Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: lysyl hydroxylase
Description: procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
Alias: EDS6, LH1, LLH, PLOD, lysine hydroxylase, lysyl hydroxlase 1, procollagen-lysine 1, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1, procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
Publications155 found, 100 shown here
- Identification of arginine-700 as the residue that binds the C-5 carboxyl group of 2-oxoglutarate in human lysyl hydroxylase 1K Passoja
Biocenter and Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oulu, Finland
FEBS Lett 434:145-8. 1998b>Lysyl hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens by a reaction that involves oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate...
- Deletion of cysteine 369 in lysyl hydroxylase 1 eliminates enzyme activity and causes Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIH N Yeowell
Division of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Matrix Biol 19:37-46. 2000This study describes the relative contribution of the 10 cysteine residues in lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1) to enzyme activity...
- Characterization of three fragments that constitute the monomers of the human lysyl hydroxylase isoenzymes 1-3. The 30-kDa N-terminal fragment is not required for lysyl hydroxylase activityKati Rautavuoma
Collagen Research Unit, Biocenter Oulu and Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oulu, FIN 90014 Oulu, Finland
J Biol Chem 277:23084-91. 2002b>Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens; three human isoenzymes have been cloned so far...
- A translocation interrupts the COL5A1 gene in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and hypomelanosis of ItoH V Toriello
Cytogenetics Laboratory, Butterworth Hospital, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA
Nat Genet 13:361-5. 1996..types I and III have been demonstrated in EDS types VII and IV, respectively, while mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase and ATP7A genes, with roles in collagen cross-linking, are responsible for EDS types VI and IX...
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIB with characteristic facies, decreased curvatures of the spinal column, and joint contractures in two unrelated girlsTomoki Kosho
Department of Medical Genetics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan
Am J Med Genet A 138:282-7. 2005..b>Lysyl hydroxylase deficiency was ruled out in Patient 1. Parental consanguinity was present in Patient 2...
- Effect of hyper- and microgravity on collagen post-translational controls of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastsMitsuru Saito
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
J Bone Miner Res 18:1695-705. 2003..We found that altered gravitational load affected the post-translational modification of collagen, particularly the collagen maturation pathway, through altered expression of enzymes involved in cross-link formation...
- An Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA patient with cystic malformations of the meningesHeather N Yeowell
Div of Dermatology, Duke Univ Medical Centre, Durham, NC, USA
Eur J Dermatol 15:353-8. 2005..9 kb in the lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1) gene that is the cause of severely decreased levels of LH activity in her skin fibroblasts...
- Interleukin 4 and prolonged hypoxia induce a higher gene expression of lysyl hydroxylase 2 and an altered cross-link pattern: important pathogenetic steps in early and late stage of systemic scleroderma?J Brinckmann
Department of Dermatology, University of Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lubeck, Germany
Matrix Biol 24:459-68. 2005..In the present study, we analyzed the cross-link pattern and the gene expression of lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2) in the skin of SSc...
- A new Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with craniofacial characteristics, multiple congenital contractures, progressive joint and skin laxity, and multisystem fragility-related manifestationsTomoki Kosho
Department of Medical Genetics, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan
Am J Med Genet A 152:1333-46. 2010..and skeletal features, overlapping with the kyphoscoliosis type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) but without lysyl hydroxylase deficiency [Kosho et al. (2005) Am J Med Genet Part A 138A:282-287]...
- Differential diagnosis of muscular hypotonia in infants: the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI)Uluc Yis
Division of Child Neurology, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 35340 Izmir, Turkey
Neuromuscul Disord 18:210-4. 2008..Biochemically, it is characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase (EC 18.104.22.168) due to mutations in PLOD1...
- Interstitial collagen synthesis and processing in human amnion: a property of the mesenchymal cellsM L Casey
Cecil H and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235, USA
Biol Reprod 55:1253-60. 1996..2(I), and alpha 1(III) subunit mRNAs and the specific activities of the enzymes prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase were greatest in human amnion tissue early in gestation, decreasing rather abruptly after 12-14 wk gestation ..
- The kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type VI): differential effects on the hydroxylation of lysine in collagens I and II revealed by analysis of cross-linked telopeptides from urineDavid Eyre
Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, University of Washington, Box 356500, Seattle, WA 98195 6500, USA
Mol Genet Metab 76:211-6. 2002..VIA) (OMIM 225400) is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder that results from mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene (PLOD1) causing underhydroxylation of lysine residues in tissue collagens, particularly of skin...
- Mutational analysis of the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene (PLOD) in six unrelated patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI: prenatal exclusion of this disorder in one familyH N Yeowell
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Hum Mutat 16:90. 2000Screening of full length cDNAs for lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1; also PLOD) amplified from dermal fibroblasts from six unrelated patients with the autosomal recessive disorder Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDS VI) has shown them to be both ..
