manganese superoxide dismutase


Gene Symbol: manganese superoxide dismutase
Description: superoxide dismutase 2
Alias: IPO-B, IPOB, MNSOD, MVCD6, Mn-SOD, superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial, Mn superoxide dismutase, indophenoloxidase B, manganese-containing superoxide dismutase, mangano-superoxide dismutase, superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. Wan X, Devalaraja M, St Clair D. Molecular structure and organization of the human manganese superoxide dismutase gene. DNA Cell Biol. 1994;13:1127-36 pubmed
    Human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is one of the major cellular defense enzymes that protects against toxic effects of superoxide radicals...
  2. Cronin Fenton D, Christensen M, Lash T, Ahern T, Pedersen L, Garne J, et al. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence: a Danish clinical registry-based case-control study, and a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e87450 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent...
  3. Gałecki P, Smigielski J, Florkowski A, Bobinska K, Pietras T, Szemraj J. Analysis of two polymorphisms of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene (Ile-58Thr and Ala-9Val) in patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2010;179:43-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional genetic polymorphisms of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) are candidates for DD susceptibility...
  4. Saruwatari J, Deguchi M, Yoshimori Y, Noai M, Yoshida S, Ogusu N, et al. Superoxide dismutase 2 Val16Ala polymorphism is a risk factor for the valproic acid-related elevation of serum aminotransferases. Epilepsy Res. 2012;99:183-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1; P=0.022). The SOD2 Val/Val genotype may therefore contribute to a valproic acid-induced elevation in the serum aminotransferase levels. ..
  5. Kondo N, Bessho H, Honda S, Negi A. SOD2 gene polymorphisms in neovascular age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Mol Vis. 2009;15:1819-26 pubmed
    A nonsynonymous coding variant in the manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) gene (V16A, rs4880) has been implicated in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the findings have been inconsistent...
  6. Charniot J, Sutton A, Bonnefont Rousselot D, Cosson C, Khani Bittar R, Giral P, et al. Manganese superoxide dismutase dimorphism relationship with severity and prognosis in cardiogenic shock due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Free Radic Res. 2011;45:379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..OS parameters were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Distribution of MnSOD genotypes was 47% Val/Val-variant, 29.5% Ala/Val and 23.5% Ala/Ala-variants...
  7. Hempel N, Ye H, Abessi B, Mian B, Melendez J. Altered redox status accompanies progression to metastatic human bladder cancer. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:42-50 pubmed publisher
    ..A search of publicly available microarray data reveals that expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2), responsible for the conversion of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), is ..
  8. Belikova N, Glumac A, Rafikov R, Jiang J, Greenberger J, Kagan V, et al. Radioprotection by short-term oxidative preconditioning: role of manganese superoxide dismutase. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3437-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is vital to the protection of mitochondria and cells against oxidative stress. Earlier, we demonstrated that catalytically active homo-tetramer of MnSOD can be stabilized by oxidative cross-linking...
  9. Kienhöfer J, Häussler D, Ruckelshausen F, Muessig E, Weber K, Pimentel D, et al. Association of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes with mitochondrial DNA as integral nucleoid constituents. FASEB J. 2009;23:2034-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was detected by Western blot in the nucleoid fractions...

More Information


  1. Jung J, Kim G, Narasimhan P, Song Y, Chan P. Regulation of Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and neuroprotection by STAT3 in mice after cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2009;29:7003-14 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion increase superoxide anions (O(2)(*-)) in brain mitochondria. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD; SOD2), a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, scavenges superoxide radicals and its overexpression ..
  2. Yao S, Barlow W, Albain K, Choi J, Zhao H, Livingston R, et al. Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism, treatment-related toxicity and disease-free survival in SWOG 8897 clinical trial for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124:433-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the few studies of associations between a functional polymorphism in the oxidative stress-related gene manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and breast cancer survival have been inconsistent...
  3. Dhar S, Tangpong J, Chaiswing L, Oberley T, St Clair D. Manganese superoxide dismutase is a p53-regulated gene that switches cancers between early and advanced stages. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6684-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plays a critical role in the survival of aerobic life, and its aberrant expression has been implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor resistance to therapy...
