Gene Symbol: LYNX1
Description: Ly6/neurotoxin 1
Alias: ly-6/neurotoxin-like protein 1, Ly-6 neurotoxin-like protein 1, endogenous prototoxin LYNX1, testicular tissue protein Li 112
Species: human
Products:     LYNX1

Top Publications

  1. Tsuji H, Okamoto K, Matsuzaka Y, Iizuka H, Tamiya G, Inoko H. SLURP-2, a novel member of the human Ly-6 superfamily that is up-regulated in psoriasis vulgaris. Genomics. 2003;81:26-33 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that SLURP-2 may be involved in the pathophysiology of psoriasis through its role in keratinocyte hyperproliferation and/or T cell differentiation/activation. ..
  2. Arredondo J, Chernyavsky A, Jolkovsky D, Webber R, Grando S. SLURP-2: A novel cholinergic signaling peptide in human mucocutaneous epithelium. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:238-45 pubmed
  3. Kawahara A, Morita H, Yanagi K, Ishizaka T, Taimatsu K, Ohga R. Developmental expression of the slurp-like1/ly2.3/ly97.3 and slurp-like2/ly2.2/ly97.2 genes during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2018;30:32-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential expression profiles of the slurp-like1 and slurp-like2 genes suggest the distinct physiological involvement of these genes in zebrafish early embryogenesis. ..
  4. Tsetlin V. Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological tools and endogenous modulators. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015;36:109-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsets of two groups, represented by α-neurotoxins and Lynx1, respectively, interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and, hence, are of therapeutic interest for ..
  5. Thomsen M, Mikkelsen J. The ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex: one, two or multiple drug targets?. Curr Drug Targets. 2012;13:707-20 pubmed
    ..the action of such compounds in vivo is highly dependent on ?7 nAChR-interacting proteins, such as RIC-3 and lynx1, which modulate expression and function of the receptor...
  6. Tiezzi F, Parker Gaddis K, Cole J, Clay J, Maltecca C. A genome-wide association study for clinical mastitis in first parity US Holstein cows using single-step approach and genomic matrix re-weighting procedure. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0114919 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA) are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6) known for its neutrophil regulation ..
  7. Demars M, Morishita H. Cortical parvalbumin and somatostatin GABA neurons express distinct endogenous modulators of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Mol Brain. 2014;7:75 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that two of the Lynx family members, Lynx1 and Lypd6, are enriched in interneuron populations in cortex...
  8. Nichols W, Henderson B, Yu C, Parker R, RICHARDS C, Lester H, et al. Lynx1 shifts α4β2 nicotinic receptor subunit stoichiometry by affecting assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that lynx1 also exerts effects on α4β2 nAChRs within the endoplasmic reticulum...
  9. Huang T, Nguyen L, Lin T, Gong X, Zhang L, Kim G, et al. In utero electroporation-based translating ribosome affinity purification identifies age-dependent mRNA expression in cortical pyramidal neurons. Neurosci Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..These include upregulation of Lynx1, Nrn1, Cntnap1 over time; downregulation of St8sia2 and Draxin; and bidirectional changes to Fkbp1b...

More Information


  1. Allan C, Procaccia S, Tran D, Tu Y, Barnes R, Larsson M, et al. Palmoplantar Keratoderma in Slurp2-Deficient Mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:436-443 pubmed publisher
    ..Slurp2X(-/-) mice exhibited the same disease phenotypes. Thus, Slurp2 deficiency and Slurp1 deficiencies cause the same disease phenotypes. ..
  2. Lyukmanova E, Shulepko M, Shenkarev Z, Bychkov M, Paramonov A, Chugunov A, et al. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2): Spatial Structure and Pharmacology of Interactions with Different Types of Acetylcholine Receptors. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30698 pubmed publisher
    ..Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the 'classical' orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs. ..
