MAOA

Summary

Gene Symbol: MAOA
Description: monoamine oxidase A
Alias: BRNRS, MAO-A, amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A, monoamine oxidase type A
Species: human
Products:     MAOA

Top Publications

  1. Alia Klein N, Goldstein R, Kriplani A, Logan J, Tomasi D, Williams B, et al. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression. J Neurosci. 2008;28:5099-104 pubmed publisher
    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species...
  2. Gokturk C, Schultze S, Nilsson K, von Knorring L, Oreland L, Hallman J. Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine oxidase (MAOA) promoter polymorphisms in women with severe alcoholism. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2008;11:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase-A, respectively, (5-HTT-LPR and MAOA-VNTR), was performed in a group of women with severe alcohol addiction...
  3. Sjoberg R, Nilsson K, Wargelius H, Leppert J, Lindström L, Oreland L. Adolescent girls and criminal activity: role of MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial factors. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:159-64 pubmed
    ..findings among boys show that interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter region (MAOA-LPR) and psychosocial factors predict criminal activity...
  4. Jollant F, Buresi C, Guillaume S, Jaussent I, Bellivier F, Leboyer M, et al. The influence of four serotonin-related genes on decision-making in suicide attempters. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:615-24 pubmed
    ..Patients were genotyped for four serotonergic polymorphisms: 5HTTLPR, TPH1 A218C, MAOA u-VNTR, and TPH2 rs1118997...
  5. Nilsson K, Sjoberg R, Wargelius H, Leppert J, Lindström L, Oreland L. The monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene, family function and maltreatment as predictors of destructive behaviour during male adolescent alcohol consumption. Addiction. 2007;102:389-98 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that both maltreatment and MAO-A genotype may be useful for the understanding of male adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour. ..
  6. Prom Wormley E, Eaves L, Foley D, Gardner C, Archer K, Wormley B, et al. Monoamine oxidase A and childhood adversity as risk factors for conduct disorder in females. Psychol Med. 2009;39:579-90 pubmed publisher
    ..have reported a genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in which low-activity alleles at the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) locus conferred greater sensitivity to the effects of childhood adversity on risk for conduct disorder (CD)...
  7. Buckholtz J, Meyer Lindenberg A. MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression. Trends Neurosci. 2008;31:120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are highly heritable, clinical and trait associations for the most promising candidate gene for aggression, MAOA, have been largely inconsistent...
  8. Brunner H, Nelen M, Breakefield X, Ropers H, van Oost B. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science. 1993;262:578-80 pubmed
    ..This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)...
  9. Pinsonneault J, Papp A, Sadee W. Allelic mRNA expression of X-linked monoamine oxidase a (MAOA) in human brain: dissection of epigenetic and genetic factors. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2636-49 pubmed
    A pVNTR repeat polymorphism located in the promoter region of the X-linked MAOA gene has been associated with mental disorders...

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Gizer I, Ficks C, Waldman I. Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet. 2009;126:51-90 pubmed publisher
    ..heterogeneity was observed for the associations between ADHD and DAT1, DRD4, DRD5, DBH, ADRA2A, 5HTT, TPH2, MAOA, and SNAP25, suggesting that future studies should explore potential moderators of these associations (e.g...
  2. Reif A, Scarpini E, Venturelli E, Töpner T, Fenoglio C, Lesch K, et al. The functional MAOA-uVNTR promoter polymorphism in patients with frontotemporal dementia. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:637-9 pubmed publisher
    ..FTD patients and 151 controls matched to age and genotyped them for a functional promoter polymorphism, termed MAOA-uVNTR. However, no significant differences were observed between patients and controls...
  3. Rosenberg S, Templeton A, Feigin P, Lancet D, Beckmann J, Selig S, et al. The association of DNA sequence variation at the MAOA genetic locus with quantitative behavioural traits in normal males. Hum Genet. 2006;120:447-59 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) catalyses the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines including neurotransmitters, mainly norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain and peripheral tissues...