  4. Deng F, Lei S, Chen X, Tan L, Zhu X, Deng H. An integrative study ascertained SOD2 as a susceptibility gene for osteoporosis in Chinese. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:2695-701 pubmed publisher
    ..05), suggesting that they are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) regulating SOD2 gene expression. In conclusion, this integrative evidence from DNA, RNA, and protein levels support SOD2 as a susceptibility gene for osteoporosis. ..
  5. Boden M, Brandon A, Tid Ang J, Preston E, Wilks D, Stuart E, et al. Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E798-805 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a key mitochondrial-specific enzyme with antioxidant modality, was overexpressed, and the ..
  6. Martin R, Li Y, Liu Q, Jensen N, Barker D, Doll M, et al. Manganese superoxide dismutase V16A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the mitochondrial targeting sequence is associated with reduced enzymatic activity in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. DNA Cell Biol. 2009;28:3-7 pubmed publisher
    Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), encoded by the SOD2 gene, represents a major cellular defense against environmental carcinogens that cause oxidative stress...
  7. Sgambato A, Camerini A, Collecchi P, Graziani C, Bevilacqua G, Capodanno A, et al. Cyclin E correlates with manganese superoxide dismutase expression and predicts survival in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant epirubicin-based chemotherapy. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1026-33 pubmed publisher an in vitro model that cyclin E overexpression is associated with increased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and resistance to doxorubicin...
  8. Borrelli A, Schiattarella A, Mancini R, Morrica B, Cerciello V, Mormile M, et al. A recombinant MnSOD is radioprotective for normal cells and radiosensitizing for tumor cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently a significant reduction of tissue injury from irradiation damage was demonstrated by using MnSOD-plasmid/liposome treatments in the protection of murine lung...
  9. Bica C, da Silva L, Toscani N, Zettler C, Gottlieb M, Alexandre C, et al. Polymorphism (ALA16VAL) correlates with regional lymph node status in breast cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010;196:153-8 pubmed publisher
    We studied the possible association between Ala16Val manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene genotypes and breast cancer lymph node status because previous investigations suggested an association between the AA genotype and ..
  10. Zschenker O, Raabe A, Boeckelmann I, Borstelmann S, Szymczak S, Wellek S, et al. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ATM, GSTP1, SOD2, TGFB1, XPD and XRCC1 with clinical and cellular radiosensitivity. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It is most likely that risk for radiation-induced fibrosis can be assessed by a combination of risk alleles. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies. ..
  11. Papa L, Hahn M, Marsh E, Evans B, Germain D. SOD2 to SOD1 switch in breast cancer. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:5412-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that by analogy to the cadherin switch during epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer cells also undergo a SOD switch during transformation. ..
  12. Sarsour E, Goswami M, Kalen A, Goswami P. MnSOD activity protects mitochondrial morphology of quiescent fibroblasts from age associated abnormalities. Mitochondrion. 2010;10:342-9 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we have shown manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity protects quiescent human normal skin fibroblasts (NHFs) from age associated loss in proliferative capacity. The loss in proliferative capacity of aged vs...
  13. Ruiz Romero C, Calamia V, Mateos J, Carreira V, Martínez Gomariz M, Fernandez M, et al. Mitochondrial dysregulation of osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes analyzed by proteomics: a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase points to a redox imbalance. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:172-89 pubmed publisher
  14. Hosoki A, Yonekura S, Zhao Q, Wei Z, Takasaki I, Tabuchi Y, et al. Mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase (SOD2) regulates radiation resistance and radiation stress response in HeLa cells. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:58-71 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells...
  15. He T, Katusic Z. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases expression of MnSOD in human circulating angiogenic cells. Microvasc Res. 2012;83:366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of early EPCs with recombinant human BDNF for 24 h significantly increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression, but had no effect on expression of other antioxidant enzymes including copper zinc ..
