Mad2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Mad2
Description: mitotic arrest deficient 2 like 1
Alias: HSMAD2, MAD2, mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A, MAD2 (mitotic arrest deficient, yeast, homolog)-like 1, MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1, MAD2-like protein 1, mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 1, mitotic arrest deficient, yeast, homolog-like 1
Species: human
Products:     Mad2

Top Publications

  1. Li Y, Benezra R. Identification of a human mitotic checkpoint gene: hsMAD2. Science. 1996;274:246-8 pubmed
    ..Human, or Homo sapiens, MAD2 (hsMAD2) was localized at the kinetochore after chromosome condensation but was no longer observed at the kinetochore in ..
  2. Jin D, Spencer F, Jeang K. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein Tax targets the human mitotic checkpoint protein MAD1. Cell. 1998;93:81-91 pubmed
    ..yeast MAD1, hyperphosphorylation during S/G2/M phases and upon treatment of cells with nocodazole, and binding to HsMAD2. HsMAD1 functions as a homodimer...
  3. Mapelli M, Massimiliano L, Santaguida S, Musacchio A. The Mad2 conformational dimer: structure and implications for the spindle assembly checkpoint. Cell. 2007;131:730-43 pubmed
    The 25 kDa Mad2 protein is a key player in the spindle assembly checkpoint, a safeguard against chromosome segregation errors in mitosis. Mad2 combines three unusual properties...
  4. Tighe A, Staples O, Taylor S. Mps1 kinase activity restrains anaphase during an unperturbed mitosis and targets Mad2 to kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:893-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Mps1 also recruits Mad1 and Mad2 to kinetochores. However, whether the enzymatic activity of Mps1 is required for these processes is unclear...
  5. Sironi L, Mapelli M, Knapp S, De Antoni A, Jeang K, Musacchio A. Crystal structure of the tetrameric Mad1-Mad2 core complex: implications of a 'safety belt' binding mechanism for the spindle checkpoint. EMBO J. 2002;21:2496-506 pubmed
    The spindle checkpoint protein Mad1 recruits Mad2 to unattached kinetochores and is essential for Mad2-Cdc20 complex formation in vivo but not in vitro...
  6. Lara Gonzalez P, Scott M, Diez M, Sen O, Taylor S. BubR1 blocks substrate recruitment to the APC/C in a KEN-box-dependent manner. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:4332-45 pubmed publisher
    ..the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), a tetrameric complex composed of three SAC components, namely BubR1, Bub3 and Mad2, and the APC/C co-activator Cdc20...
  7. Fung M, Han H, Leung S, Cheung H, Cheung A, Wong Y, et al. MAD2 interacts with DNA repair proteins and negatively regulates DNA damage repair. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:24-34 pubmed publisher
    b>MAD2 (mitotic arrest deficient 2) is a key regulator of mitosis...
  8. Guardavaccaro D, Frescas D, Dorrello N, Peschiaroli A, Multani A, Cardozo T, et al. Control of chromosome stability by the beta-TrCP-REST-Mad2 axis. Nature. 2008;452:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the ubiquitin ligase SCF(beta-TrCP) during the G2 phase of the cell cycle to allow transcriptional derepression of Mad2, an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint...
  9. Schvartzman J, Duijf P, Sotillo R, Coker C, Benezra R. Mad2 is a critical mediator of the chromosome instability observed upon Rb and p53 pathway inhibition. Cancer Cell. 2011;19:701-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It was recently shown that Rb pathway inhibition causes overexpression of the mitotic checkpoint gene Mad2, but whether Mad2 overexpression is required to generate CIN in this context is unknown...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Luo X, Fang G, Coldiron M, Lin Y, Yu H, Kirschner M, et al. Structure of the Mad2 spindle assembly checkpoint protein and its interaction with Cdc20. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:224-9 pubmed
    The checkpoint protein Mad2 inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex by sequestering Cdc20 until all chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate...
  2. Kulukian A, Han J, Cleveland D. Unattached kinetochores catalyze production of an anaphase inhibitor that requires a Mad2 template to prime Cdc20 for BubR1 binding. Dev Cell. 2009;16:105-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Using physiologically relevant levels of Mad2, Bub3, BubR1, and Cdc20, we demonstrate that unattached kinetochores on purified chromosomes catalytically generate ..
  3. Mansfeld J, Collin P, Collins M, Choudhary J, Pines J. APC15 drives the turnover of MCC-CDC20 to make the spindle assembly checkpoint responsive to kinetochore attachment. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1234-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that APC15 mediates the constant turnover of CDC20 and MCCs on the APC/C to allow the SAC to respond to the attachment state of kinetochores. ..