  4. Huang L, Frampton G, Rao A, Zhang K, Chen W, Lai J, et al. Monoamine oxidase A expression is suppressed in human cholangiocarcinoma via coordinated epigenetic and IL-6-driven events. Lab Invest. 2012;92:1451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), the degradation enzyme of serotonin and dopamine, is suppressed in cholangiocarcinoma via an unknown mechanism...
  5. Cerasa A, Gioia M, Labate A, Lanza P, Magariello A, Muglia M, et al. MAO A VNTR polymorphism and variation in human morphology: a VBM study. Neuroreport. 2008;19:1107-10 pubmed publisher
    The X-linked monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) gene, coding for an enzyme especially involved in the serotonin catabolism, presents a well-characterized functional polymorphism (long and short variants) in the promoter region that alters the ..
  6. Liu L, Guan L, Chen Y, Ji N, Li H, Li Z, et al. Association analyses of MAOA in Chinese Han subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: family-based association test, case-control study, and quantitative traits of impulsivity. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011;156B:737-48 pubmed publisher
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) plays a critical role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters including serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA)...
  7. Enge S, Fleischhauer M, Lesch K, Reif A, Strobel A. Serotonergic modulation in executive functioning: linking genetic variations to working memory performance. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49:3776-85 pubmed publisher
    ..region (5-HTTLPR) and a repeat polymorphism in the transcriptional control region of the monoamine-oxidase gene (MAOA-uVNTR)...
  8. Garpenstrand H, Norton N, Damberg M, Rylander G, Forslund K, Mattila Evenden M, et al. A regulatory monoamine oxidase a promoter polymorphism and personality traits. Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46:190-3 pubmed
    b>Monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) has been implicated to be part of mechanisms underlying human temperament and psychiatric disorders...
  9. Naoi M, Maruyama W, Inaba Hasegawa K, Akao Y. Type A monoamine oxidase regulates life and death of neurons in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;100:85-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of MAO-A in the regulation of neuronal survival and death are discussed in concern to find a novel strategy to protect neurons in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders and depression. ..
  10. Gentile G, Missori S, Borro M, Sebastianelli A, Simmaco M, Martelletti P. Frequencies of genetic polymorphisms related to triptans metabolism in chronic migraine. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Such genomic analysis is part of an integrated platform able to evaluate different levels of metabolic pathways of drugs in CM and their influence in the chronicization process. ..
  11. Ou X, Chen K, Shih J. Monoamine oxidase A and repressor R1 are involved in apoptotic signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10923-8 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) degrades serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine and produces reactive oxygen that may cause neuronal cell death...
  12. Schulze T, Muller D, Krauss H, Scherk H, Ohlraun S, Syagailo Y, et al. Association between a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter and major depressive disorder. Am J Med Genet. 2000;96:801-3 pubmed
    ..Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:801-803, 2000. ..
  13. Filic V, Vladic A, Stefulj J, Cicin Sain L, Balija M, Sucic Z, et al. Monoamine oxidases A and B gene polymorphisms in migraine patients. J Neurol Sci. 2005;228:149-53 pubmed
    ..The suggestive association of the variant in MAO-A gene with migraine is considered worthy of independent replication. On the other hand, further studies on MAO-B polymorphism in migraine do not seem promising. ..
  14. Shiels M, Huang H, Hoffman S, Shugart Y, Bolton J, Platz E, et al. A community-based study of cigarette smoking behavior in relation to variation in three genes involved in dopamine metabolism: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A). Prev Med. 2008;47:116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..0, 2.5) genotypes. Overall the results of this large community-based study do not provide evidence to support the presence of important associations between variants of COMT, DBH, or MAO-A and smoking initiation or persistent smoking. ..
  15. Nishimura A, Guindalini C, Oliveira J, Nitrini R, Bahia V, de Brito Marques P, et al. Monoamine oxidase a polymorphism in Brazilian patients: risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease?. J Mol Neurosci. 2005;27:213-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we compared the frequency of two polymorphisms: monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and serotonin transporter in LOAD patients versus controls...
