Gene Symbol: LTA
Description: lymphotoxin alpha
Alias: TNFB, TNFSF1, TNLG1E, lymphotoxin-alpha, LT-alpha, TNF superfamily, member 1, TNF-beta, truncated lymphotoxin alpha, tumor necrosis factor beta, tumor necrosis factor ligand 1E, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 1
Species: human
Products:     LTA

Top Publications

  1. . Polymorphisms in the BRCA1 and ABCB1 genes modulate menopausal hormone therapy associated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:727-36 pubmed publisher cell cycle regulation (BRCA1, P21/CDKN1A, STK15/AURKA and TP53), six cytokine genes (IGFBP3, IL6, TGFB1, TNF, LTA and IGF1), and two cytokine receptor genes (EGFR and ERBB2) were genotyped using validated methods...
  2. Bilolikar H, Nam A, Rosenthal M, Davies J, Henderson D, Balfour Lynn I. Tumour necrosis factor gene polymorphisms and childhood wheezing. Eur Respir J. 2005;26:637-46 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these findings may have implications for future early intervention studies by helping to identify infants at increased risk for wheezing and childhood asthma. ..
  3. Kobayashi Y, Miyamoto D, Asada M, Obinata M, Osawa T. Cloning and expression of human lymphotoxin mRNA derived from a human T cell hybridoma. J Biochem. 1986;100:727-33 pubmed
    ..The results obtained strongly suggested that the intactness of the C terminal less than 10 residues is required for the LT activity. ..
  4. Ryan A, O Brien E, Shields D, McManus R. Lack of association between NFKBIL1/LTA polymorphisms and hypertension, myocardial infarct, unstable angina and stable angina in a large Irish population sample. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:465-6 pubmed
  5. Nedwin G, Naylor S, Sakaguchi A, Smith D, Jarrett Nedwin J, Pennica D, et al. Human lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor genes: structure, homology and chromosomal localization. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:6361-73 pubmed
    ..In addition, these genes are closely linked and have been mapped to human chromosome 6. However, only the last exons of both genes, which code for more than 80 percent of each secreted protein, are significantly homologous (56 percent). ..
  6. Panoulas V, Nikas S, Smith J, Douglas K, Nightingale P, Milionis H, et al. Lymphotoxin 252A>G polymorphism is common and associates with myocardial infarction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:1550-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The LT-A 252GG genotype occurs more frequently among patients with RA than the general population. In RA, this genotype appears to associate with increased likelihood of suffering an myocardial infarction. ..
  7. Takei K, Ikeda S, Arai T, Tanaka N, Muramatsu M, Sawabe M. Lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphisms and presence of cancer in 1,536 consecutive autopsy cases. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:235 pubmed publisher
    Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-tumor activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether LTA polymorphisms influence the presence of cancer...
  8. Eck M, Ultsch M, Rinderknecht E, de Vos A, Sprang S. The structure of human lymphotoxin (tumor necrosis factor-beta) at 1.9-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:2119-22 pubmed
  9. Koch W, Hoppmann P, Michou E, Jung V, Pfeufer A, Mueller J, et al. Association of variants in the BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA genomic region with protection against myocardial infarction in Europeans. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1821-7 pubmed
    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA genomic region (6p21.3) and the LGALS2 gene (22q13...