  16. Kucukgergin C, Sanli O, Amasyalı A, Tefik T, Seckin S. Genetic variants of MnSOD and GPX1 and susceptibility to bladder cancer in a Turkish population. Med Oncol. 2012;29:1928-34 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in the MnSOD and GPX1 genes with the risk and invasiveness of bladder cancer in a Turkish population...
  17. Hubackova M, Vaclavikova R, Ehrlichova M, Mrhalova M, Kodet R, Kubackova K, et al. Association of superoxide dismutases and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductases with prognosis of patients with breast carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:338-48 pubmed publisher
    ..004). Our results suggest that NQO2, SOD2 and SOD3 may significantly modify prognosis of breast cancer patients and that their significance should be further characterized. ..
  18. Chaudhuri L, Nicholson A, Kalen A, Goswami P. Preferential selection of MnSOD transcripts in proliferating normal and cancer cells. Oncogene. 2012;31:1207-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear encoded and mitochondrial matrix-localized redox enzyme that is known to regulate the cellular redox environment...
  19. Kim M, Ramakrishna S, Lim K, Kim J, Baek K. Protein stability of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SOD2 is regulated by USP36. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, USP36 was shown to be a specific deubiquitinating enzyme that reduces the ubiquitination level of SOD2 and was involved in SOD2 protein stability by extending its half-life. ..
  20. Siedlinski M, van Diemen C, Postma D, Vonk J, Boezen H. Superoxide dismutases, lung function and bronchial responsiveness in a general population. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:986-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The current authors furthermore confirm previously reported associations of SOD3 single nucleotide polymorphisms with lung function in the general population. ..
  21. Sobrin L, Ripke S, Yu Y, Fagerness J, Bhangale T, Tan P, et al. Heritability and genome-wide association study to assess genetic differences between advanced age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1874-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This locus explains a small proportion of the excess sibling correlation for advanced AMD subtype. Other loci were detected with suggestive associations that differ for advanced AMD subtypes and deserve follow-up in additional studies. ..
  22. Kangas Kontio T, Vavuli S, Kakko S, Penna J, Savolainen E, Savolainen M, et al. Polymorphism of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene but not of vascular endothelial growth factor gene is a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was studied on two genes: VEGF, an important mediator of neovascularisation, and MnSOD, a major antioxidant enzyme...
  23. Chan J, Oh W, Xie W, Regan M, Stampfer M, King I, et al. Plasma selenium, manganese superoxide dismutase, and intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our group previously demonstrated a strong interaction between plasma selenium and the manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) gene and incident prostate cancer risk...
  24. Möllsten A, Jorsal A, Lajer M, Vionnet N, Tarnow L. The V16A polymorphism in SOD2 is associated with increased risk of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2590-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells are protected from oxidative damage by, for example, the manganese superoxide dismutase enzyme (MnSOD), but the functional polymorphism V16A affects the localisation of MnSOD and therefore ..
  25. Tian C, Fang S, Du X, Jia C. Association of the C47T polymorphism in SOD2 with diabetes mellitus and diabetic microvascular complications: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2011;54:803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..517-0.820) models. The meta-analysis suggested that C allele of C47T polymorphism in SOD2 gene has protective effects on risk of DMI, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy. This risk needs to be confirmed by further studies. ..
  26. Hovnik T, Dolzan V, Bratina N, Podkrajsek K, Battelino T. Genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes are associated with diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:2258-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping was conducted using real-time PCR for p.Val16Ala polymorphism in the MnSOD gene and c.C-262T in the promoter region of the CAT gene...
  27. Glynn S, Boersma B, Howe T, Edvardsen H, Geisler S, Goodman J, et al. A mitochondrial target sequence polymorphism in manganese superoxide dismutase predicts inferior survival in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4165-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase protects against oxidative damage and modulates the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs...
  28. Zejnilovic J, Akev N, Yilmaz H, Isbir T. Association between manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009;189:1-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is one of the major enzymes responsible for the defense against oxidative damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria...
  29. Paz y Mino C, Muñoz M, López Cortés A, Cabrera A, Palacios A, Castro B, et al. Frequency of polymorphisms pro198leu in GPX-1 gene and ile58thr in MnSOD gene in the altitude Ecuadorian population with bladder cancer. Oncol Res. 2010;18:395-400 pubmed
    ..anions for the cell; that is, why it is important to know if the polymorphisms pro198leu in GPX-1 and ile58thr in MnSOD are associated with bladder cancer...
  30. Chuang T, Liu J, Lin C, Tang Y, Yeh M, Chang S, et al. Human manganese superoxide dismutase suppresses HER2/neu-mediated breast cancer malignancy. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:4443-9 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been demonstrated to effectively suppress various carcinoma cells, including breast ..
  31. Petrovic M, Cilensek I, Petrovic D. Manganese superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism (V16A) is associated with diabetic retinopathy in Slovene (Caucasians) type 2 diabetes patients. Dis Markers. 2008;24:59-64 pubmed
  32. St Clair D, Holland J. Complementary DNA encoding human colon cancer manganese superoxide dismutase and the expression of its gene in human cells. Cancer Res. 1991;51:939-43 pubmed
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a member of a family of metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of the superoxide anion to H2O2...
  33. Venkataraman S, Wagner B, Jiang X, Wang H, Schafer F, Ritchie J, et al. Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells exposed to hyperthermia. Free Radic Res. 2004;38:1119-32 pubmed
    ..In this study, the prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, and its manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)-overexpressing clones were subjected to hyperthermia (43 degrees C, 1 h)...
  34. Hernandez Saavedra D, McCord J. Paradoxical effects of thiol reagents on Jurkat cells and a new thiol-sensitive mutant form of human mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Cancer Res. 2003;63:159-63 pubmed
    ..Jurkat cells are heterozygous for a new mutation, L60F, in exon 3 of the mature protein. Our findings suggest a possible association between decreased SOD2 activity and malignant phenotype. ..
  35. Flekac M, Skrha J, Hilgertova J, Lacinova Z, Jarolimkova M. Gene polymorphisms of superoxide dismutases and catalase in diabetes mellitus. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:30 pubmed publisher
  36. Connor K, Subbaram S, Regan K, Nelson K, Mazurkiewicz J, Bartholomew P, et al. Mitochondrial H2O2 regulates the angiogenic phenotype via PTEN oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16916-24 pubmed
    ..Increases in the steady state production of mitochondrial derived H2O2, as a result of manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) overexpression, led to PTEN oxidation that was reversed by the coexpression of the H2O2-..
  37. Andreassen C, Alsner J, Overgaard J, Herskind C, Haviland J, Owen R, et al. TGFB1 polymorphisms are associated with risk of late normal tissue complications in the breast after radiotherapy for early breast cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2005;75:18-21 pubmed
    ..005) as well as the TGFB1 position -509 T allele (P=0.018) and increased risk of altered breast appearance. No significant associations were found for the remaining SNPs. ..
  38. Zhai R, Liu G, Ge X, Yang C, Huang C, Wu C, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, and OGG1 in coal workers' pneumoconiosis. J Occup Environ Med. 2002;44:372-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, or OGG1 and susceptibility to CWP...
  39. Hirvonen A, Tuimala J, Ollikainen T, Linnainmaa K, Kinnula V. Manganese superoxide dismutase genotypes and asbestos-associated pulmonary disorders. Cancer Lett. 2002;178:71-4 pubmed
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity is highly elevated in the biopsies of human asbestos-associated malignant mesothelioma...
  40. Kimura K, Isashiki Y, Sonoda S, Kakiuchi Matsumoto T, Ohba N. Genetic association of manganese superoxide dismutase with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130:769-73 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms of cytochrome P-450 1A1, glutathione S-transferases, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and manganese superoxide dismutase. We found a significant association of manganese superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism, valine/..
  41. Mitrunen K, Sillanpää P, Kataja V, Eskelinen M, Kosma V, Benhamou S, et al. Association between manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:827-9 pubmed
    ..Within mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) provides a major defence against oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species...
  42. Gottipati S, Cammarata P. Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activation with 17 beta-estradiol-treated human lens epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2008;14:898-905 pubmed
    ..elicits genomic protection by influencing the expression (and activity) of mitochondrial-associated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as a possible parallel mechanism by which 17beta-E(2) protects against oxidative stress...