  16. Beitchman J, Mik H, Ehtesham S, Douglas L, Kennedy J. MAOA and persistent, pervasive childhood aggression. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:546-7 pubmed
  17. Samochowiec J, Hajduk A, Samochowiec A, Horodnicki J, Stepień G, Grzywacz A, et al. Association studies of MAO-A, COMT, and 5-HTT genes polymorphisms in patients with anxiety disorders of the phobic spectrum. Psychiatry Res. 2004;128:21-6 pubmed
    ..The results support a possible role of the MAO-A gene in anxiety disorders. ..
  18. Kim Cohen J, Caspi A, Taylor A, Williams B, Newcombe R, Craig I, et al. MAOA, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children's mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:903-13 pubmed
    ..research on adults has shown that a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene moderates the impact of childhood maltreatment on risk for developing antisocial behavior...
  19. Aslund C, Nordquist N, Comasco E, Leppert J, Oreland L, Nilsson K. Maltreatment, MAOA, and delinquency: sex differences in gene-environment interaction in a large population-based cohort of adolescents. Behav Genet. 2011;41:262-72 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated a possible interaction between a functional polymorphism in the MAOA gene promoter (MAOA-VNTR) and childhood maltreatment in the prediction of adolescent male and female delinquency...
  20. Peters E, Slager S, McGrath P, Knowles J, Hamilton S. Investigation of serotonin-related genes in antidepressant response. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:879-89 pubmed
    ..genotyped patients at 110 SNPs and four repeat polymorphisms located in seven candidate genes (HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR2C, MAOA, SLC6A4, TPH1, and TPH2)...
  21. Ducci F, Enoch M, Hodgkinson C, Xu K, Catena M, Robin R, et al. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:334-47 pubmed
    ..Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) ..
  22. Nonnis Marzano F, Maldini M, Filonzi L, Lavezzi A, Parmigiani S, Magnani C, et al. Genes regulating the serotonin metabolic pathway in the brain stem and their role in the etiopathogenesis of the sudden infant death syndrome. Genomics. 2008;91:485-91 pubmed publisher
    ..frequencies of TPH2, 5-HTTLPR, the 5-HTT (SLC6A4) intron 2 variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) region, and the MAOA VNTR region were determined in brain-stem samples of 20 "genuine" SIDS cases and compared with results ..
  23. Beach S, Brody G, Gunter T, Packer H, Wernett P, Philibert R. Child maltreatment moderates the association of MAOA with symptoms of depression and antisocial personality disorder. J Fam Psychol. 2010;24:12-20 pubmed publisher
    There is a growing body of data indicating that Gene x Child Maltreatment interactions at monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) play a role in vulnerability to symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) but not major depression (MD)...
  24. Wiesbeck G, Wodarz N, Weijers H, Dursteler MacFarland K, Wurst F, Walter M, et al. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene is associated with the cigarette smoking quantity in alcohol-dependent heavy smokers. Neuropsychobiology. 2006;53:181-5 pubmed
    ..Taken together, in alcohol-dependent heavily smoking men there is evidence for a MAO-A gene-associated effect on the quantity that is smoked as reflected by the daily number of cigarettes consumed. ..
  25. Tivol E, Shalish C, Schuback D, Hsu Y, Breakefield X. Mutational analysis of the human MAOA gene. Am J Med Genet. 1996;67:92-7 pubmed
    ..Wide variations in activity of these isozymes have been reported in control humans. The MAOA and MAOB genes are located next to each other in the p11.3-11.4 region of the human X chromosome...
  26. Nilsson K, Sjoberg R, Damberg M, Leppert J, Ohrvik J, Alm P, et al. Role of monoamine oxidase A genotype and psychosocial factors in male adolescent criminal activity. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:121-7 pubmed
    ..The findings support the notion that genotype and psychosocial factors interact to precipitate male adolescent criminal behavior. ..
  27. Ou X, Chen K, Shih J. Glucocorticoid and androgen activation of monoamine oxidase A is regulated differently by R1 and Sp1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21512-25 pubmed
    ..A novel transcription factor R1 (RAM2/CDCA7L) interacts with Sp1-binding sites and represses MAO A gene expression...
  28. Portnova G, Sysoeva O, Maliuchenko N, Timofeeva M, Kulikova M, Tonevitskii A, et al. [Genetic basis of time perception in athletes]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2007;57:450-60 pubmed
    ..5-HT2A and MAOA genes, regulating activity of serotonin, influence on subjective time flow...
  29. Huang S, Lin M, Lin W, Huang C, Shy M, Lu R. Association of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) polymorphisms and clinical subgroups of major depressive disorders in the Han Chinese population. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:544-51 pubmed publisher
    It has been proposed that an MAOA abnormality may be an important factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD)...
  30. Ziermans T, Dumontheil I, Roggeman C, Peyrard Janvid M, Matsson H, Kere J, et al. Working memory brain activity and capacity link MAOA polymorphism to aggressive behavior during development. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e85 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphisms (SNPs) located in six dopaminergic candidate genes (COMT, SLC6A3/DAT1, DBH, DRD4, DRD5, MAOA)...
  31. Fan J, Fossella J, Sommer T, Wu Y, Posner M. Mapping the genetic variation of executive attention onto brain activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7406-11 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that polymorphisms in dopamine receptor (DRD4) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genes showed significant associations with efficiency of handling conflict as measured by reaction time ..
  32. Yu Y, Tsai S, Hong C, Chen M, Yang C, Chen T. Association study of a functional MAOA-uVNTR gene polymorphism and cognitive function in healthy females. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;52:77-82 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the degradation of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine and these neurotransmitters are hypothesized to be involved in the cognitive function of humans...
  33. Jin Y, Chen D, Hu Y, Guo S, Sun H, Lu A, et al. Association between monoamine oxidase gene polymorphisms and smoking behaviour in Chinese males. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;9:557-64 pubmed
    ..We investigated the association between MAOA polymorphisms (a VNTR polymorphism and an EcoRV polymorphism) and smoking status...
  34. Passamonti L, Cerasa A, Gioia M, Magariello A, Muglia M, Quattrone A, et al. Genetically dependent modulation of serotonergic inactivation in the human prefrontal cortex. Neuroimage. 2008;40:1264-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Although with conflicting findings, the monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) and the serotonin transporter (5HTT) gene polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk to develop ..
  35. Brunner H, Nelen M, van Zandvoort P, Abeling N, Van Gennip A, Wolters E, et al. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 1993;52:1032-9 pubmed
    ..A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) locus in Xp11.23-11.4...
  36. Lu R, Lee J, Ko H, Lin W, Chen K, Shih J. No association of the MAOA gene with alcoholism among Han Chinese males in Taiwan. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:457-61 pubmed
    A positive association of MAOA polymorphisms with alcoholism has been demonstrated in certain recent studies, however, this association is not universally supported...
  37. Lin Y, Davamani F, Yang W, Lai T, Sun H. Association analysis of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder in Han Chinese. Behav Brain Funct. 2008;4:21 pubmed publisher
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in degrading several different biological amines, including serotonin...
  38. White T, Kwon E, Fu R, Lucas J, Ostrander E, Stanford J, et al. The monoamine oxidase A gene promoter repeat and prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2012;72:1622-7 pubmed publisher
    Amine catabolism by monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression...
  39. Huang Y, Cate S, Battistuzzi C, Oquendo M, Brent D, Mann J. An association between a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase a gene promoter, impulsive traits and early abuse experiences. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1498-505 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) activity is altered in mood disorders and lower activity associated with aggressive behavior...
  40. Asuni C, Cherchi A, Congiu D, Piccardi M, Del Zompo M, Stochino M. Association study between clinical response to rizatriptan and some candidate genes. J Headache Pain. 2007;8:185-9 pubmed
    ..These genetic differences could be explained by various genes, the HTR1B, encoding the 5-HT(1) receptor subtype, MAOA gene that encodes the monoamino-oxidase, the main metabolic enzyme of this triptan, SLC6A4 (gene encoding the ..
  41. Manor I, Tyano S, Mel E, Eisenberg J, Bachner Melman R, Kotler M, et al. Family-based and association studies of monoamine oxidase A and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preferential transmission of the long promoter-region repeat and its association with impaired performance on a continuous performance te. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:626-32 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) is located on the X chromosome and metabolizes biogenic amines including dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin...
  42. Lin C, Chang Y, Lung F. Sex-specific interaction between MAOA promoter polymorphism and Apo epsilon 2 allele in major depressive disorder in the Chinese population. Psychiatr Genet. 2009;19:337 pubmed publisher
  43. Zammit S, Jones G, Jones S, Norton N, Sanders R, Milham C, et al. Polymorphisms in the MAOA, MAOB, and COMT genes and aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004;128B:19-20 pubmed
    ..We examined the relationship between Overt aggression scale (OAS) scores, and both MAOA and MAOB polymorphisms in a well-powered sample of 346 subjects with schizophrenia...
  44. Cerasa A, Gioia M, Fera F, Passamonti L, Liguori M, Lanza P, et al. Ventro-lateral prefrontal activity during working memory is modulated by MAO A genetic variation. Brain Res. 2008;1201:114-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The X-linked Mono-Amine Oxidase A (MAO A) gene, coding for an enzyme especially involved in the serotonin (5-HT) catabolism, presents a well-characterized ..
  45. Ito H, Hamajima N, Matsuo K, Okuma K, Sato S, Ueda R, et al. Monoamine oxidase polymorphisms and smoking behaviour in Japanese. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:73-9 pubmed
    ..These findings among male smokers support the view that MAO affects a smokers' requirement for nicotine and may explain why some people are predisposed to tobacco addiction and why some individuals find it difficult to stop smoking. ..
  46. Zhong S, Israel S, Xue H, Ebstein R, Chew S. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) associated with attitude towards longshot risks. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8516 pubmed publisher
    ..association with a widely studied, promoter-region repeat functional polymorphism in monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA)...
  47. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt T, Mill J, Martin J, Craig I, et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science. 2002;297:851-4 pubmed
    ..A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) was found to moderate the effect of maltreatment...
  48. Kelada S, Costa Mallen P, Costa L, Smith Weller T, Franklin G, Swanson P, et al. Gender difference in the interaction of smoking and monoamine oxidase B intron 13 genotype in Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicology. 2002;23:515-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a strong gender difference exists with respect to the modifying effect of MAO-B genotype on the smoking association with PD. ..
  49. Haberstick B, Lessem J, Hopfer C, Smolen A, Ehringer M, Timberlake D, et al. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and antisocial behaviors in the presence of childhood and adolescent maltreatment. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005;135B:59-64 pubmed
    ..Animal and human studies suggest that variation in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype may moderate the effects of maltreatment...
  50. Need A, Ahmadi K, Spector T, Goldstein D. Obesity is associated with genetic variants that alter dopamine availability. Ann Hum Genet. 2006;70:293-303 pubmed
    ..Dopamine availability is controlled largely by three enzymes: COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and by the dopamine transporter SLC6A3, and each gene has a well-characterized functional variant...
  51. Sjoberg R, Ducci F, Barr C, Newman T, Dell osso L, Virkkunen M, et al. A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:425-30 pubmed
    A functional VNTR polymorphism in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-LPR) has previously been shown to be an important predictor of antisocial behavior in men...
  52. Li D, He L. Meta-study on association between the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:174-8 pubmed
    The human monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has attracted considerable attention as a candidate gene for schizophrenia based both on its chromosomal position and its enzyme function as a key factor in neurotransmitter catabolism pathways...
  53. Fuemmeler B, Agurs Collins T, McClernon F, Kollins S, Kail M, Bergen A, et al. Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:348-55 pubmed publisher
    ..with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and overweight + obese) in young adulthood and of changes in BMI as ..
  54. Philibert R, Gunter T, Beach S, Brody G, Madan A. MAOA methylation is associated with nicotine and alcohol dependence in women. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..One prominent locus at which epigenetic phenomena are thought to be in play is the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) locus...
