Lymph node sections from 138 HL patients were immunohistochemically stained for cyclin D3 (CCND3), MCM2 and MCM7 aiming to investigate clinical outcome...
  52. Jenson E, Baker M, Paydarfar J, Gosselin B, Li Z, Black C. MCM2/TOP2A (ProExC) immunohistochemistry as a predictive marker in head and neck mucosal biopsies. Pathol Res Pract. 2014;210:346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A cocktail of antibodies targeted against DNA topoisomerase IIA and mini-chromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2/TOP2A, ProExC), markers of aberrant S-phase induction, have been used with success as a diagnostic adjunct in the ..
  53. Alver R, Zhang T, Josephrajan A, Fultz B, Hendrix C, Das Bradoo S, et al. The N-terminus of Mcm10 is important for interaction with the 9-1-1 clamp and in resistance to DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:8389-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the details of the precise role of Mcm10 in DNA replication are still debated, it interacts with the Mcm2-7 core helicase, the lagging strand polymerase, DNA polymerase-α and the replication clamp, proliferating cell ..
  54. Chadha G, Gambus A, Gillespie P, Blow J. Xenopus Mcm10 is a CDK-substrate required for replication fork stability. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:2183-2195 pubmed
    During S phase, following activation of the S phase CDKs and the DBF4-dependent kinases (DDK), double hexamers of Mcm2-7 at licensed replication origins are activated to form the core replicative helicase...
  55. Botti G, Malzone M, La Mantia E, Montanari M, Vanacore D, Rossetti S, et al. ProEx C as Diagnostic Marker for Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma in Urinary Samples: A Review. Int J Med Sci. 2017;14:554-559 pubmed publisher
    ..cocktail containing antibodies direct against topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) and minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2) proteins...
  56. Ishimi Y, Ichinose S, Omori A, Sato K, Kimura H. Binding of human minichromosome maintenance proteins with histone H3. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:24115-22 pubmed
    ..We detected in HeLa cell extracts six proteins, CDC47, CDC46/MCM5, Cdc21, P1/MCM3, Mis5, and BM28/MCM2, by their binding to a specific antibody and by partial sequencing...
  57. Teer J, Dutta A. Human Cdt1 lacking the evolutionarily conserved region that interacts with MCM2-7 is capable of inducing re-replication. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6817-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the requirement of Cdt1 in loading MCM2-7 is known, the mechanism by which overexpressed Cdt1 stimulates re-replication is unclear...
  58. Reynolds J, Bicknell L, Carroll P, Higgs M, Shaheen R, Murray J, et al. Mutations in DONSON disrupt replication fork stability and cause microcephalic dwarfism. Nat Genet. 2017;49:537-549 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have identified mutations in DONSON as a common cause of microcephalic dwarfism and established DONSON as a critical replication fork protein required for mammalian DNA replication and genome stability. ..
  59. Lian M, Fang J, Han D, Ma H, Feng L, Wang R, et al. Microarray gene expression analysis of tumorigenesis and regional lymph node metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e84854 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the six genes (CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4) were most frequently differently expressed functional genes related to tumorigenesis while eIF3a and ..
  60. Huang H, Strømme C, Saredi G, Hödl M, Strandsby A, González Aguilera C, et al. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2015;22:618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, chaperones histones H3-H4...
  61. Warner M, Azmi I, Kang S, Zhao Y, Bell S. Replication origin-flanking roadblocks reveal origin-licensing dynamics and altered sequence dependence. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:21417-21430 pubmed publisher
    ..are selected by origin licensing, during which the core enzyme of the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase, the Mcm2-7 (minichromosome maintenance) complex, is loaded at each origin...
  62. Liu Y, Wang B, Jiang Y, Cao J, Hao J, Zhang Y, et al. MCMs expression in lung cancer: implication of prognostic significance. J Cancer. 2017;8:3641-3647 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the expression of MCM2, MCM5 and MCM6 immunohistochemically in 571 primary NSCLC samples...
  63. Cheng D, Zhang H, Yuan J, Li S, Yang Q, Fan C. Minichromosome maintenance protein 2 and 3 promote osteosarcoma progression via DHX9 and predict poor patient prognosis. Oncotarget. 2017;8:26380-26393 pubmed publisher
    ..By functional screening, minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and minichromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3) were found to be related to osteosarcoma cell growth...
  64. Liu F, Yuan J, Huang J, Yang F, Wang T, Ma J, et al. Long noncoding RNA FTX inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and metastasis by binding MCM2 and miR-374a. Oncogene. 2016;35:5422-5434 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, lnc-FTX binds to the DNA replication licensing factor MCM2, thereby impeding DNA replication and inhibiting proliferation in HCC cells...
  65. Zheng J. Diagnostic value of MCM2 immunocytochemical staining in cervical lesions and its relationship with HPV infection. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:875-80 pubmed
    ..The expression level of MCM2 was positively correlated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus...
  66. Li W, Huang C, Ke H, Li C, Wei Y, Yeh H, et al. MCM10 overexpression implicates adverse prognosis in urothelial carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:77777-77792 pubmed publisher
    ..of a published transcriptome of UBUC (GSE31684), we identified Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2 (MCM2) and MCM10 as the two most significantly upregulated genes in UC progression among the MCM gene family, the key ..
  67. Salim D, Bradford W, Freeland A, Cady G, Wang J, Pruitt S, et al. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007006 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats...
  68. Wang Y, Li Y, Zhang W, Xia Q, Li H, Wang R, et al. mRNA expression of minichromosome maintenance 2 in colonic adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009;18:40-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we aimed to evaluate the possible value of a proliferation marker, minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2), in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, by analyzing the difference in MCM2 expression among normal mucosa, ..
  69. Liaw K, Boyd A. MCM 2 Expression in Basal Cell Carcinomas and Trichoepitheliomas. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:1121-2 pubmed publisher
  70. Shi J, Liu H, Wilkerson M, Huang Y, Meschter S, Dupree W, et al. Evaluation of p16INK4a, minichromosome maintenance protein 2, DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, ProEX C, and p16INK4a/ProEX C in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1335-44 pubmed
    ..Other cell-cycle regulators, such as minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2), DNA topoisomerase IIalpha (TOP IIA), and ProE(X) C (a cocktail of MCM2 and TOP IIA), have also demonstrated some ..
  71. Wojnar A, Kobierzycki C, Krolicka A, Pula B, Podhorska Okolow M, Dziegiel P. Correlation of Ki-67 and MCM-2 proliferative marker expression with grade of histological malignancy (G) in ductal breast cancers. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2010;48:442-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05) or G2 grade (p<0.01). The results obtained in our study suggest that MCM-2 could be used as a marker of proliferation in breast carcinomas. ..
  72. Lau K, Chan Q, Pang J, Li K, Yeung W, Chung N, et al. Minichromosome maintenance proteins 2, 3 and 7 in medulloblastoma: overexpression and involvement in regulation of cell migration and invasion. Oncogene. 2010;29:5475-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we showed the frequent deregulation of MCM2 and MCM3 expression in 7 MB cell lines and 31 clinical samples...
  73. Shukla A, Navadgi V, Mallikarjuna K, Rao B. Interaction of hRad51 and hRad52 with MCM complex: a cross-talk between recombination and replication proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:1240-5 pubmed
    ..the same where hRad51 and hRad52 proteins not only cross-talk with each other but also pull down MCM3 and MCM2/3 proteins, respectively...
  74. Saad S, Cereghetti G, Feng Y, Picotti P, Peter M, Dechant R. Reversible protein aggregation is a protective mechanism to ensure cell cycle restart after stress. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:1202-1213 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize stress-induced, reversible aggregation of yeast pyruvate kinase, Cdc19. Aggregation of Cdc19 is regulated by oligomerization and binding to allosteric regulators...
  75. Chen Y, Jones M, Yin Y, Crist S, Colnaghi L, Sims R, et al. ATR-mediated phosphorylation of FANCI regulates dormant origin firing in response to replication stress. Mol Cell. 2015;58:323-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a unique role for FANCI as a modulator of dormant origin firing and link timely genome replication to DNA repair. ..
  76. Ghazy S, Helmy I, Baghdadi H. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:89 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis.
  77. Burke T, Cook J, Asano M, Nevins J. Replication factors MCM2 and ORC1 interact with the histone acetyltransferase HBO1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:15397-408 pubmed
    ..We used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify MCM2-interacting proteins. One of the proteins we identified is identical to the ORC1-interacting protein termed HBO1...
  78. Zhai Y, Li N, Jiang H, Huang X, Gao N, Tye B. Unique Roles of the Non-identical MCM Subunits in DNA Replication Licensing. Mol Cell. 2017;67:168-179 pubmed publisher
    A family of six homologous subunits, Mcm2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -7, each with its own unique features, forms the catalytic core of the eukaryotic replicative helicase...
  79. You Z, Komamura Y, Ishimi Y. Biochemical analysis of the intrinsic Mcm4-Mcm6-mcm7 DNA helicase activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:8003-15 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have expressed and isolated the mouse Mcm2, 4,6,7 proteins from insect cells and characterized various mutant Mcm4,6,7 complexes in which the conserved ATPase ..
  80. Clarke C, Clarke P. DNA-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 and Claspin in a human cell-free system. Biochem J. 2005;388:705-12 pubmed
    ..This cell-free system will facilitate further biochemical analysis of the Chk1 pathway in humans. ..
  81. Yabuta N, Kajimura N, Mayanagi K, Sato M, Gotow T, Uchiyama Y, et al. Mammalian Mcm2/4/6/7 complex forms a toroidal structure. Genes Cells. 2003;8:413-21 pubmed
    The Mcm proteins are a family of six homologous proteins (Mcm2-7) that play an important role in DNA replication. They form Mcm4/6/7 and Mcm2/4/6/7 complexes, but their structures are not known...
  82. Keyomarsi K. A novel MCM-2 fragment with potential biological function in senescence. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:3480 pubmed
  83. Duro E, Lundin C, Ask K, Sanchez Pulido L, MacArtney T, Toth R, et al. Identification of the MMS22L-TONSL complex that promotes homologous recombination. Mol Cell. 2010;40:632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, MMS22L and TONSL are required for the maintenance of genome stability when unscheduled DSBs occur in the vicinity of DNA replication forks. ..
  84. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Nagaya S, Tateyama H. Cell proliferation marker MCM2, but not Ki67, is helpful for distinguishing between minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid. Histopathology. 2006;48:801-7 pubmed
    To compare cell proliferation markers, minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and Ki67, in minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) and follicular adenoma (FA) of the thyroid and among MIFCs with different diagnostic criteria...
  85. Cucco F, Palumbo E, Camerini S, D Alessio B, Quarantotti V, Casella M, et al. Separase prevents genomic instability by controlling replication fork speed. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Separase interacted with the replication licensing factors MCM2-7, and genome-wide data showed that Separase co-localized with MCM complex and cohesin...
  86. Wu D, Shi J, Liu T, Deng S, Han R, Xu Y. Integrated analysis reveals down-regulation of SPARCL1 is correlated with cervical cancer development and progression. Cancer Biomark. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..that appear to be involved in cervical cancer development: SPARCL1, SYCP2, KIF4A, PRC1, TOP2A, LAMP3, KIF20A, MCM2, and APOBEC3B...
  87. Izumi M, Yanagi K, Mizuno T, Yokoi M, Kawasaki Y, Moon K, et al. The human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm10 interacts with replication factors and dissociates from nuclease-resistant nuclear structures in G(2) phase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:4769-77 pubmed
    ..Mcm10 is a nuclear protein that is localized to replication origins and mediates the interaction of the Mcm2-7 complex with replication origins...
  88. Fortuna D, Boman B, O Neill R, Palazzo J. MCM2 expression in serrated polyps demonstrates aberrant cellular proliferation. Hum Pathol. 2017;63:177-183 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to investigate the proliferative compartment of serrated polyps (SPs) using MCM2, a protein involved in DNA replication, and assess for changes along the SP spectrum...
  89. Fujioka S, Shomori K, Nishihara K, Yamaga K, Nosaka K, Araki K, et al. Expression of minichromosome maintenance 7 (MCM7) in small lung adenocarcinomas (pT1): Prognostic implication. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry was conducted to obtain labeling indices (LIs%) for MCM7, MCM2 and Ki-67 in 100 surgically removed pT1 ACs...