  43. Andreassen C, Alsner J, Overgaard M, Overgaard J. Prediction of normal tissue radiosensitivity from polymorphisms in candidate genes. Radiother Oncol. 2003;69:127-35 pubmed
  44. Egan K, Thompson P, Titus Ernstoff L, Moore J, Ambrosone C. MnSOD polymorphism and breast cancer in a population-based case-control study. Cancer Lett. 2003;199:27-33 pubmed
    A polymorphism in the signal sequence (Ala-9Val) of the gene encoding the free radical-quenching manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been reported to alter the risk for breast cancer...
  45. Cebrian A, Pharoah P, Ahmed S, Smith P, Luccarini C, Luben R, et al. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense enzymes and susceptibility to breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1225-33 pubmed
    ..Even if confirmed, these four alleles would account for just 0.32% of the excess familial risk of breast cancer. ..
  46. Terry P, Umbach D, Taylor J. No association between SOD2 or NQO1 genotypes and risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:753-4 pubmed
  47. Ahn J, Ambrosone C, Kanetsky P, Tian C, Lehman T, Kropp S, et al. Polymorphisms in genes related to oxidative stress (CAT, MnSOD, MPO, and eNOS) and acute toxicities from radiation therapy following lumpectomy for breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:7063-70 pubmed
    ..exerts cytotoxic effects via generation of massive oxidative stress, we hypothesized that catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genotypes might result in greater ..
  48. Li Y, Huang T, Carlson E, Melov S, Ursell P, Olson J, et al. Dilated cardiomyopathy and neonatal lethality in mutant mice lacking manganese superoxide dismutase. Nat Genet. 1995;11:376-81 pubmed
    The Sod2 gene for Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an intramitochondrial free radical scavenging enzyme that is the first line of defense against superoxide produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation, was inactivated by ..
  49. Cai Q, Shu X, Wen W, Cheng J, Dai Q, Gao Y, et al. Genetic polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase gene, antioxidant intake, and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6:R647-55 pubmed
    ..b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a major enzyme that is responsible for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in the ..
  50. Yen J, Tsai W, Lin C, Ou T, Hu C, Liu H. Manganese superoxide dismutase gene polymorphisms in psoriatic arthritis. Dis Markers. 2003;19:263-5 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis...
  51. Rosenblum J, Gilula N, Lerner R. On signal sequence polymorphisms and diseases of distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4471-3 pubmed
    ..Progeria and related syndromes may be diseases of distribution. ..
  52. Hung R, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Malaveille C, Gelatti U, Placidi D, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of MPO, COMT, MnSOD, NQO1, interactions with environmental exposures and bladder cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:973-8 pubmed
    ..b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects cells from free radical injury...
  53. Lin P, Hsueh Y, Ko J, Liang Y, Tsai K, Chen C. Analysis of NQO1, GSTP1, and MnSOD genetic polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in Taiwan. Lung Cancer. 2003;40:123-9 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), Glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), with lung cancer risk in 198 cases and 332 controls in Taiwan...
  54. Wang M, Kirk J, Venkataraman S, Domann F, Zhang H, Schafer F, et al. Manganese superoxide dismutase suppresses hypoxic induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor. Oncogene. 2005;24:8154-66 pubmed
    ..These cofactors contribute to the redox environment of cells. The antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) also modulates the cellular redox environment...
  55. Hu Y, Rosen D, Zhou Y, Feng L, Yang G, Liu J, et al. Mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase expression in ovarian cancer: role in cell proliferation and response to oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39485-92 pubmed
  56. Andreassen C, Alsner J, Overgaard M, Sørensen F, Overgaard J. Risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms in TGFB1, SOD2, XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX and ATM--a study based on DNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples. Int J Radiat Biol. 2006;82:577-86 pubmed
    ..X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 gene), XRCC3 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 3 gene), SOD2 (manganese superoxide dismutase gene) and ATM (gene of ataxia telangiectasia mutated)...