- Heterogeneous basis of the type VIB form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIB) that is unrelated to decreased collagen lysyl hydroxylationL C Walker
Division of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Am J Med Genet A 131:155-62. 2004..diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI (EDS VI; kyphoscoliosis type), have significantly decreased lysyl hydroxylase (LH) activity due to mutations in the LH1 gene (classified as EDS VIA: OMIM no. 225400)...
- Spondylocheiro dysplastic form of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome--an autosomal-recessive entity caused by mutations in the zinc transporter gene SLC39A13Cecilia Giunta
Division of Metabolism and Molecular Pediatrics, University Children s Hospital, CH 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
Am J Hum Genet 82:1290-305. 2008..2 in controls. Lysyl and prolyl residues of collagens were underhydroxylated despite normal lysyl hydroxylase and prolyl 4-hydroxylase activities; underhydroxylation was a generalized process as shown by mass ..
- Lysyl hydroxylase 2 is a specific telopeptide hydroxylase, while all three isoenzymes hydroxylate collagenous sequencesKati Takaluoma
Collagen Research Unit, Biocenter Oulu and Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oulu, FIN 90014, Oulu, Finland
Matrix Biol 26:396-403. 2007b>Lysyl hydroxylase (LH), with three isoenzymes in vertebrates, catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine by acting on -X-Lys-Gly- triplets in the collagenous domains of proteins of the collagen superfamily and also in -X-Lys-Ala- or -X-Lys-..
- Mechanism of inhibition of lysyl hydroxylase activity by the organophosphates malathion and malaoxonA Samimi
Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 176:181-6. 2001Direct inhibition of lysyl hydroxylase by malathion and malaoxon was observed in an in vitro enzyme assay with recombinant lysyl hydroxylase expressed via a baculoviral system...
- Molecular cloning of chick lysyl hydroxylase. Little homology in primary structure to the two types of subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylaseR Myllyla
Collagen Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
J Biol Chem 266:2805-10. 1991b>Lysyl hydroxylase (EC 22.214.171.124), an alpha 2 dimer, catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens by the hydroxylation of lysine residues in X-Lys-Gly sequences...
- Premature aggregation of type IV collagen and early lethality in lysyl hydroxylase 3 null miceKati Rautavuoma
Collagen Research Unit and Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14120-5. 2004..We generated mice with targeted inactivation of the gene for one of the three lysyl hydroxylase isoenzymes, LH3. The null embryos developed seemingly normally until embryonic day 8...
- Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) modifies proteins in the extracellular space, a novel mechanism for matrix remodelingAntti M Salo
Department of Biochemistry and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
J Cell Physiol 207:644-53. 2006b>Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), the multifunctional enzyme associated with collagen biosynthesis that possesses lysyl hydroxylase and collagen glycosyltransferase activities, has been characterized in the extracellular space in this study...
- Coenzyme A stimulates collagen production in cultured fibroblasts; possible mechanisms in enzymatic and gene expressionK Mio
Life Science Research Center, Lion Corporation, Odawara, Kanagawa, Japan
Arch Dermatol Res 293:522-31. 2001..hand, coenzyme A did not stimulate the activity nor the gene expression of two other processing enzymes: lysyl hydroxylase, which provides the sites for glycosylation and crosslinking between collagen peptides, and lysyl oxidase, a ..
- Secretion and assembly of type IV and VI collagens depend on glycosylation of hydroxylysinesLaura Sipilä
Biocenter Oulu, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, FI 90014 Oulu, Finland
J Biol Chem 282:33381-8. 2007..The formation of glycosylated hydroxylysines is catalyzed by multifunctional lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) in vivo, and we have used LH3-manipulated mice and cells as models to study the function of these ..
- Procollagen synthesis is increased in hypothyroid rat ovary by a parallel and compensatory pathwaySamir Kumar Saha
Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India
Cell Physiol Biochem 19:313-22. 2007..Down regulation of lysyl hydroxylase in hypothyroid condition results less collagen formation...
- Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1, enzyme characterization and identification of a novel family of enzymesJanice A Vranka
Research Department, Shriners Hospital for Children, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
J Biol Chem 279:23615-21. 2004..3-hydroxylases, which share the conserved residues present in the active site of prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase. P3H1 is the chick homologue of mammalian leprecan or growth suppressor 1...
- Morphological and molecular analysis of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis: a case reportNicoletta Gagliano
Department of Human Morphology LITA Segrate, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
J Clin Periodontol 32:1116-21. 2005..As this overgrowth involves collagen accumulation in the gingival connective tissue, we measured the collagen turnover to clarify the pathogenic mechanisms potentially involved...
- The myotomal diwanka (lh3) glycosyltransferase and type XVIII collagen are critical for motor growth cone migrationValerie A Schneider
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
Neuron 50:683-95. 2006..cloning of diwanka and show that it encodes LH3, a myotomally expressed multifunctional enzyme with lysyl hydroxylase and glycosyltransferase domains...
- Vitamin C and bone markers: investigations in a Gambian populationKaren Munday
Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK
Proc Nutr Soc 62:429-36. 2003..Vitamin C acts as a cofactor for the enzyme lysyl hydroxylase, which is required for the hydroxylation of lysine residues in procollagen chains...
- Overexpression of lysyl hydroxylase-2b leads to defective collagen fibrillogenesis and matrix mineralizationSuchaya Pornprasertsuk
Dental Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7455, USA
J Bone Miner Res 20:81-7. 2005....
- Cloning and characterization of a third human lysyl hydroxylase isoformK Passoja
Collagen Research Unit, Biocenter and Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oulu, FIN 90220 Oulu, Finland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10482-6. 1998b>Lysyl hydroxylase (EC 126.96.36.199), a homodimer, catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens. Recently, an isoenzyme termed lysyl hydroxylase 2 has been cloned from human sources [M. Valtavaara, H. Papponen, A.-M. Pirttilä, K...
- Lack of collagen type specificity for lysyl hydroxylase isoformsC Wang
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, Finland
DNA Cell Biol 19:71-7. 2000b>Lysyl hydroxylase is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of hydroxylysyl residues in collagens. Large differences in the extent of hydroxylysyl residues are found among collagen types...
- The let-268 locus of Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a procollagen lysyl hydroxylase that is essential for type IV collagen secretionK R Norman
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
Dev Biol 227:690-705. 2000..We have identified several mutations in a procollagen processing enzyme, lysyl hydroxylase (let-268)...
- The glycosyltransferase activities of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) in the extracellular space are important for cell growth and viabilityChunguang Wang
Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
J Cell Mol Med 13:508-21. 2009b>Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) isoform 3 is a post-translational enzyme possessing LH, collagen galactosyltransferase (GT) and glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities...
- Effect of minoxidil on rabbit lens epithelial cell behavior in vitro and in situI Ishida
Department of Ophthalmology, Wakayama Medical University, Kimiidera, Japan
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239:770-7. 2001..Minoxidil is an inhibitor of lysyl hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in procollagen hydroxylation...
- A therapeutic dose of FK506 does not affect collagen turnover pathways in healthy human gingival fibroblastsN Gagliano
Department of Human Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory EML, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Transplant Proc 40:1419-24. 2008..Collagen type I and III (COL-I, COL-III), lysyl hydroxylase 2b (LH2b), MMP-1 and -2, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA ..
- Lysyl hydroxylase-2b directs collagen cross-linking pathways in MC3T3-E1 cellsSuchaya Pornprasertsuk
Dental Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7455, USA
J Bone Miner Res 19:1349-55. 2004..The data indicate that LH2b directs collagen cross-linking pathways through its action on telopeptidyl lysine residues...
- Development of a convenient peptide-based assay for lysyl hydroxylaseMare Cudic
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431 0991, USA
Biopolymers 90:330-8. 2008..b>Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the hydroxylation of the C-5 position of a Lys residue, resulting in the production of Hyl...
- Tissue-specific expression and regulation of the alternatively-spliced forms of lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2) in human kidney cells and skin fibroblastsLinda C Walker
Division of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, Box 3135, NC 27710, USA
Matrix Biol 23:515-23. 2005..b>Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2) exists as two alternatively-spliced forms; the long transcript (the major ubiquitously-expressed ..
- Glycosylation catalyzed by lysyl hydroxylase 3 is essential for basement membranesHeli Ruotsalainen
Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, FI 90014 Oulu, Finland
J Cell Sci 119:625-35. 2006b>Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a multifunctional enzyme possessing lysyl hydroxylase (LH), hydroxylysyl galactosyltransferase (GT) and galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities in vitro...
- Tissue specificity of a new splice form of the human lysyl hydroxylase 2 geneH N Yeowell
Division of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Matrix Biol 18:179-87. 1999In this study we present the first report of alternative RNA splicing in a gene for lysyl hydroxylase (LH) in a normal population. This splicing event, which we have observed in the LH2 gene, appears to be tissue specific...
- Missense mutations that cause Bruck syndrome affect enzymatic activity, folding, and oligomerization of lysyl hydroxylase 2Marjo Hyry
Oulu Center for Cell Matrix Research, Biocenter Oulu, and Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oulu, FIN 90014 Oulu, Finland
J Biol Chem 284:30917-24. 2009..Three point mutations in lysyl hydroxylase (LH) 2, the enzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of collagen telopeptides, have been identified in Bruck ..
- Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Bruck syndrome (osteogenesis imperfecta with contractures of the large joints) caused by a recessive mutation in PLOD2Russia Ha-Vinh
Division of Molecular Pediatrics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Am J Med Genet A 131:115-20. 2004..One BS locus has been mapped at 17p12, but more recently, two mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase 2 gene (PLOD2, 3q23-q24) have been identified in BS, showing genetic heterogeneity...
- Reduction of lysyl hydroxylase 3 causes deleterious changes in the deposition and organization of extracellular matrixMaija Risteli
Department of Biochemistry, P O Box 3000, University of Oulu, FI 90014 Oulu, Finland
J Biol Chem 284:28204-11. 2009b>Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a multifunctional enzyme possessing lysyl hydroxylase, collagen galactosyltransferase, and glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities...
- Complete exon-intron organization of the gene for human lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3)K Rautavuoma
Collagen Research Unit, Biocenter and Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oulu, Kajaanintie 52 A, FIN 90220, Oulu, Finland
Matrix Biol 19:73-9. 2000b>Lysyl hydroxylase (LH) catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens and related proteins by the hydroxylation of lysine residues in peptide linkages. Three isoenzymes of LH have so far been characterized...
- Effects of elevated circulating IGF-1 on the extracellular matrix in "high-growth" C57BL/6J miceK Reiser
Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
Am J Physiol 271:R696-703. 1996..Expression of types I and III collagen, lysyl oxidase, and lysyl hydroxylase was increased in all tissues analyzed...
- Evidence that impaired intracellular collagen synthesis reduces proliferation in cultured rat hepatocytesH Ikeda
First Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:1701-7. 1994..The addition of P-1894B or minoxidil, which inhibits specifically prolyl hydroxylase or lysyl hydroxylase, respectively, also produced similar results...
- Differential effects of homocysteine and beta aminopropionitrile on preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cellsRoman Thaler
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria
Bone 46:703-9. 2010..increased the ratio of pyr/divalent cross-links of collagen, and down-regulated mRNA expression of lysyl hydroxylase (Plod2) and lysyl oxidase (Lox), genes which play an important role in the formation of a stable matrix...
- PITX2 isoform-specific regulation of atrial natriuretic factor expression: synergism and repression with Nkx2.5Mrudula Ganga
Department of Biological Science, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 3189, USA
J Biol Chem 278:22437-45. 2003..5. We further demonstrate that the procollagen lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD1) promoter is regulated by Nkx2.5. Mechanistically, PITX2C and Nkx2...
- Penicillin G does not alter collagen type I metabolism of dermal fibroblasts in cultureU Anderegg
Department of Dermatology, Leipzig University, and Saxon Academy of Science, Leipzig, Germany
Dermatology 200:111-4. 2000..Penicillin G (PenG) has successfully been used for therapy of dermal fibrosis in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, there is little knowledge on the mechanism of the antifibrotic action of PenG...
- cDNA cloning and expression of bovine aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylaseS Jia
Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486
J Biol Chem 267:14322-7. 1992..amino acid sequences of two other alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, prolyl-4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase, with that of Asp beta-hydroxylase showed no significant homologies...
- Crystal structure of the 2-oxoglutarate- and Fe(II)-dependent lysyl hydroxylase JMJD6Monica Mantri
Department of Chemistry and Oxford Centre for Integrative Systems Biology, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA, UK
J Mol Biol 401:211-22. 2010..Together with mutational studies, the structural data suggest how JMJD6 binds its lysyl residues such that it can catalyse C-5 hydroxylation rather than Nepsilon-demethylation, as for analogous enzymes...
- Genomic structure and embryonic expression of zebrafish lysyl hydroxylase 1 and lysyl hydroxylase 2Valerie A Schneider
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6058, USA
Matrix Biol 26:12-9. 2007Collagen biosynthesis in both invertebrates and vertebrates is critically dependent upon the activity of lysyl hydroxylase (LH) enzymes...
- Cloning and characterization of a novel human lysyl hydroxylase isoform highly expressed in pancreas and muscleM Valtavaara
Biocenter and Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, FIN 90570 Oulu, Finland
J Biol Chem 272:6831-4. 1997We report the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for a novel isoform of lysyl hydroxylase (lysyl hydroxylase 2), a posttranslational enzyme of collagen biosynthesis...
- The PuhB protein of Rhodobacter capsulatus functions in photosynthetic reaction center assembly with a secondary effect on light-harvesting complex 1Muktak Aklujkar
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, 300 6174 University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
J Bacteriol 187:1334-43. 2005..as Rhodobacter capsulatus consists of a reaction center (RC) intimately associated with light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1) and the PufX polypeptide...
- Variation in supramolecular organisation of the photosynthetic membrane of Rhodobacter sphaeroides induced by alteration of PufXKinga Sznee
Division of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Photosynth Res 119:243-56. 2014In purple bacteria of the genus Rhodobacter (Rba.), an LH1 antenna complex surrounds the photochemical reaction centre (RC) with a PufX protein preventing the LH1 complex from completely encircling the RC. In membranes of Rba...
- Minoxidil exerts different inhibitory effects on gene expression of lysyl hydroxylase 1, 2, and 3: implications for collagen cross-linking and treatment of fibrosisAnne Marie Zuurmond
TNO Quality of Life, Biomedical Research, Department of Tissue Repair, P O Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden, The Netherlands
Matrix Biol 24:261-70. 2005..Based on its inhibitory effect on lysyl hydroxylase activity minoxidil has been postulated to possess anti-fibrotic properties by limiting the hydroxylysine ..
- Phenotypic variability of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA): clinical, molecular and biochemical delineationMarianne Rohrbach
Division of Metabolism, University Children s Hospital and Children s Research Centre, Zurich, Switzerland
Orphanet J Rare Dis 6:46. 2011..OMIM 225400) is a rare inheritable connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficiency of collagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1; EC 188.8.131.52) due to mutations in PLOD1...
- Excitation energy trapping and dissipation by Ni-substituted bacteriochlorophyll a in reconstituted LH1 complexes from Rhodospirillum rubrumPetar H Lambrev
Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Temesvari krt 62, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
J Phys Chem B 117:11260-71. 2013..the central Mg(2+) ion was used as an ultrafast excitation energy dissipation center in reconstituted bacterial LH1 complexes...
- Carotenoid charge transfer states and their role in energy transfer processes in LH1-RC complexes from aerobic anoxygenic phototrophsVáclav Slouf
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
J Phys Chem B 117:10987-99. 2013..In the present work, transient absorption measurements were performed on LH1-RC complexes isolated from two aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs), Roseobacter sp...
- Does the reconstitution of RC-LH1 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 into a phospholipid bilayer yield the optimum environment for optical spectroscopy?Paul S Böhm
Experimental Physics IV and Bayreuth Institute for Macromolecular Research BIMF, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
J Phys Chem B 117:15004-13. 2013We have investigated reaction-center light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) complexes from Rhodopseudomonas (Rps...
- Characterization of collagenous peptides bound to lysyl hydroxylase isoformsMaija Risteli
Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, P O Box 3000, FIN 90014, University of Oulu, Finland
J Biol Chem 279:37535-43. 2004b>Lysyl hydroxylase (LH, EC 184.108.40.206) is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of hydroxylysyl residues in collagens and other proteins with collagenous domains...
- Structure, function and interactions of the PufX proteinKate Holden-Dye
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD, United Kingdom
Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:613-30. 2008The PufX protein is an important component of the reaction centre-light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) complex of Rhodobacter species of purple photosynthetic bacteria...
- Influence of hydrophobic micelle structure on crystallization of the photosynthetic RC-LH1-PufX complex from Rhodobacter blasticusLaurie Anne Barret
Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron IBMM UMR 5247 CNRS Universités Montpellier 1 et 2, Chimie Bioorganique et Systèmes Amphiphiles, Universite d Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, 33 rue Louis Pasteur, F 84000 Avignon, France
J Phys Chem B 117:8770-81. 2013..percentages of polyethylene glycol 3350, in order to correlate surfactant intermicellar interactions and RC-LH1-PufX phase diagram...
- Functional consequences of the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. I. Quinone domains and excitation transfer in chromatophores and reaction center.antenna complexesFrédéric Comayras
Unité Mixte de Recherche 6191 CNRS Commissariat à l Energie Atomique Aix Marseille II, Département d Ecophysiologie Végétale et de Microbiologie, Commissariat à l Energie Atomique Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 280:11203-13. 2005..Isolated complexes of the reaction center (RC) with its core antenna ring (light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1)) were studied in their dimeric (native) form or as monomers with respect to excitation transfer and distribution ..
- Structure of the dimeric RC-LH1-PufX complex from Rhodobaca bogoriensis investigated by electron microscopyDmitry A Semchonok
Electron Microscopy Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, Groningen, The Netherlands
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:3412-9. 2012..microscopy and single-particle averaging were performed on isolated reaction centre (RC)-antenna complexes (RC-LH1-PufX complexes) of Rhodobaca bogoriensis strain LBB1, with the aim of establishing the LH1 antenna conformation, ..
- The activities of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) regulate the amount and oligomerization status of adiponectinHeli Ruotsalainen
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
PLoS ONE 7:e50045. 2012b>Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) has lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase, and glucosyltransferase activities, which are sequentially required for the formation of glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysines in collagens...
- Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes shows consistent longitudinal downregulation of TOMM40 and upregulation of KIR2DL5A, PLOD1, and SLC2A8 among fast progressors in early Alzheimer's diseaseMei Sian Chong
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
J Alzheimers Dis 34:399-405. 2013....
- Increasing the open-circuit voltage of photoprotein-based photoelectrochemical cells by manipulation of the vacuum potential of the electrolytesSwee Ching Tan
Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FF, UK
ACS Nano 6:9103-9. 2012..work explored the basis of the open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) produced by such cells with reaction center/antenna (RC-LH1) proteins as the photovoltaic component...
- Loss-of-function mutations of CHST14 in a new type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromeNoriko Miyake
Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236 0004, Japan
Hum Mutat 31:966-74. 2010..A new type of EDS, similar to kyphoscoliosis type but without lysyl hydroxylase deficiency, has been investigated...
- Metal cations modulate the bacteriochlorophyll-protein interaction in the light-harvesting 1 core complex from Thermochromatium tepidumYukihiro Kimura
Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe, Japan
Biochim Biophys Acta 1817:1022-9. 2012The light-harvesting 1 reaction center (LH1-RC) complex from Thermochromatium (Tch...
- Coupling of different isolated photosynthetic light harvesting complexes and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals via Förster resonance energy transferF J Schmitt
Institute of Chemistry, Biophysical Chemistry, Berlin Institute of Technology, Berlin, Germany
Biochim Biophys Acta 1817:1461-70. 2012..complexes from the light-harvesting antennae of photosynthetic organisms (light-harvesting complexes 1 and 2 (LH1 and LH2, respectively) from purple bacteria, phycobiliproteins (PBPs) from cyanobacteria and the rod-shaped PBP ..
- Regulation of lysyl oxidase mRNA in dermal fibroblasts from normal donors and patients with inherited connective tissue disordersH N Yeowell
Division of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
Arch Biochem Biophys 308:299-305. 1994..increases the mRNAs for both the alpha and the beta subunits of prolyl hydroxylase (PH) and the mRNAs for lysyl hydroxylase, also increased LO mRNA by fourfold over a 72-h time course...
- The solution structure of the PufX polypeptide from Rhodobacter sphaeroidesRichard B Tunnicliffe
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
FEBS Lett 580:6967-71. 2006PufX organizes the photosynthetic reaction centre-light harvesting complex 1 (RC-LH1) core complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and facilitates quinol/quinone exchange between the RC and cytochrome bc(1) complexes...
- Carotenoids are essential for normal levels of dimerisation of the RC-LH1-PufX core complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: characterisation of R-26 as a crtB (phytoene synthase) mutantIrene W Ng
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
Biochim Biophys Acta 1807:1056-63. 2011..to examine the effects of carotenoids on the oligomeric state of the reaction centre-light-harvesting 1 -PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) core complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides two carotenoid-less mutants, TC70 and R-26, were studied...
- Hypoglicemic effect of Leandra lacunosa in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic ratsW R Cunha
Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Franca, Franca, Avenida Dr Armando Salles de Oliveira, 201 14404 600 Franca SP, Brazil
Fitoterapia 79:356-60. 2008..lacunosa aerial parts (LLH) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats...
- Light-harvesting antenna system from the phototrophic bacterium Roseiflexus castenholziiAaron M Collins
Department of Biology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA
Biochemistry 49:7524-31. 2010..that 3C-acetyl groups of BChl a are all involved in molecular interactions probably similar to those found in LH1 complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria...
- Dendritic cell-derived interferon-gamma-induced protein mediates tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation of human lung fibroblastsWupeng Liao
Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Proteomics 8:2640-50. 2008..levels of myxovirus resistance protein A, interferon-stimulated gene 15, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, lysyl hydroxylase 2 (isoform a), and prolyl 4-hydroxylase (alpha subunit) in human lung fibroblasts...
- Immobilization of porphyrin derivatives with a defined distance and orientation onto a gold electrode using synthetic light-harvesting α-helix hydrophobic polypeptidesTsuyoshi Ochiai
Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso cho, Showa Ku, Nagoya 466 8555, Japan
Langmuir 26:14419-22. 2010..This method is clearly successful in allowing assembly of porphyrins together with LH1 type functional complexes with a defined distance and orientation on the electrode...
- Three-dimensional reconstruction of a membrane-bending complex: the RC-LH1-PufX core dimer of Rhodobacter sphaeroidesPu Qian
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom
J Biol Chem 283:14002-11. 2008A three-dimensional model of the dimeric reaction center-light harvesting I-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, calculated from electron microscope single particle analysis of negatively stained complexes, shows that ..
- Direct visualization of exciton reequilibration in the LH1 and LH2 complexes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by multipulse spectroscopyThomas A Cohen Stuart
Faculty of Sciences, Free University of Amsterdam, De Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Biophys J 100:2226-33. 2011The dynamics of the excited states of the light-harvesting complexes LH1 and LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are governed, mainly, by the excitonic nature of these ring-systems...
- Characterisation of the Drosophila procollagen lysyl hydroxylase, dPlodStephanie Bunt
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
Gene Expr Patterns 11:72-8. 2011The lysyl hydroxylase (LH) family of enzymes has important roles in the biosynthesis of collagen. In this paper we present the first description of Drosophila LH3 (dPlod), the only lysyl hydroxylase encoded in the fly genome...
- Substrate specificity of platypus venom L-to-D-peptide isomeraseParamjit S Bansal
School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
J Biol Chem 283:8969-75. 2008..None of the hexapeptides based on LLH, the first three residues of OvCNP, were substrates...
- Lysyl hydroxylase 3 is secreted from cells by two pathwaysChunguang Wang
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
J Cell Physiol 227:668-75. 2012b>Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a post-translational modification enzyme with lysyl hydroxylase (LH), collagen galactosyltransferase (GT), and glucosyltransferase (GGT) activities...
- Actinotrichia collagens and their role in fin formationI Duran
Department of Cell Biology, Genetics and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
Dev Biol 354:160-72. 2011..Both col1a1a and col2a1b were found in actinotrichia forming cells. Significantly, they also expressed the lysyl hydroxylase 1 (lh1) gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the post-translational processing of collagens...