  3. Bukhari N, Burman P, Hussein A, Demars M, Sadahiro M, Brady D, et al. Unmasking Proteolytic Activity for Adult Visual Cortex Plasticity by the Removal of Lynx1. J Neurosci. 2015;35:12693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..of monocular deprivation when the mice older than 2 months are raised in standard cages by the genetic removal of Lynx1, a negative regulator of adult plasticity...
  4. Faure G, Shelukhina I, Porowińska D, Shulepko M, Lyukmanova E, Dolgikh D, et al. Interaction of three-finger proteins from snake venoms and from mammalian brain with the cys-loop receptors and their models. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016;468:193-6 pubmed publisher
    With the use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) it was shown that ws-Lynx1, a water-soluble analog of the three-finger membrane-bound protein Lynx1, that modulates the activity of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), ..
  5. Sajo M, Ellis Davies G, Morishita H. Lynx1 Limits Dendritic Spine Turnover in the Adult Visual Cortex. J Neurosci. 2016;36:9472-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lynx1, an endogenous inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, was previously shown to increase its expression in ..
  6. Sadahiro M, Sajo M, Morishita H. Nicotinic regulation of experience-dependent plasticity in visual cortex. J Physiol Paris. 2016;110:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We introduce the Lynx family of proteins and Lynx1 as its representative, as endogenous proteins structurally similar to ?-bungarotoxin with the ability to bind and ..
  7. Takesian A, Bogart L, Lichtman J, Hensch T. Inhibitory circuit gating of auditory critical-period plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 2018;21:218-227 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental transitions in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) sensitivity in these cells caused by Lynx1 protein can be overridden to extend critical-period closure...
  8. Thomsen M, Arvaniti M, Jensen M, Shulepko M, Dolgikh D, Pinborg L, et al. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. Neurobiol Aging. 2016;46:13-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)...
  9. George A, Bloy A, Miwa J, Lindstrom J, Lukas R, Whiteaker P. Isoform-specific mechanisms of α3β4*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulation by the prototoxin lynx1. FASEB J. 2017;31:1398-1420 pubmed publisher
    ..our knowledge-the existence and mechanisms of functional interactions between the endogenous mammalian prototoxin, lynx1, and α3- and β4-subunit-containing human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α3β4*-nAChRs)...
  10. Vasilyeva N, Loktyushov E, Bychkov M, Shenkarev Z, Lyukmanova E. Three-Finger Proteins from the Ly6/uPAR Family: Functional Diversity within One Structural Motif. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:1702-1715 pubmed publisher
    ..For some of them (Lynx1, SLURP-1, SLURP-2, Lypd6), as well as for snake α-neurotoxins, the target of action is nicotinic acetylcholine ..
  11. Lyukmanova E, Shulepko M, Kudryavtsev D, Bychkov M, Kulbatskii D, Kasheverov I, et al. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149733 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to rSLURP-1, other inhibitors of α7-nAChRs (mecamylamine, α-bungarotoxin and Lynx1) did not suppress the proliferation of keratinocytes...
  12. Kaut O, Schmitt I, Hofmann A, Hoffmann P, Schlaepfer T, Wüllner U, et al. Aberrant NMDA receptor DNA methylation detected by epigenome-wide analysis of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in major depression. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015;265:331-41 pubmed publisher
  13. Fu X, Song P, Spindel E. Role of Lynx1 and related Ly6 proteins as modulators of cholinergic signaling in normal and neoplastic bronchial epithelium. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;29:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple members of the ly-6 protein family can modulate nicotinic signaling including lynx1, lynx2, slurp-1, slurp-2 and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)...
  14. Miwa J, Ibanez Tallon I, Crabtree G, Sanchez R, Sali A, Role L, et al. lynx1, an endogenous toxin-like modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the mammalian CNS. Neuron. 1999;23:105-14 pubmed
    ..A novel murine gene, lynx1, is highly expressed in the brain and contains the cysteine-rich motif characteristic of this class of neurotoxins...