  4. Miniowitz Shemtov S, Teichner A, Sitry Shevah D, Hershko A. ATP is required for the release of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome from inhibition by the mitotic checkpoint. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..APC/C is inhibited by a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) composed of BubR1, Bub3, Mad2, and Cdc20...
  5. Kallio M, Beardmore V, Weinstein J, Gorbsky G. Rapid microtubule-independent dynamics of Cdc20 at kinetochores and centrosomes in mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:841-7 pubmed
  6. Habu T, Kim S, Weinstein J, Matsumoto T. Identification of a MAD2-binding protein, CMT2, and its role in mitosis. EMBO J. 2002;21:6419-28 pubmed
    b>MAD2 is a key component of the spindle checkpoint that delays the onset of anaphase until all the kinetochores are attached to the spindle...
  7. Michel L, Diaz Rodriguez E, Narayan G, Hernando E, Murty V, Benezra R. Complete loss of the tumor suppressor MAD2 causes premature cyclin B degradation and mitotic failure in human somatic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4459-64 pubmed
    b>MAD2 inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex when chromosomes are unattached to the mitotic spindle...
  8. Xia G, Luo X, Habu T, Rizo J, Matsumoto T, Yu H. Conformation-specific binding of p31(comet) antagonizes the function of Mad2 in the spindle checkpoint. EMBO J. 2004;23:3133-43 pubmed
    ..Upon checkpoint activation, Mad2 binds directly to Cdc20 and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C)...
  9. Hernando E, Nahle Z, Juan G, Diaz Rodriguez E, Alaminos M, Hemann M, et al. Rb inactivation promotes genomic instability by uncoupling cell cycle progression from mitotic control. Nature. 2004;430:797-802 pubmed
    ..We show that the mitotic checkpoint protein Mad2 is a direct E2F target and, as a consequence, is aberrantly expressed in cells with Rb pathway defects...
  10. Tipton A, Wang K, Link L, Bellizzi J, Huang H, Yen T, et al. BUBR1 and closed MAD2 (C-MAD2) interact directly to assemble a functional mitotic checkpoint complex. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When the checkpoint is activated, the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), assembled from BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2, directly binds and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until all chromosomes are properly ..
  11. Stegmeier F, Rape M, Draviam V, Nalepa G, Sowa M, Ang X, et al. Anaphase initiation is regulated by antagonistic ubiquitination and deubiquitination activities. Nature. 2007;446:876-81 pubmed
    ..Instead, it prevents the premature activation of the APC by stabilizing the APC-inhibitory Mad2-Cdc20 complex...
  12. Nilsson J, Yekezare M, Minshull J, Pines J. The APC/C maintains the spindle assembly checkpoint by targeting Cdc20 for destruction. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..is unclear how the SAC inactivates Cdc20 but most current models suggest that Cdc20 forms a stable complex with the Mad2 checkpoint protein...
  13. Fava L, Kaulich M, Nigg E, Santamaria A. Probing the in vivo function of Mad1:C-Mad2 in the spindle assembly checkpoint. EMBO J. 2011;30:3322-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The SAC protein Mad2 can fold into two distinct conformers, open (O) and closed (C), and can asymmetrically dimerize...
  14. Sudakin V, Chan G, Yen T. Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:925-36 pubmed
    ..We call this factor the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) as it consists of hBUBR1, hBUB3, CDC20, and MAD2 checkpoint proteins in near equal stoichiometry...
  15. Wang X, Jin D, Ng R, Feng H, Wong Y, Cheung A, et al. Significance of MAD2 expression to mitotic checkpoint control in ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2002;62:1662-8 pubmed
    ..Mitotic checkpoint controls are thought to be essential for accurate chromosomal segregation, and MAD2 is a key component of this checkpoint...
  16. Campbell M, Chan G, Yen T. Mitotic checkpoint proteins HsMAD1 and HsMAD2 are associated with nuclear pore complexes in interphase. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:953-63 pubmed
    ..We find HsMad1 associated with HsMad2. Association with p55CDC, a protein previously shown to bind HsMad2, was not detected...
  17. Townsend K, Mason H, Blackford A, Miller E, Chapman J, Sedgwick G, et al. Mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) regulates mitotic progression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest therefore that hMDC1 functionally regulates the normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition by modulating the Cdc20-dependent activation of the APC/C. ..
  18. Kallio M, Weinstein J, Daum J, Burke D, Gorbsky G. Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and is involved in regulating anaphase onset and late mitotic events. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:1393-406 pubmed
    ..p55CDC coimmunoprecipitates with three important elements of the M phase checkpoint machinery: Cdc27, Cdc16, and Mad2. p55CDC is required for binding Mad2 with the Cdc27 and Cdc16...
  19. Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner M. The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to control anaphase initiation. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1871-83 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest involves hMAD2 receiving an upstream signal to inhibit activation of APC. ..
  20. Yang M, Li B, Liu C, Tomchick D, Machius M, Rizo J, et al. Insights into mad2 regulation in the spindle checkpoint revealed by the crystal structure of the symmetric mad2 dimer. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e50 pubmed publisher
    In response to misaligned sister chromatids during mitosis, the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) through binding to its mitotic activator Cdc20, thus delaying anaphase onset...
  21. Yang M, Li B, Tomchick D, Machius M, Rizo J, Yu H, et al. p31comet blocks Mad2 activation through structural mimicry. Cell. 2007;131:744-55 pubmed
    ..depends on the balance of two opposing dynamic processes that regulate the highly unusual two-state behavior of Mad2. In mitosis, a Mad1-Mad2 core complex recruits cytosolic Mad2 to kinetochores through Mad2 dimerization and ..
  22. Ge S, Skaar J, Pagano M. APC/C- and Mad2-mediated degradation of Cdc20 during spindle checkpoint activation. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:167-71 pubmed
    ..as a major downstream target for inhibition by the SAC through the binding of mitotic checkpoint proteins, such as Mad2 and BubR1...
  23. Reddy S, Rape M, Margansky W, Kirschner M. Ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex drives spindle checkpoint inactivation. Nature. 2007;446:921-5 pubmed
    ..Unattached kinetochores promote the binding of checkpoint proteins Mad2 and BubR1 to the APC-activator Cdc20, rendering it unable to activate APC...
  24. Wassmann K, Benezra R. Mad2 transiently associates with an APC/p55Cdc complex during mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11193-8 pubmed
    ..One component of this pathway, hsMad2, has been shown in mammalian cells to physically associate with components of a ubiquitin ligase activity (termed ..
  25. Sivaram M, Wadzinski T, Redick S, Manna T, Doxsey S. Dynein light intermediate chain 1 is required for progress through the spindle assembly checkpoint. EMBO J. 2009;28:902-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Metaphase delay and increased interkinetochore distances are suppressed by depletion of Mad1, Mad2 or BubR1 or by re-expression of wtLIC1 or a Cdk1 site phosphomimetic LIC1 mutant, but not Cdk1-phosphorylation-..
  26. Lad L, Lichtsteiner S, Hartman J, Wood K, Sakowicz R. Kinetic analysis of Mad2-Cdc20 formation: conformational changes in Mad2 are catalyzed by a C-Mad2-ligand complex. Biochemistry. 2009;48:9503-15 pubmed publisher
    Structural changes in the mitotic arrest deficient protein 2 (Mad2) have been proposed to be essential for spindle checkpoint function...
  27. Tang Z, Shu H, Oncel D, Chen S, Yu H. Phosphorylation of Cdc20 by Bub1 provides a catalytic mechanism for APC/C inhibition by the spindle checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2004;16:387-97 pubmed
    ..We speculate that inhibition of APC/C(Cdc20) by Bub1 in a catalytic fashion may partly account for the exquisite sensitivity of the spindle checkpoint. ..
  28. Sironi L, Melixetian M, Faretta M, Prosperini E, Helin K, Musacchio A. Mad2 binding to Mad1 and Cdc20, rather than oligomerization, is required for the spindle checkpoint. EMBO J. 2001;20:6371-82 pubmed
    b>Mad2 is a key component of the spindle checkpoint, a device that controls the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis...
  29. Zeng X, Sigoillot F, Gaur S, Choi S, Pfaff K, Oh D, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex induces a spindle checkpoint-dependent mitotic arrest in the absence of spindle damage. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:382-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that mutual antagonism between the APC and the SAC yields a positive feedback loop that amplifies the ability of TAME to induce mitotic arrest...
  30. D Angiolella V, Mari C, Nocera D, Rametti L, Grieco D. The spindle checkpoint requires cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2520-5 pubmed
    ..inhibition, the interaction between APC/C and Cdc20 transiently increases while the inhibitory checkpoint protein Mad2 dissociates from Cdc20. Cdk inhibition also overcomes Mad2-induced mitotic arrest...
  31. Teichner A, Eytan E, Sitry Shevah D, Miniowitz Shemtov S, Dumin E, Gromis J, et al. p31comet Promotes disassembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex in an ATP-dependent process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..by a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of the APC/C activator Cdc20 bound to the checkpoint proteins MAD2, BubR1, and Bub3...
  32. Luo X, Tang Z, Rizo J, Yu H. The Mad2 spindle checkpoint protein undergoes similar major conformational changes upon binding to either Mad1 or Cdc20. Mol Cell. 2002;9:59-71 pubmed
    b>Mad2 participates in spindle checkpoint inhibition of APC(Cdc20). We show that RNAi-mediated suppression of Mad1 function in mammalian cells causes loss of Mad2 kinetochore localization and impairment of the spindle checkpoint...
  33. Westhorpe F, Tighe A, Lara Gonzalez P, Taylor S. p31comet-mediated extraction of Mad2 from the MCC promotes efficient mitotic exit. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A prevalent model is that p31(comet) acts as a 'cap' by inhibiting recruitment of the open conformation form of Mad2 (O-Mad2) to the kinetochore-bound complex of Mad1-C-Mad2 (closed conformation Mad2), an essential step that is ..
  34. Pinto M, Soares M, Cerveira N, Henrique R, Ribeiro F, Oliveira J, et al. Expression changes of the MAD mitotic checkpoint gene family in renal cell carcinomas characterized by numerical chromosome changes. Virchows Arch. 2007;450:379-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that expression changes in mitotic arrest deficiency genes (MAD1, MAD2L1, and MAD2L2) play a role in renal carcinogenesis characterized by multiple numerical chromosome abnormalities. ..
  35. Orth M, Mayer B, Rehm K, Rothweiler U, Heidmann D, Holak T, et al. Shugoshin is a Mad1/Cdc20-like interactor of Mad2. EMBO J. 2011;30:2868-80 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the so-called template model, Mad1-Mad2 complexes at unattached kinetochores instruct conformational change of soluble Mad2, thus catalysing Mad2 binding ..
  36. De Antoni A, Pearson C, Cimini D, Canman J, Sala V, Nezi L, et al. The Mad1/Mad2 complex as a template for Mad2 activation in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Curr Biol. 2005;15:214-25 pubmed
    ..b>Mad2 is a component of the SAC effector complex that sequesters Cdc20 to halt anaphase...
  37. Tang Z, Bharadwaj R, Li B, Yu H. Mad2-Independent inhibition of APCCdc20 by the mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1. Dev Cell. 2001;1:227-37 pubmed
    ..Upon checkpoint activation, the BubR1-Bub3 complex interacts with Cdc20. In the absence of Mad2, BubR1 inhibits the activity of APC by blocking the binding of Cdc20 to APC...
  38. Martin Lluesma S, Stucke V, Nigg E. Role of Hec1 in spindle checkpoint signaling and kinetochore recruitment of Mad1/Mad2. Science. 2002;297:2267-70 pubmed
    ..We showed that the human protein Hec1 was required for the recruitment of Mps1 kinase and Mad1/Mad2 complexes to kinetochores...
  39. Zhang Y, Lees E. Identification of an overlapping binding domain on Cdc20 for Mad2 and anaphase-promoting complex: model for spindle checkpoint regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:5190-9 pubmed
    ..The activation of the APC by Cdc20 is prevented by the interaction of Cdc20 with Mad2 when the spindle checkpoint is activated...
  40. Lee S, Sterling H, Burlingame A, McCormick F. Tpr directly binds to Mad1 and Mad2 and is important for the Mad1-Mad2-mediated mitotic spindle checkpoint. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2926-31 pubmed publisher
    The mitotic arrest-deficient protein Mad1 forms a complex with Mad2, which is required for imposing mitotic arrest on cells in which the spindle assembly is perturbed...
  41. Kops G, Kim Y, Weaver B, Mao Y, McLeod I, Yates J, et al. ZW10 links mitotic checkpoint signaling to the structural kinetochore. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:49-60 pubmed
    ..or Xenopus egg extracts is used to demonstrate that the ZW10 complex is essential for stable binding of a Mad1-Mad2 complex to unattached kinetochores...
  42. Mapelli M, Filipp F, Rancati G, Massimiliano L, Nezi L, Stier G, et al. Determinants of conformational dimerization of Mad2 and its inhibition by p31comet. EMBO J. 2006;25:1273-84 pubmed
    ..The ubiquitous SAC constituents Mad1 and Mad2 are recruited to kinetochores in prometaphase...
  43. Du Y, Yin F, Liu C, Hu S, Wang J, Xie H, et al. Depression of MAD2 inhibits apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by upregulating Bcl-2 and interfering mitochondrion pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:1092-8 pubmed
    Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) is an essential component of the mitotic spindle checkpoint pathway. It was previously shown to be associated with drug resistance of tumor cells...
  44. Li Y, Gorbea C, Mahaffey D, Rechsteiner M, Benezra R. MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12431-6 pubmed
    ..Here we report that upon activation of the mitotic checkpoint, MAD2, an essential component of the mitotic checkpoint, associates with the cyclin B-ubiquitin ligase, known as the ..
  45. Skoufias D, Andreassen P, Lacroix F, Wilson L, Margolis R. Mammalian mad2 and bub1/bubR1 recognize distinct spindle-attachment and kinetochore-tension checkpoints. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:4492-7 pubmed
    ..A number of proteins, including mad2, bub1, and bubR1, have been implicated in the metaphase checkpoint control in mammalian cells...
  46. Wang L, Yin F, Du Y, Chen B, Liang S, Zhang Y, et al. Depression of MAD2 inhibits apoptosis and increases proliferation and multidrug resistance in gastric cancer cells by regulating the activation of phosphorylated survivin. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:225-32 pubmed publisher
    Mitotic arrest-deficient 2 (MAD2) is one of the essential mitotic spindle checkpoint regulators, and it can protect cells from aberrant chromosome segregation...
  47. Luo X, Tang Z, Xia G, Wassmann K, Matsumoto T, Rizo J, et al. The Mad2 spindle checkpoint protein has two distinct natively folded states. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:338-45 pubmed
    ..Through binding to Cdc20, the Mad2 spindle checkpoint protein inhibits the target of this checkpoint, the ubiquitin protein ligase APC/C(Cdc20)...
  48. Wassmann K, Liberal V, Benezra R. Mad2 phosphorylation regulates its association with Mad1 and the APC/C. EMBO J. 2003;22:797-806 pubmed
    ..This arrest requires the inhibitory association of Mad2 with the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)...
  49. Fang G. Checkpoint protein BubR1 acts synergistically with Mad2 to inhibit anaphase-promoting complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:755-66 pubmed
    ..In response to activation of the checkpoint, Mad2 binds to and inhibits Cdc20-APC...
  50. Liu S, Hittle J, Jablonski S, Campbell M, Yoda K, Yen T. Human CENP-I specifies localization of CENP-F, MAD1 and MAD2 to kinetochores and is essential for mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:341-5 pubmed
    ..Mis6 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is required for the localization of CENP-F and the checkpoint proteins MAD1 and MAD2 to kinetochores. Depletion of CENP-I from kinetochores causes the cell cycle to delay in G2...
  51. Teixeira J, Silva P, Faria J, Ferreira I, Duarte P, Delgado M, et al. Clinicopathologic significance of BubR1 and Mad2 overexpression in oral cancer. Oral Dis. 2015;21:713-20 pubmed publisher
    BubR1 and Mad2 are central components of the mitotic checkpoint complex that inhibits anaphase onset until all chromosomes are correctly aligned at the metaphase plate...
  52. Ma H, Poon R. Orderly inactivation of the key checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) during mitotic progression. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:13052-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A fundamental principle of the checkpoint is the activation of mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2)...
  53. Chen R, Waters J, Salmon E, Murray A. Association of spindle assembly checkpoint component XMAD2 with unattached kinetochores. Science. 1996;274:242-6 pubmed
    ..A frog homolog of MAD2 (XMAD2) was isolated and found to play an essential role in the spindle assembly checkpoint in frog egg extracts...
  54. Liang Y, Zhong Z, Huang Y, Deng W, Cao J, Tsao G, et al. Stem-like cancer cells are inducible by increasing genomic instability in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4931-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, either overexpression of a key regulator of cell cycle, Mad2, or knock down of Aurora B, an important kinase in mitosis, or Cdh1, a key E3 ligase in cell cycle, resulted in a ..
  55. Hast B, Goldfarb D, Mulvaney K, Hast M, Siesser P, Yan F, et al. Proteomic analysis of ubiquitin ligase KEAP1 reveals associated proteins that inhibit NRF2 ubiquitination. Cancer Res. 2013;73:2199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings further support the competition model of NRF2 activation and suggest that "ETGE"-containing proteins such as DPP3 contribute to NRF2 activity in cancer. ..
  56. ChilĂ  R, Celenza C, Lupi M, Damia G, Carrassa L. Chk1-Mad2 interaction: a crosslink between the DNA damage checkpoint and the mitotic spindle checkpoint. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1083-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mad2 is one of the main mitotic checkpoint components and also exerts a role in the cellular response to DNA damage...
  57. Zhang S, Xu A, Chen X, Li D, Sun M, Wang Y. Clinicopathologic significance of mitotic arrest defective protein 2 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:1827-34 pubmed publisher
    Mitotic arrest defective protein 2 (MAD2) gene plays a central role in the mitotic checkpoint...