- Dark excited States of carotenoid regulated by bacteriochlorophyll in photosynthetic light harvestingRyosuke Nakamura
Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba ku, Sendai, Japan
J Phys Chem B 115:3233-9. 2011..We performed femtosecond TA spectroscopy combined with pre-excitation of BChl in the reconstituted LH1 complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum S1...
- Collagen cross-linking by adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and scar-derived mesenchymal cells: Are mesenchymal stromal cells involved in scar formation?Antoon J van den Bogaerdt
Association of Dutch Burn Centres, Beverwijk, The Netherlands
Wound Repair Regen 17:548-58. 2009..The enzyme lysyl hydroxylase-2b (LH-2b) plays a crucial role in this type of cross-linking...
- Fox-2 protein regulates the alternative splicing of scleroderma-associated lysyl hydroxylase 2 messenger RNAPuneet Seth
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Arthritis Rheum 62:1167-75. 2010..b>Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an important alternatively spliced enzyme in collagen biosynthesis, acts as a collagen telopeptide ..
- Energy migration as related to the mutual position and orientation of donor and acceptor molecules in LH1 and LH2 antenna complexes of purple bacteriaA Y Borisov
A N Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob ev Hills, Moscow, 119992, Russia
Photosynth Res 97:215-22. 2008..The corrected magnitudes of interaction energies of neighboring bacteriochlorophyll molecules in LH2 and LH1 light-absorbing complexes are calculated for the class of photosynthetic purple bacteria...
- Light harvesting, energy transfer and electron cycling of a native photosynthetic membrane adsorbed onto a gold surfaceGerhard J Magis
Biophysics, Leiden University, P O Box 9502, 2300RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Biochim Biophys Acta 1798:637-45. 2010..The component at the interface of light harvesting and electron cycling, the LH1 complex, displays exceptional stability, likely contributing to the robustness of the membranes...
- Exploring electron spin-spin interactions of paramagnetic iron and radical cations of bacteriochlorophyll from oxidized LH1 in the presence of electron transfer in the frozen statePetersen L Hasjim
Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
J Phys Chem B 114:14194-9. 2010Cation free radicals of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl(+)) are formed in the light harvesting complex 1 (LH1) of photosynthetic bacteria upon oxidation by potassium ferricyanide...
- Digenic inheritance of mutations in FOXC1 and PITX2 : correlating transcription factor function and Axenfeld-Rieger disease severityDaniel Kelberman
Ulverscroft Vision Research Group, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
Hum Mutat 32:1144-52. 2011..This suggests an under-reported mechanism for phenotypic variability whereby single mutations cause mild AR phenotypes, whereas digenic inheritance increases phenotypic severity...
- ENDOR study of charge migration in photosynthetic arrays of Rhodobacter sphaeroidesPetersen L Hasjim
Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Chemphyschem 11:1258-64. 2010..in the dark, cation radicals of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) can be formed in the light harvesting complex 1 (LH1) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides...
- Enhanced transforming growth factor-beta signaling and fibrogenesis in ovine fetal skeletal muscle of obese dams at late gestationYan Huang
Center for the Study of Fetal Programming, Department of Animal Science, University ofWyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E1254-60. 2010..In addition, enzymes involved in collagen synthesis, including lysyl oxidase, lysyl hydroxylase 2b, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase-alpha1, were increased by 350.2 +/- 90.0 (P < 0.05), 236.5 +/- 25...
- Selective chemical shift assignment of bacteriochlorophyll a in uniformly [13C-15N]-labeled light-harvesting 1 complexes by solid-state NMR in ultrahigh magnetic fieldAnjali Pandit
Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
J Phys Chem B 114:6207-15. 2010..the electronic ground state characteristics of the bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) cofactors in light-harvesting 1 (LH1) complexes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila (strain 10050)...
- Mechanistic and structural studies of the N-hydroxylating flavoprotein monooxygenasesJose Olucha
Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, United States
Bioorg Chem 39:171-7. 2011..the ornithine hydroxylases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PvdA) and Aspergillus fumigatus (SidA) and the lysine hydroxylase from Escherichia coli (IucD)...
- The Pitx2c N-terminal domain is a critical interaction domain required for asymmetric morphogenesisAnnie Simard
The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Dev Dyn 238:2459-70. 2009..5 to transactivate the procollagen lysyl hydroxylase (Plod-1) promoter in transient transfection assays...
- Quinone pathways in entire photosynthetic chromatophores of Rhodospirillum photometricumLu Ning Liu
Institut Curie, Equipe INSERM AVENIR, UMR168 CNRS, 26 Rue d Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France
J Mol Biol 393:27-35. 2009In photosynthetic organisms, membrane pigment-protein complexes [light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1) and light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2)] harvest solar energy and convert sunlight into an electrical and redox potential gradient (reaction ..