  55. Williams L, Gatt J, Kuan S, Dobson Stone C, Palmer D, Paul R, et al. A polymorphism of the MAOA gene is associated with emotional brain markers and personality traits on an antisocial index. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1797-809 pubmed publisher
    Association studies suggest that the low activity variant of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)-uVNTR polymorphism confers risk for emotional disturbances associated with antisocial traits, particularly in males...
  56. Dlugos A, Palmer A, de Wit H. Negative emotionality: monoamine oxidase B gene variants modulate personality traits in healthy humans. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:1323-34 pubmed publisher
    Monoamine oxidase A and B (MAOA and MAOB) appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of Major Depression, and vulnerability of Major Depression is associated with personality traits relating to positive and negative affect...
  57. Nordquist N, Oreland L. Serotonin, genetic variability, behaviour, and psychiatric disorders--a review. Ups J Med Sci. 2010;115:2-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Many studies have implicated genetic variability in the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the serotonin transporter (5HTT) in modulating susceptibility to these conditions...
  58. Nilsson K, Comasco E, Aslund C, Nordquist N, Leppert J, Oreland L. MAOA genotype, family relations and sexual abuse in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption. Addict Biol. 2011;16:347-55 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate MAOA gene-environment (G*E) interactions in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption...
  59. Denney R, Koch H, Craig I. Association between monoamine oxidase A activity in human male skin fibroblasts and genotype of the MAOA promoter-associated variable number tandem repeat. Hum Genet. 1999;105:542-51 pubmed
    ..2 kb upstream from MAOA exon 1 (uVNTR)...
  60. Ono H, Shirakawa O, Nishiguchi N, Nishimura A, Nushida H, Ueno Y, et al. No evidence of an association between a functional monoamine oxidase a gene polymorphism and completed suicides. Am J Med Genet. 2002;114:340-2 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been implicated in the control of aggression and/or impulsivity in humans and been involved in suicide...
  61. Du L, Faludi G, Palkovits M, Sotonyi P, Bakish D, Hrdina P. High activity-related allele of MAO-A gene associated with depressed suicide in males. Neuroreport. 2002;13:1195-8 pubmed
    ..The results thus provide further evidence that genetic factors can modulate risk for depression, suicide or both by influencing monoaminergic activity in sexually dimorphic manner. ..
  62. Tadic A, Rujescu D, Szegedi A, Giegling I, Singer P, Moller H, et al. Association of a MAOA gene variant with generalized anxiety disorder, but not with panic disorder or major depression. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;117B:1-6 pubmed
    ..to detect a possible association of a T941G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), or major depression (MD)...
  63. Cohen I, Liu X, Schutz C, White B, Jenkins E, Brown W, et al. Association of autism severity with a monoamine oxidase A functional polymorphism. Clin Genet. 2003;64:190-7 pubmed
    A functional polymorphism (the upstream variable-number tandem repeat region, or uVNTR) in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) promoter region has been reported to be associated with behavioral abnormalities as well as increased serotonergic ..
  64. Gutierrez B, Arias B, Gasto C, Catalan R, Papiol S, Pintor L, et al. Association analysis between a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter and severe mood disorders. Psychiatr Genet. 2004;14:203-8 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been suggested to be involved in human behaviour and physiology due to its key role in the metabolism of several different biological amines including the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrin and ..
  65. Passamonti L, Fera F, Magariello A, Cerasa A, Gioia M, Muglia M, et al. Monoamine oxidase-a genetic variations influence brain activity associated with inhibitory control: new insight into the neural correlates of impulsivity. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:334-40 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a specific genetic variation involving serotonergic catabolism can modulate BOLD response associated with human impulsivity. ..
  66. Young S, Smolen A, Hewitt J, Haberstick B, Stallings M, Corley R, et al. Interaction between MAO-A genotype and maltreatment in the risk for conduct disorder: failure to confirm in adolescent patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1019-25 pubmed
    ..The results of the current study do not support the hypothesis that a polymorphism in the gene encoding MAO-A contributes to the genetic risk for conduct disorder. ..