  15. Song P, Sekhon H, Fu X, Maier M, Jia Y, Duan J, et al. Activated cholinergic signaling provides a target in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lynx1, an allosteric inhibitor of nAChR activity, was also decreased in SCC...
  16. Lee J, Lee Y, Yoo K, Lee K, Park K, Ahn T, et al. LY-6K gene: a novel molecular marker for human breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1211-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that LY-6K is not only a target antigen for HNSCC but also a significant new molecular marker for diagnosis and gene therapy in patients with breast cancer. ..
  17. Spindel E. Cholinergic Targets in Lung Cancer. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22:2152-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the newly describe family of ly-6 allosteric modulators of nicotinic signaling such as lynx1 and lynx2 offers yet another new approach to novel lung cancer therapeutics...
  18. Parker R, O Neill H, Henley B, Wageman C, Drenan R, Marks M, et al. Deletion of lynx1 reduces the function of ?6* nicotinic receptors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188715 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lynx1 modulates several nAChR subtypes; lynx1-nAChR interaction sites could possibly provide drug targets...
  19. Ibanez Tallon I, Miwa J, Wang H, Adams N, Crabtree G, Sine S, et al. Novel modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by association with the endogenous prototoxin lynx1. Neuron. 2002;33:893-903 pubmed
    We previously identified lynx1 as a neuronal membrane molecule related to snake alpha-neurotoxins able to modulate nAChRs. Here, we show that lynx1 colocalizes with nAChRs on CNS neurons and physically associates with nAChRs...
  20. Lyukmanova E, Shenkarev Z, Shulepko M, Mineev K, D hoedt D, Kasheverov I, et al. NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10618-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family ..
  21. Choi S, Kong H, Park S, Park J. Metastatic effect of LY-6K gene in breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:601-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that LY-6K meaningfully participates in breast cancer cell metastasis by influencing cell migration and invasion through the Ras/ERK pathway. ..
  22. Chernyavsky A, Galitovskiy V, Shchepotin I, Grando S. Anti-inflammatory effects of the nicotinergic peptides SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 on human intestinal epithelial cells and immunocytes. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:609086 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining both SLURPs amplified their anti-inflammatory effects. Learning the pharmacology of SLURP-1 and -2 actions on enterocytes, colonocytes, T cells, and macrophages may help develop novel effective treatments of IBD. ..
  23. Smith M, Glicksberg B, Li L, Chen R, Morishita H, Dudley J. Loss-of-function of neuroplasticity-related genes confers risk for human neurodevelopmental disorders. Pac Symp Biocomput. 2018;23:68-79 pubmed
    ..expressed genes found in two mouse models of juvenile-like elevated plasticity (juvenile wild-type or adult Lynx1-/- relative to adult wild-type) that were also genotyped in the Mount Sinai BioMe Biobank we identified multiple ..
  24. Moriwaki Y, Takada K, Tsuji S, Kawashima K, Misawa H. Transcriptional regulation of SLURP2, a psoriasis-associated gene, is under control of IL-22 in the skin: A special reference to the nested gene LYNX1. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;29:71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Some endogenously expressed Ly6SF proteins (such as LYNX1, SLURP-1, and SLURP-2) modulate the function of nAChR, either as allosteric and/or orthosteric modulators, or as ..
  25. Lyukmanova E, Shulepko M, Buldakova S, Kasheverov I, Shenkarev Z, Reshetnikov R, et al. Water-soluble LYNX1 residues important for interaction with muscle-type and/or neuronal nicotinic receptors. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:15888-99 pubmed publisher
    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)...
  26. Arredondo J, Chernyavsky A, Grando S. Overexpression of SLURP-1 and -2 alleviates the tumorigenic action of tobacco-derived nitrosamine on immortalized oral epithelial cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;74:1315-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the anti-tumorigenic activities of SLURP-1 and -2 were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The obtained results suggest that SLURP-like proteins may become useful for developing novel anti-cancer therapies. ..