  57. Möllsten A, Marklund S, Wessman M, Svensson M, Forsblom C, Parkkonen M, et al. A functional polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase gene and diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2007;56:265-9 pubmed
    Oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects the cells from oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals...
  58. Farin F, Hitosis Y, Hallagan S, Kushleika J, Woods J, Janssen P, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2001;16:705-7 pubmed
    ..sequencing assays to identify genetic variants in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) genes...
  59. Kiningham K, St Clair D. Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase selectively modulates the activity of Jun-associated transcription factors in fibrosarcoma cells. Cancer Res. 1997;57:5265-71 pubmed
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is reduced in a variety of tumor cells and has been proposed to be a new type of tumor suppressor gene. The mechanism(s) by which MnSOD suppresses cancer development is currently unknown...
  60. Shimoda Matsubayashi S, Matsumine H, Kobayashi T, Nakagawa Hattori Y, Shimizu Y, Mizuno Y. Structural dimorphism in the mitochondrial targeting sequence in the human manganese superoxide dismutase gene. A predictive evidence for conformational change to influence mitochondrial transport and a study of allelic association in Parkinson's dis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;226:561-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, no structural polymorphism for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene has been studied in human population...
  61. Wang L, Neuberg D, Christiani D. Asbestos exposure, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genotype, and lung cancer risk. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46:556-64 pubmed
    ..risk (caused by lung inflammation, free radical production), we examined possible interactions between manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genotypes and asbestos in a hospital-based case-control study of 811 white lung cancer cases ..
  62. Delhalle S, Deregowski V, Benoit V, Merville M, Bours V. NF-kappaB-dependent MnSOD expression protects adenocarcinoma cells from TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Oncogene. 2002;21:3917-24 pubmed
    ..Induction of the antioxidant enzyme MnSOD was detected only in TNF-alpha-treated OVCAR, MCF7A/Z and HCT116 cells but not in MT cells...
  63. El Masry T, Zahra M, el Tawil M, Khalifa R. Manganese superoxide dismutase alanine to valine polymorphism and risk of neuropathy and nephropathy in Egyptian type 1 diabetic patients. Rev Diabet Stud. 2005;2:70-4 pubmed
    ..2), this difference was statistically non-significant. In conclusion, Ala(-9)Val substitution in the Mn-SOD2 gene was associated with DN in Egyptian diabetic children but not a significant factor in diabetic patients with nephropathy. ..
  64. Church S. Manganese superoxide dismutase: nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of a cDNA encoding a new human transcript. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1087:250-2 pubmed
    Three human cDNA libraries were screened with a human manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) cDNA under moderately stringent conditions to characterize a large 4-6 kb RNA species which hybridizes to Mn-SOD in RNA blot analyses. A new 4...
  65. Zelko I, Mariani T, Folz R. Superoxide dismutase multigene family: a comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2), and EC-SOD (SOD3) gene structures, evolution, and expression. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;33:337-49 pubmed
    ..A single amino acid mutation in human SOD3 is associated with 10 to 30-fold increases in serum SOD3 levels. As more information is obtained, further insights will be gained. ..
  66. Green H, Ross G, Peacock J, Owen R, Yarnold J, Houlston R. Variation in the manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2) is not a major cause of radiotherapy complications in breast cancer patients. Radiother Oncol. 2002;63:213-6 pubmed
    ..Within mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) provides a major defence against oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species...
  67. Martin R, Ahn J, Nowell S, Hein D, Doll M, Martini B, et al. Association between manganese superoxide dismutase promoter gene polymorphism and breast cancer survival. Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8:R45 pubmed
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plays a critical role in the detoxification of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, constituting a major cellular defense mechanism against agents that induce oxidative stress...
  68. Kattan Z, Minig V, Leroy P, Dauça M, Becuwe P. Role of manganese superoxide dismutase on growth and invasive properties of human estrogen-independent breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;108:203-15 pubmed
    b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is known to play a role in cancer. MnSOD exerts a tumor suppressive effect in estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells...
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    ..b>Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) catalyses the detoxification of free radicals, thus playing a crucial role in the protection ..