  67. Widom C, Brzustowicz L. MAOA and the "cycle of violence:" childhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:684-9 pubmed
    Two recent studies with white males have shown that genotypes associated with high levels of monamine oxidase A (MAOA) protect against the impact of childhood maltreatment and adversity on the development of antisocial behavior and ..
  68. Ni X, Sicard T, Bulgin N, Bismil R, Chan K, McMain S, et al. Monoamine oxidase a gene is associated with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatr Genet. 2007;17:153-7 pubmed
    ..696, P=0.03) and a low frequency of the low activity haplotype (chi=5.089, P=0.02). These results show that the monoamine oxidase A gene may play an important role in the etiological development of the borderline personality disorder. ..
  69. McDermott R, Tingley D, Cowden J, Frazzetto G, Johnson D. Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2118-23 pubmed publisher
    Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname "warrior gene" because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies...
  70. Edwards A, Dodge K, Latendresse S, Lansford J, Bates J, Pettit G, et al. MAOA-uVNTR and early physical discipline interact to influence delinquent behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51:679-87 pubmed publisher
    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al...
  71. Lawson D, Turic D, Langley K, Pay H, Govan C, Norton N, et al. Association analysis of monoamine oxidase A and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;116B:84-9 pubmed
    ..Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) is involved in the degradation of all three of these neurotransmitters and therefore has been suggested as a ..
  72. Camarena B, Santiago H, Aguilar A, Ruvinskis E, González Barranco J, Nicolini H. Family-based association study between the monoamine oxidase A gene and obesity: implications for psychopharmacogenetic studies. Neuropsychobiology. 2004;49:126-9 pubmed
    ..0, p = 0.005). Our findings may provide evidence of a candidate gene involved in obese subjects with a BMI >/=35 kg/m(2). ..
  73. Yu Y, Tsai S, Hong C, Chen T, Chen M, Yang C. Association study of a monoamine oxidase a gene promoter polymorphism with major depressive disorder and antidepressant response. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:1719-23 pubmed
    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the degradation of biogenic amines, may be implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and be related to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants...
  74. Jansson M, McCarthy S, Sullivan P, Dickman P, Andersson B, Oreland L, et al. MAOA haplotypes associated with thrombocyte-MAO activity. BMC Genet. 2005;6:46 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a profound SNP desert in the MAOB gene. Both the MAOA and MAOB genes segregate as two distinct LD blocks...
  75. Brookes K, Xu X, Chen W, Zhou K, Neale B, Lowe N, et al. The analysis of 51 genes in DSM-IV combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association signals in DRD4, DAT1 and 16 other genes. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:934-53 pubmed
    ..for the number of SNPs analysed in each gene, identified associations with TPH2, ARRB2, SYP, DAT1, ADRB2, HES1, MAOA and PNMT...
  76. Huizinga D, Haberstick B, Smolen A, Menard S, Young S, Corley R, et al. Childhood maltreatment, subsequent antisocial behavior, and the role of monoamine oxidase A genotype. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:677-83 pubmed
    A functional promoter polymorphism in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been implicated as a moderating factor in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and later adolescent and adult antisocial behavior...
  77. Huang S, Lin W, Wan F, Chang A, Ko H, Wang T, et al. Monoamine oxidase-A polymorphisms might modify the association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcohol dependence. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32:185-92 pubmed
    ..the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and alcoholism is affected by different polymorphisms of the MAO type A (MAOA) gene...
  78. Buckholtz J, Callicott J, Kolachana B, Hariri A, Goldberg T, Genderson M, et al. Genetic variation in MAOA modulates ventromedial prefrontal circuitry mediating individual differences in human personality. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:313-24 pubmed
    ..To identify these circuits, we used a combined genetic and imaging approach focused on Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), encoding a key enzyme for monoamine metabolism previously associated with temperament and antisocial behavior...
  79. Brummett B, Boyle S, Siegler I, Zuchner S, Ashley Koch A, Williams R. Lipid levels are associated with a regulatory polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter (MAOA-uVNTR). Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:CR57-61 pubmed
    The monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) gene plays a vital role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, e.g, serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. A polymorphism in the promoter region (MAOA-uVNTR) affects transcriptional efficiency...