- SANS investigation of the photosynthetic machinery of Chloroflexus aurantiacusKuo Hsiang Tang
Department of Biology, Washington University in St Louis, Missouri, USA
Biophys J 99:2398-407. 2010..aurantiacus is roughly comparable to the LH1 antenna complex of the purple bacteria...
- First-principle calculations on CO oxidation catalyzed by a gold nanoparticleHsin Tsung Chen
National Center for High Performance Computing, No 28, Nan Ke 3rd Road, Hsin Shi, Tainan 74147, Taiwan
J Comput Chem 31:258-65. 2010..72 eV; the potential energies of the two transition states (TS(LH1) and TS(LH2)) are smaller than the reactants, indicating that no net activation energy is required for this process...
- Atomic force microscopy studies of native photosynthetic membranesJames N Sturgis
Laboratoire d Ingenierie des Systemes Macromoleculaires, UPR 9027, Aix Marseille Universite, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseilles, France
Biochemistry 48:3679-98. 2009..ICM of Blastochloris viridis, consiting of hexagonally packed monomeric reaction center light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complexes...
- The effects of protein crowding in bacterial photosynthetic membranes on the flow of quinone redox species between the photochemical reaction center and the ubiquinol-cytochrome c2 oxidoreductaseKamil Woronowicz
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Busch Campus, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 8082, USA
Metallomics 3:765-74. 2011..This supports the proposal that in this type of ICM, a network of RC-LH1 core complexes observed in AFM provides a pathway for long-range quinone diffusion that is unaffected by ..
- Specific Ca2+-binding motif in the LH1 complex from photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum as revealed by optical spectroscopy and structural modelingFei Ma
Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China
FEBS J 276:1739-49. 2009Native and Ca(2+)-depleted light-harvesting-reaction center core complexes (LH1-RC) from the photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum exhibit maximal LH1-Q(y) absorption at 915 and 889 nm, respectively...
- SKIN REACTION TO LIGHT--NORMAL, PHOTOSENSITIVITY, CANCERMADHUKAR PATHAK; Fiscal Year: 1992..determination of Type I and III collagen, cross-links and collagen, changes in 4-OH-prolyl-4'- hydroxylase, lysyl hydroxylase, desmosine, isodesmosine, and proteoglycans and evaluation of the role of certain free radical scavengers ..
- MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF COLLAGEN IN PROLAPSEAnthony Visco; Fiscal Year: 2002..for the cross-linking process and the level of hydroxylation varies among tissues, Lysyl oxidase and lysyl hydroxylase are two enzymes involved in the early steps of the cross-linking process...
- TWO CANDIDATE GENES LINKED TO LOW BONE DENSITYLORETTA SPOTILA; Fiscal Year: 2001..Two candidate genes located within this interval are PLOD, the gene for lysyl hydroxylase, and TNFR2, the gene for tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2...
- LUNG COLLAGEN CROSSLINKING--BIOSYNTHESIS AND MATURATIONJerold Last; Fiscal Year: 1992..collagen" from "normal collagen" in the lung; (ii) that this difference is mediated by increased activity of lysyl hydroxylase in the (pre)fibrotic lung; and (iii) that once crosslinked, "fibrotic collagen" in the lung is not subject ..
- COLLAGEN BIOSYNTHESIS IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTSSheldon Pinnell; Fiscal Year: 1999..mechanisms responsible for: (1) Inhibition of collagen synthesis by benzoic hydrazide; and (2) inhibition of lysyl hydroxylase expression by minoxidil...
- REGULATION OF COLLAGEN MATRIX MINERALIZATIONMitsuo Yamauchi; Fiscal Year: 2007..To establish osteoblastic cell clones that synthesize low levels of lysyl hydroxylase-2 to switch the cross-linking pathway from mineralized to non-mineralized tissue phenotype, 1b...
- CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMBRANE PROTEIN BY SSNMRAnn McDermott; Fiscal Year: 2001..and side-chain chemical shifts of hydrated micro-crystalline U-13C, 15N BPTI and of the intrinsic membrane protein, LH1. Typical 13C peak linewidths are 0...
- Structural Studies of Photosynthetic Membrane ProteinsMATTHEW CRADDOCK; Fiscal Year: 2007..understanding of this efficiency is a detailed structural knowledge of the major components of the antenna system, LH1, LH2, and the Reaction Center (RC), which are all membrane proteins...
- MEMBRANE PROTEINS--STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS AND STABILITYCRAIG SCHENCK; Fiscal Year: 2002..b>LH1 protein, a 200 kD hetero-oligomeric membrane protein from photoheterotrophic eubacteria, undergoes multiple ..
- CLIENTS WHO SEEK ON-LINE DRUG TREATMENTMAMIE WONG; Fiscal Year: 2003..Without this "cultural competence," investigators may plod forth with increasingly complex studies that yield equally complex findings, with unknown generalizability to ..
- CHARACTERIZATION OF LYSYL HYDROXYLASE ISOFORMS IN SKINHeather Yeowell; Fiscal Year: 2008..The identity of the telopeptide lysyl hydroxylase therefore becomes important to establish...