More Information


  1. Emu B, Luca D, Offutt C, Grogan J, Rojkovich B, Williams M, et al. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and biologic activity of pateclizumab, a novel monoclonal antibody targeting lymphotoxin α: results of a phase I randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R6 pubmed publisher
    ..4% for placebo. Pateclizumabwas generally well-tolerated in RA patients. Preliminary evidence of clinical activity was observed in active RA patients at the dose level targeted for clinical effect. ..
  2. Ishii M, Shimizu S, Sakairi Y, Nagamine A, Naito Y, Hosaka Y, et al. MAOA, MTHFR, and TNF-? genes polymorphisms and personality traits in the pathogenesis of migraine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;363:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..including monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) T941G, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, and tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF-?) G252?, and the neuroticism and conscientiousness scores in NEO-FFI were selected as significant ..
  3. Zhou P, Huang W, Chu X, Du L, Li J, Zhang C. The lymphotoxin-? 252A>G polymorphism and breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:1949-52 pubmed
    The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate associations between LTA-252 A>G and breast cancer (BC). Electronic searches of several databases were conducted for all online publications...
  4. Zeggini E, Groves C, Parkinson J, Halford S, Owen K, Frayling T, et al. Large-scale studies of the association between variation at the TNF/LTA locus and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2005;48:2013-7 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the coding non-synonymous variant T60N in the neighbouring LTA gene has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes...
  5. Yamada A, Ichihara S, Murase Y, Kato T, Izawa H, Nagata K, et al. Lack of association of polymorphisms of the lymphotoxin alpha gene with myocardial infarction in Japanese. J Mol Med (Berl). 2004;82:477-83 pubmed
    Vascular inflammation plays an important role in the development of myocardial infarction (MI). Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) is a cytokine with multiple functions in regulation of the immune system and inflammatory reactions...
  6. Lee S, Kim B, Yook J, Oh S, Lee I, Song K. TNF/LTA polymorphisms and risk for gastric cancer/duodenal ulcer in the Korean population. Cytokine. 2004;28:75-82 pubmed
    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) are proinflammatory cytokines with immunoregulatory effects. TNF is also known to inhibit gastric acid secretion...
  7. Sharma S, Ghosh B, Sharma S. Association of TNF polymorphisms with sarcoidosis, its prognosis and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels in Asian Indians. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;151:251-9 pubmed
    ..potentially functional promoter polymorphisms in the TNFA gene and a LTA_NcoI polymorphism (+252 position) of the LTA gene were genotyped in a clinically well-defined cohort of North-Indian patients with sarcoidosis (n = 96) and ..
  8. Gaudet M, Egan K, Lissowska J, Newcomb P, Brinton L, Titus Ernstoff L, et al. Genetic variation in tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin-alpha (TNF-LTA) and breast cancer risk. Hum Genet. 2007;121:483-90 pubmed
    ..rs361525, and rs1800610) to capture most of the genetic variation in TNF in addition to SNPs in lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), a pro-inflammatory cytokine in linkage disequilibrium with the TNF promoter region...
  9. Kankova K, Muzik J, Karaskova J, Beranek M, Hajek D, Znojil V, et al. Duration of non-Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the TNF-beta NcoI genotype as predictive factors in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:294-8 pubmed
    ..The TNF-beta2 allele could be regarded as a separate genetic risk factor that increases the relative incidence of PDR in patients with NIDDM. ..
  10. Tiancha H, Huiqin W, Jiyong J, Jingfen J, Wei C. Association between lymphotoxin-? intron +252 polymorphism and sepsis: a meta-analysis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:436-47 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the association of lymphotoxin-? (LTA, also known as tumour necrosis factor-?) promoter +252 A/G polymorphism with sepsis...
  11. Padovani J, Pazin Filho A, Simões M, Marin Neto J, Zago M, Franco R. Gene polymorphisms in the TNF locus and the risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Res. 2000;100:263-9 pubmed
    ..8-113). Although significant interactive effects could not be detected, the findings suggest that interaction of polymorphisms in the TNF locus with major risk factors for CAD may exist, and should be explored in larger studies. ..
  12. Ozaki K, Inoue K, Sato H, Iida A, Ohnishi Y, Sekine A, et al. Functional variation in LGALS2 confers risk of myocardial infarction and regulates lymphotoxin-alpha secretion in vitro. Nature. 2004;429:72-5 pubmed
    ..of the artery, implicating a number of inflammation-mediating molecules, such as the cytokine lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA). Functional variations in LTA are associated with susceptibility to MI...
  13. Rausch S, Gonzalez B, Clark M, Patten C, Felten S, Liu H, et al. SNPs in PTGS2 and LTA predict pain and quality of life in long term lung cancer survivors. Lung Cancer. 2012;77:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Ten SNPS from PTGS2 and LTA genes were selected based on the serum-based studies in the literature...
  14. Kieszko R, Krawczyk P, Chocholska S, Dmoszynska A, Milanowski J. TNF-alpha and TNF-beta gene polymorphisms in Polish patients with sarcoidosis. Connection with the susceptibility and prognosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2010;27:131-7 pubmed
    ..analysis of -308G > A TNF-alpha gene (TNFA*1 and TNFA*2 alleles) and 252A > G TNF-beta gene polymorphisms (TNFB*1 and TNFB*2 alleles) were performed...
  15. Asuni C, Stochino M, Cherchi A, Manchia M, Congiu D, Manconi F, et al. Migraine and tumour necrosis factor gene polymorphism. An association study in a Sardinian sample. J Neurol. 2009;256:194-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Oikari L, Stuart S, Okolicsanyi R, Cox H, Dixit S, Lea R, et al. Investigation of lymphotoxin ? genetic variants in migraine. Gene. 2013;512:527-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Lymphotoxin ? (LTA) is a cytokine secreted by lymphocytes and is a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family...
  17. Niwa Y, Ito H, Matsuo K, Hirose K, Ito N, Mizuno M, et al. Lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphisms and the risk of endometrial cancer in Japanese subjects. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;104:586-90 pubmed
    ..47, 95% CI=0.26-0.85, P=0.017; OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.28-0.89, P=0.019; respectively). The results suggest that these LTalpha polymorphisms play an important role in the tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer. ..
  18. Hamid Y, Urhammer S, Glumer C, Borch Johnsen K, Jørgensen T, Hansen T, et al. The common T60N polymorphism of the lymphotoxin-alpha gene is associated with type 2 diabetes and other phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia. 2005;48:445-51 pubmed
    Associations between variations in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene (LTA) and myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction and type 1 diabetes have previously been reported...
  19. Nonomura N, Tokizane T, Nakayama M, Inoue H, Nishimura K, Muramatsu M, et al. Possible correlation between polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-beta gene and the clinicopathological features of bladder cancer in Japanese patients. Int J Urol. 2006;13:971-6 pubmed
    ..This polymorphism in the TNF-beta gene appears to be associated with tumor occurrence and disease status, such as the tumor grade and the presence of CIS. Further study with an increased sample size is warranted. ..
  20. Trabace S, Brioli G, Lulli P, Morellini M, Giacovazzo M, Cicciarelli G, et al. Tumor necrosis factor gene polymorphism in migraine. Headache. 2002;42:341-5 pubmed
    ..Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-308 (TNF-308A and TNF-308G alleles) and lymphotoxin alpha (TNFB*1 and TNFB*2 alleles) polymorphisms were analyzed by the NcoI-cleaved polymerase chain reaction-..
  21. Wang T, Chen W, Wang T, Chen C, Huang L, Ko Y. