Gene Symbol: MAPK13
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 13
Alias: MAPK 13, MAPK-13, PRKM13, SAPK4, p38delta, mitogen-activated protein kinase 13, MAP kinase 13, MAP kinase p38 delta, mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 delta, stress-activated protein kinase 4
Species: human
Products:     MAPK13

Top Publications

  1. Efimova T, Broome A, Eckert R. Protein kinase Cdelta regulates keratinocyte death and survival by regulating activity and subcellular localization of a p38delta-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:8167-83 pubmed
    ..This study implicates p38delta mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as a downstream carrier of the PKCdelta-dependent death signal...
  2. Jiang Y, Gram H, Zhao M, New L, Gu J, Feng L, et al. Characterization of the structure and function of the fourth member of p38 group mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38delta. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:30122-8 pubmed
    We have cloned and characterized a new member of the p38 group of mitogen-activated protein kinases here termed p38delta. Sequence comparisons revealed that p38delta is approximately 60% identical to the other three p38 isoforms but only ..
  3. Gangwani M, Noel R, Shah A, Rivera Amill V, Kumar A. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces CCL5 expression in astrocytes via PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:136 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this effect was observed to be mediated by transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1 and involved the p38-MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathway. ..
  4. Hale K, Trollinger D, Rihanek M, Manthey C. Differential expression and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase alpha, beta, gamma, and delta in inflammatory cell lineages. J Immunol. 1999;162:4246-52 pubmed
    ..p38alpha was the dominant form of p38 in monocytes; expression of p38delta was low and p38beta was undetected...
  5. Nookala A, Shah A, Noel R, Kumar A. HIV-1 Tat-mediated induction of CCL5 in astrocytes involves NF-?B, AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? transcription factors and JAK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78855 pubmed publisher
    ..This was further confirmed at transcriptional level that AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? were involved in CCL5 up-regulation. ..
  6. Efimova T, Broome A, Eckert R. A regulatory role for p38 delta MAPK in keratinocyte differentiation. Evidence for p38 delta-ERK1/2 complex formation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:34277-85 pubmed
    ..These unique observations suggest that p38 delta is the major p38 isoform driving suprabasal hINV gene expression and that p38 delta directly regulates ERK1/2 activity via formation of a p38 delta-ERK1/2 complex. ..
  7. Joo J, Lee Y, Song S. OsbZIP42 is a positive regulator of ABA signaling and confers drought tolerance to rice. Planta. 2019;249:1521-1533 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of OsbZIP42 depends on stress-/ABA-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4) and an additional ABA-dependent modification of OsbZIP42...
  8. Anitha A, Nakamura K, Thanseem I, Matsuzaki H, Miyachi T, Tsujii M, et al. Downregulation of the expression of mitochondrial electron transport complex genes in autism brains. Brain Pathol. 2013;23:294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon silencing ATP5A1, the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK13), a p38 MAPK responsive to stress stimuli, was upregulated in HEK 293 cells...
  9. del Reino P, Alsina Beauchamp D, Escós A, Cerezo Guisado M, Risco A, Aparicio N, et al. Pro-oncogenic role of alternative p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases p38γ and p38δ, linking inflammation and cancer in colitis-associated colon cancer. Cancer Res. 2014;74:6150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The related p38αMAPK (MAPK14) proteins p38γ (MAPK12) and p38δ (MAPK13) were recently shown to modulate the immune response, although their role in tumorigenesis remains controversial ..

More Information


  1. Zheng L, Hu Y, Zhao X, Yin L, Xu L, Qi Y, et al. Dioscin ameliorates intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury via adjusting miR-351-5p/MAPK13-mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Pharmacol Res. 2019;139:431-439 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistic studies indicated that dioscin notably up-regulated the expression level of MAPK13 through decreasing miR-351-5p level, and thereby decreased the expression levels of p-PKD1, NF-κB, Apaf-1, ..
  2. Panossian A, Seo E, Efferth T. Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology. Phytomedicine. 2018;50:257-284 pubmed publisher
    ..channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), ..
  3. Kwon E, Choi M. Luteolin Targets the Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in Prevention of Hepatic and Adipocyte Fibrosis and Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..A positive relationship was detected between gene expressions of Tlr5, Map2k7, Mapk12, Mapk13, and Mapk9 and lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) of luteolin-treated mice, which ..
  4. Tili E, Mezache L, Michaille J, Amann V, Williams J, Vandiver P, et al. microRNA 155 up regulation in the CNS is strongly correlated to Down's syndrome dementia. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018;34:103-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Alzheimer's disease but lacking in Down's dementia brains included BACH1, CoREST1, bcl6, BIM, bcl10, cyclin D, and SAPK4. It is concluded that Down's dementia strongly correlated with overexpression of chromosome 21 microRNA 155 with ..
  5. Tang S, Dai Y. RNA sequencing reveals significant miRNAs in Atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018;225:129-135 pubmed publisher
    ..that total 12 genes were among top 20 genes based on three network topological features including BCL2, UMPS, MAPK13, PRKCB, CREB1, IGF1, SP1, SMAD3, IGF1R, NOTCH2, WNT5A, TK2...
  6. Nimmo E, Prendergast J, Aldhous M, Kennedy N, Henderson P, Drummond H, et al. Genome-wide methylation profiling in Crohn's disease identifies altered epigenetic regulation of key host defense mechanisms including the Th17 pathway. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:889-99 pubmed publisher
    ..0006), including genes altering immune activation: MAPK13, FASLG, PRF1, S100A13, RIPK3, and IL-21R...
  7. Yamaguchi R, Yamamoto T, Sakamoto A, Ishimaru Y, Narahara S, Sugiuchi H, et al. Mechanism of interleukin-13 production by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2015;55:21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither SB203580 (a p38alpha/p38beta inhibitor) nor BIRB796 (a p38gamma/p38delta inhibitor) affected IL-13 production, while TMB-8 (a calcium chelator) diminished IL-13 production...
  8. Zhang C, Gao J, Li M, Deng Y, Jiang C. p38? MAPK regulates aggresome biogenesis by phosphorylating SQSTM1 in response to proteasomal stress. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    ..Two of them, p38? (MAPK12) and p38? (MAPK13), are dispensable for micro-aggregate formation but are required for their targeting to the MTOC...
  9. Liu Q, Zou R, Zhou R, Gong C, Wang Z, Cai T, et al. miR-155 Regulates Glioma Cells Invasion and Chemosensitivity by p38 Isforms In Vitro. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116:1213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..cells to the chemotherapy of temozolomide (TMZ) by targeting the p38 isoforms mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 [MAPK13, also known as p38 MAPKδ or stress-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4)] and MAPK14 (also known as p38 MAPKα)...
  10. Yamaguchi R, Kawata J, Yamamoto T, Ishimaru Y, Sakamoto A, Ono T, et al. Mechanism of interferon-gamma production by monocytes stimulated with myeloperoxidase and neutrophil extracellular traps. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2015;55:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, a combined p38gamma and p38delta inhibitor (BIRB796) significantly decreased IFN-gamma production...
  11. Ryan Z, Craig T, Folmes C, Wang X, Lanza I, Schaible N, et al. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Dynamics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:1514-28 pubmed publisher
    ..MYC, MAPK13, and EPAS1 mRNAs, which encode proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, were increased following 1α,25(..
  12. Yurtsever Z, Patel D, Kober D, Su A, Miller C, Romero A, et al. First comprehensive structural and biophysical analysis of MAPK13 inhibitors targeting DFG-in and DFG-out binding modes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1860:2335-2344 pubmed publisher
    ..on the ubiquitously expressed family member MAPK14 (p38α), recent studies indicate that family members such as MAPK13 (p38δ) display a more selective cellular and tissue expression and might therefore represent a specific kinase to ..
  13. O Callaghan C, Fanning L, Barry O. Hypermethylation of MAPK13 Promoter in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Associated with Loss of p38δ MAPK Expression. Cancers (Basel). 2015;7:2124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We did not identify any mutations in the MAPK13 sequence in OESCC cell lines which lack p38δ MAPK expression...
  14. Frank S, Berger P, Ljungman M, Miranti C. Human prostate luminal cell differentiation requires NOTCH3 induction by p38-MAPK and MYC. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:1952-1964 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition (SB202190 and BIRB796) or knockdown of p38α (also known as MAPK14) and/or p38δ (also known as MAPK13) prevented proper differentiation...
  15. Umasuthan N, Bathige S, Noh J, Lee J. Gene structure, molecular characterization and transcriptional expression of two p38 isoforms (MAPK11 and MAPK14) from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;47:331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..p38 subfamily that includes four members namely p38α (MAPK14), p38β (MAPK11), p38γ (MAPK12) and p38δ (MAPK13), regulates the activation of several transcription factors...
  16. Moïse N, Dingar D, Mamarbachi A, Villeneuve L, Farhat N, Gaestel M, et al. Characterization of a novel MK3 splice variant from murine ventricular myocardium. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, GST-MK3.1 was strongly phosphorylated by p38alpha and p38beta, but a poor substrate for p38delta and p38gamma. GST-MK3...
  17. Liu X, Kumar A. Differential signaling mechanism for HIV-1 Nef-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in human astrocytes. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9867 pubmed publisher
    ..These results offer new potential targets to develop therapeutic strategy for treatment of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders, prevalent in > 40% of individuals infected with HIV-1. ..
  18. Efimova T. p38delta mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates skin homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:498-05 pubmed
    The p38delta mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is abundantly expressed in a wide array of tissues where it is likely to have specific functions...
  19. Cavallini A, Brewerton S, Bell A, Sargent S, Glover S, Hardy C, et al. An unbiased approach to identifying tau kinases that phosphorylate tau at sites associated with Alzheimer disease. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23331-47 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK3?, GSK3?, and MAPK13 were found to be the most active tau kinases, phosphorylating tau at all four epitopes...
  20. Liu X, Shah A, Gangwani M, Silverstein P, Fu M, Kumar A. HIV-1 Nef induces CCL5 production in astrocytes through p38-MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathway and utilizes NF-kB, CEBP and AP-1 transcription factors. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4450 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, along with the transcription factors NF-?B, CEBP, and AP-1, are involved in Nef-induced CCL5 production in astrocytes. ..
  21. Plun Favreau H, Klupsch K, Moisoi N, Gandhi S, Kjaer S, Frith D, et al. The mitochondrial protease HtrA2 is regulated by Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1243-52 pubmed
    ..We suggest that PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of HtrA2 might modulate its proteolytic activity, thereby contributing to an increased resistance of cells to mitochondrial stress. ..
  22. Kim S, Zhang Z, Hitomi E, Lee Y, Mukherjee A. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced caspase-4 activation mediates apoptosis and neurodegeneration in INCL. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1826-34 pubmed
    ..Our results provide insight into at least one of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in INCL and may allow the identification of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  23. Liu X, Ma B, Malik A, Tang H, Yang T, Sun B, et al. Bidirectional regulation of neutrophil migration by mitogen-activated protein kinases. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the dynamic balance between Erk and p38 controlled neutrophil 'stop' and 'go' activity, which ensured that neutrophils reached their final destination as the first line of host defense. ..
  24. Kumar S, McDonnell P, Gum R, Hand A, Lee J, Young P. Novel homologues of CSBP/p38 MAP kinase: activation, substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibition by pyridinyl imidazoles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;235:533-8 pubmed
    A novel homologue of p38 MAP kinase, called SAPK4, has been cloned which shares 61% amino acid identity with p38 and is expressed predominantly in testes, pancreas and small intestine...
  25. Coulthard L, Taylor J, Eyre S, Robinson J, Wilson A, Isaacs J, et al. Genetic variants within the MAP kinase signalling network and anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:98-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Validation of these findings in independent cohorts is warranted. ..
  26. Joneson T, Bar Sagi D. Ras effectors and their role in mitogenesis and oncogenesis. J Mol Med (Berl). 1997;75:587-93 pubmed
    ..The relative contribution of the different Ras effector pathways to the mitogenic and oncogenic effects of Ras are discussed. ..
  27. An Y, Wang S, Li S, Zhang L, Wang D, Wang H, et al. Distinct molecular subtypes of uterine leiomyosarcoma respond differently to chemotherapy treatment. BMC Cancer. 2017;17:639 pubmed publisher
    ..of genes involved in the pathway of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis, such as CDK6, MAPK13 and HOXA1. We identified two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS responding differently to chemotherapy treatment...
  28. Gao L, Smit M, van den Oord J, Goeman J, Verdegaal E, van der Burg S, et al. Genome-wide promoter methylation analysis identifies epigenetic silencing of MAPK13 in primary cutaneous melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013;26:542-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Highly recurrent methylation of the HOXA9, MAPK13, CDH11, PLEKHG6, PPP1R3C, and CLDN11 genes was established...
  29. O Callaghan C, Fanning L, Houston A, Barry O. Loss of p38δ mitogen-activated protein kinase expression promotes oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that p38δ and p-p38δ have a role in the suppression of OESCC. Our research may provide a new potential target for the treatment of oesophageal cancer. ..
  30. Sumara G, Formentini I, Collins S, Sumara I, Windak R, Bodenmiller B, et al. Regulation of PKD by the MAPK p38delta in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Cell. 2009;136:235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mice lacking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38delta display improved glucose tolerance due to enhanced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells...
  31. Linares J, Duran A, Reina Campos M, Aza Blanc P, Campos A, Moscat J, et al. Amino Acid Activation of mTORC1 by a PB1-Domain-Driven Kinase Complex Cascade. Cell Rep. 2015;12:1339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of human prostate cancer samples showed upregulation of these three components of the pathway, which correlated with enhanced mTORC1 activation. ..
  32. Knebel A, Haydon C, Morrice N, Cohen P. Stress-induced regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase by SB 203580-sensitive and -insensitive pathways. Biochem J. 2002;367:525-32 pubmed
    ..Previous work showed that stress-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4, also called p38delta) inhibits eEF2 kinase in vitro by phosphorylating Ser-359, while ribosomal protein S6 kinases inhibit eEF2 kinase ..
  33. Zhou X, Ferraris J, Dmitrieva N, Liu Y, Burg M. MKP-1 inhibits high NaCl-induced activation of p38 but does not inhibit the activation of TonEBP/OREBP: opposite roles of p38alpha and p38delta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This paradox is explained by opposing effects of p38alpha and p38delta, both of which are activated by high NaCl and inhibited by MKP-1...
  34. Zhang J, Harrison J, Studzinski G. Isoforms of p38MAPK gamma and delta contribute to differentiation of human AML cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D?. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This activation may result from the removal of feedback inhibition of an upstream regulator of those pathways, when p38MAPK alpha and beta are inhibited by SB. ..
  35. Goedert M, Hasegawa M, Jakes R, Lawler S, Cuenda A, Cohen P. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau by stress-activated protein kinases. FEBS Lett. 1997;409:57-62 pubmed
    ..called p38, RK, CSBPs, Mpk2 and Mxi2), SAPK2b (also called p38beta), SAPK3 (also called ERK6 and p38gamma) and SAPK4 phosphorylate tau at many serine/threonine-prolines, as assessed by the generation of the epitopes of ..
  36. Chan Hui P, Weaver R. Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Biochem J. 1998;336 ( Pt 3):599-609 pubmed
    ..Differences in the reported functional activities of the three kinases are discussed. ..
  37. Xie H, Wang W, Sun F, Deng K, Lu X, Liu H, et al. Proteomics analysis to reveal biological pathways and predictive proteins in the survival of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9896 pubmed publisher
    ..900). A panel of three proteins, namely EIF2B1, PRPS1L1 and MAPK13 were selected as potential predictive proteins and the risk score consisting of these three proteins has ..
  38. Wada M, Canals D, Adada M, Coant N, Salama M, Helke K, et al. P38 delta MAPK promotes breast cancer progression and lung metastasis by enhancing cell proliferation and cell detachment. Oncogene. 2017;36:6649-6657 pubmed publisher
    ..This study proposes MAPK p38δ protein as a key factor in breast cancer. Lack of p38δ resulted in reduced primary tumor size and blocked the metastatic potential to the lungs. ..
  39. Hu M, Wang Y, Mikhail A, Qiu W, Tan T. Murine p38-delta mitogen-activated protein kinase, a developmentally regulated protein kinase that is activated by stress and proinflammatory cytokines. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7095-102 pubmed
    ..Moreover, p38-delta is activated by environmental stress, extracellular stimulants, and MAPK kinase-3, -4, -6, and -7, suggesting that p38-delta is a unique stress-responsive protein kinase. ..
  40. Duyndam M, Hulscher S, van der Wall E, Pinedo H, Boven E. Evidence for a role of p38 kinase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1-independent induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by sodium arsenite. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6885-95 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data suggest that not HIF-1, but rather p38, mediates induction of VEGF mRNA expression by sodium arsenite. ..
  41. Saha K, Adhikary G, Kanade S, Rorke E, Eckert R. p38? regulates p53 to control p21Cip1 expression in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:11443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PKC? activates a MEKK1/MEK3/p38? MAPK cascade to increase p53 levels and p53 drives p21(Cip1) gene expression. ..
  42. Goedert M, Cuenda A, Craxton M, Jakes R, Cohen P. Activation of the novel stress-activated protein kinase SAPK4 by cytokines and cellular stresses is mediated by SKK3 (MKK6); comparison of its substrate specificity with that of other SAP kinases. EMBO J. 1997;16:3563-71 pubmed
    A cDNA was cloned that encodes human stress-activated protein kinase-4 (SAPK4), a novel MAP kinase family member whose amino acid sequence is approximately 60% identical to that of the other three SAP kinases which contain a TGY motif in ..
  43. Wang X, Diener K, Manthey C, Wang S, Rosenzweig B, Bray J, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:23668-74 pubmed
    ..The novel kinase, p38delta, has a nucleotide sequence encoding a protein of 365 amino acids with a putative TGY dual phosphorylation motif...
  44. Kudoh A, Takahama S, Sawasaki T, Ode H, Yokoyama M, Okayama A, et al. The phosphorylation of HIV-1 Gag by atypical protein kinase C facilitates viral infectivity by promoting Vpr incorporation into virions. Retrovirology. 2014;11:9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, aPKC inhibition efficiently suppresses HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages. aPKC may therefore be an intriguing therapeutic target for HIV-1 infection. ..
  45. Ozawa S, Ito S, Kato Y, Kubota E, Hata R. Human p38 delta MAP kinase mediates UV irradiation induced up-regulation of the gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:1060-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data indicate that the respective stress-dependent action of p38 isoforms is responsible for the up-regulation of the gene expression of the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14. ..
  46. Wang W, Li H, Zhao Z, Wang H, Zhang D, Zhang Y, et al. The pathogenesis shared between abdominal aortic aneurysms and intracranial aneurysms: a microarray analysis. Neurosurg Rev. 2018;41:667-674 pubmed publisher
    ..The further protein-protein analysis identified 35 hub nodes, including TNF, IL6, MAPK13, and CCL5...
  47. Schoorlemmer J, Goldfarb M. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors are intracellular signaling proteins. Curr Biol. 2001;11:793-7 pubmed
    ..Hence, FHFs are intracellular components of a tissue-specific protein kinase signaling module. ..
  48. González Terán B, Matesanz N, Nikolic I, Verdugo M, Sreeramkumar V, Hernández Cosido L, et al. p38γ and p38δ reprogram liver metabolism by modulating neutrophil infiltration. EMBO J. 2016;35:536-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, p38γ and p38δ in myeloid cells provide a potential target for NAFLD therapy. ..
  49. Yasuda K, Hirohashi Y, Kuroda T, Takaya A, Kubo T, Kanaseki T, et al. MAPK13 is preferentially expressed in gynecological cancer stem cells and has a role in the tumor-initiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;472:643-7 pubmed publisher
    ..profiles of gynecological CSCs/CICs isolated as aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDH(high)) cells, and found that MAPK13, PTTG1IP, CAPN1 and UBQLN2 were preferentially expressed in CSCs/CICs...
  50. Rajamäki K, Mäyränpää M, Risco A, Tuimala J, Nurmi K, Cuenda A, et al. p38? MAPK: A Novel Regulator of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation With Increased Expression in Coronary Atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase was identified as a novel regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in primary human macrophages, and thus, represents a potential target for modulation of atherosclerotic inflammation. ..
  51. Kanade S, Eckert R. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) signaling suppresses protein kinase C?- and p38?-dependent signaling and keratinocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicate antagonism between the PKC? and PRMT5 signaling in control of keratinocyte differentiation. ..
  52. Eyers C, McNeill H, Knebel A, Morrice N, Arthur S, Cuenda A, et al. The phosphorylation of CapZ-interacting protein (CapZIP) by stress-activated protein kinases triggers its dissociation from CapZ. Biochem J. 2005;389:127-35 pubmed SB 203580 and/or PD 184352, or in splenocytes from mice that do not express either SAPK3/p38gamma or SAPK4/p38delta. Our results suggest that CapZIP may be phosphorylated by JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), which phosphorylates ..
  53. Hawkes W, Alkan Z. Delayed cell cycle progression in selenoprotein W-depleted cells is regulated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-p38/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-p53 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:27371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that SEPW1 silencing increases MKK4, which activates p38?, p38?, and JNK2 to phosphorylate p53 on Ser-33 and cause a transient G(1) arrest. ..
  54. Tan F, Ooi A, Huang D, Wong J, Qian C, Chao C, et al. p38delta/MAPK13 as a diagnostic marker for cholangiocarcinoma and its involvement in cell motility and invasion. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have identified a p38 MAP kinase, p38delta (also known as MAPK13 or SAPK4) as a protein that is upregulated in CC relative to HCC and to normal biliary ..
  55. Kitatani K, Sheldon K, Anelli V, Jenkins R, Sun Y, Grabowski G, et al. Acid beta-glucosidase 1 counteracts p38delta-dependent induction of interleukin-6: possible role for ceramide as an anti-inflammatory lipid. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12979-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Reciprocally, p38delta overexpression induced IL-6 biosynthesis...
  56. Kwong J, Chen M, Lv D, Luo N, Su W, Xiang R, et al. Induction of p38? expression plays an essential role in oncogenic ras-induced senescence. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3780-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these studies identify the AP-1 and Ets transcription factors as novel signaling components in the senescence-inducing pathway. ..
  57. Gutierrez Sanmartin D, Varela Ledo E, Aguilera A, Romero Yuste S, Romero Jung P, Gomez Tato A, et al. Implication of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) in CD4+ T-cell infection with human immunodeficiency virus type I. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..implication of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) isoforms (p38alpha, p38beta, p38gamma and p38delta) during apoptosis induced by HIV-1, taking into account that HIV-1 replication is known to be blocked by p38 ..
  58. Gangwani M, Kumar A. Multiple Protein Kinases via Activation of Transcription Factors NF-κB, AP-1 and C/EBP-δ Regulate the IL-6/IL-8 Production by HIV-1 Vpr in Astrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135633 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the molecular pathways involved in the HIV-1 neuroinflammation would be helpful in the design of adjunct therapy to ameliorate some of the symptoms associated with HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. ..
  59. Schoorlemmer J, Goldfarb M. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors and the islet brain-2 scaffold protein regulate activation of a stress-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49111-9 pubmed
    ..FHF binding to IB2 facilitates recruitment of the MAPK p38delta (SAPK4), while failing to stimulate binding of JNK, the preferred kinase of the related scaffold IB1 (JIP-1)...
  60. Herbison C, Sayer D, Bellgard M, Allcock R, Christiansen F, Price P. Structure and polymorphism of two stress-activated protein kinase genes centromeric of the MHC: SAPK2a and SAPK4. DNA Seq. 1999;10:229-43 pubmed
    ..genes are potent determinants of susceptibility to immunopathological diseases, the mapping of SAPK2a (CSBP) and SAPK4 to chromosome 6p 21.2-21.3 suggested that these genes may mediate the effects of the MHC on disease...
  61. Zheng S, Yang C, Liu T, Liu Q, Dai F, Sheyhidin I, et al. Clinicopathological significance of p38β, p38γ, and p38δ and its biological roles in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:7255-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that p38β, p38γ, and p38δ played oncogenic roles in ESCC. ..
  62. Alevy Y, Patel A, Romero A, Patel D, Tucker J, Roswit W, et al. IL-13-induced airway mucus production is attenuated by MAPK13 inhibition. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:4555-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we define a signaling pathway from chloride channel calcium-activated 1 (CLCA1) to MAPK13 that is responsible for IL-13-driven mucus production in human airway epithelial cells...
  63. Knebel A, Morrice N, Cohen P. A novel method to identify protein kinase substrates: eEF2 kinase is phosphorylated and inhibited by SAPK4/p38delta. EMBO J. 2001;20:4360-9 pubmed
    ..A 120 kDa protein was detected in skeletal muscle extracts that was phosphorylated rapidly by SAPK4/p38delta, but poorly by SAPK2/p38, SAPK3/p38gamma, SAPK1/JNK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2)...
  64. Efimova T, Deucher A, Kuroki T, Ohba M, Eckert R. Novel protein kinase C isoforms regulate human keratinocyte differentiation by activating a p38 delta mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade that targets CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31753-60 pubmed
  65. Bhushan A, Singh A, Kapur S, Borthakar B, Sharma J, Rai A, et al. Identification and Validation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 12 Gene as a Novel Potential Biomarker in Esophageal Cancer Using Cancer Genomic Datasets. OMICS. 2017;21:616-631 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein interaction analysis of FGF12 found the binding with MAPK8IP2 and MAPK13. High expression of FGF12 along with MAPK8IP2, and MAPK13 proteins correlate with poor survival in ESCC patients...
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    ..In transient expression studies, we found that in addition to different stimuli osmotic stress activates p38 delta to phosphorylate stathmin. The sites of phosphorylation were mapped to Ser-25 and Ser-38, both in vitro and in cells. ..
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    ..An in-gel kinase assay demonstrated that PRAK is a major stress-activated kinase that can phosphorylate small heat shock protein, suggesting a potential role for PRAK in mediating stress-induced HSP27 phosphorylation in vivo. ..
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    ..These studies reveal a mechanism via which gp120 may differentially modulate the fate of activated and quiescent T cells in vivo. ..
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    ..Recent studies indicate that family members such as MAPK13 (p38δ) display a selective cellular and tissue expression and are therefore involved in specific diseases...