  80. Tsuchimine S, Yasui Furukori N, Kaneda A, Saito M, Nakagami T, Sato K, et al. Association between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and personality traits in Japanese individuals. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1932-5 pubmed publisher
    ..between a polymorphism involving a variable number of tandem repeats in the promoter of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-VNTR) gene and personality traits, as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)...
  81. Biederman J, Kim J, Doyle A, Mick E, Fagerness J, Smoller J, et al. Sexually dimorphic effects of four genes (COMT, SLC6A2, MAOA, SLC6A4) in genetic associations of ADHD: a preliminary study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have investigated four ADHD candidate genes (COMT, SLC6A2, MAOA, SLC6A4) for which there is evidence of sexually dimorphic effects...
  82. Tzeng D, Chien C, Lung F, Yang C. MAOA gene polymorphisms and response to mirtazapine in major depression. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:293-300 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene may influence treatment outcomes in major depression disorder (MDD). To investigate the association of MAOA genetic polymorphisms and response to mirtazapine in patients with MDD...
  83. Flamand V, Zhao H, Peehl D. Targeting monoamine oxidase A in advanced prostate cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:1761-71 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters including serotonin and norepinephrine, are commonly used to treat neurological conditions including depression...
  84. Gilad Y, Rosenberg S, Przeworski M, Lancet D, Skorecki K. Evidence for positive selection and population structure at the human MAO-A gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:862-7 pubmed
  85. Du L, Bakish D, Ravindran A, Hrdina P. MAO-A gene polymorphisms are associated with major depression and sleep disturbance in males. Neuroreport. 2004;15:2097-101 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the EcoRV and uVNTR polymorphisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of major depression and associated with insomnia in depressed patients. ..
  86. Fowler J, Alia Klein N, Kriplani A, Logan J, Williams B, Zhu W, et al. Evidence that brain MAO A activity does not correspond to MAO A genotype in healthy male subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:355-8 pubmed
    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) gene has two common alleles that are referred to as the high and low MAO A genotypes...
  87. van der Vegt E, Oostra B, Arias Vasquez A, van der Ende J, Verhulst F, Tiemeier H. High activity of monoamine oxidase A is associated with externalizing behaviour in maltreated and nonmaltreated adoptees. Psychiatr Genet. 2009;19:209-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that in severely maltreated children, high MAO-A activity may not protect against the effects of maltreatment but may convey an increased risk for externalizing behaviour. ..
  88. Zhang J, Chen Y, Zhang K, Yang H, Sun Y, Fang Y, et al. A cis-phase interaction study of genetic variants within the MAOA gene in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand the mechanism by which the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene may play a role in developing MDD, the present work examined the cis-phase interaction between genetic ..
  89. Takehashi M, Tanaka S, Masliah E, Ueda K. Association of monoamine oxidase A gene polymorphism with Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body variant. Neurosci Lett. 2002;327:79-82 pubmed
    The association between (GT)n dinucleotide repeats in monoamine oxidase gene loci, monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and B (MAOB), and Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Lewy body variant (LBV) of AD were determined...
  90. Nordquist N, Oreland L. Monoallelic expression of MAOA in skin fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:763-7 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the MAO-A gene has mono-allelic expression in these cells. This could have important implications for understanding traits that display gender differences. ..
  91. Tochigi M, Suzuki K, Kato C, Otowa T, Hibino H, Umekage T, et al. Association study of monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes with smoking behavior. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007;17:867-72 pubmed
    The genes of catalytic enzymes of dopamine, including monoamine oxidase (MAOA and MAOB) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), have been major candidates for genes that affect smoking behavior...
  92. Nilsson K, Wargelius H, Sjoberg R, Leppert J, Oreland L. The MAO-A gene, platelet MAO-B activity and psychosocial environment in adolescent female alcohol-related problem behaviour. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;93:51-62 pubmed
    ..Poor psychosocial environment interacts with the high activity MAO-A genotype and low platelet MAO-B enzyme activity to increase vulnerability for female adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour. ..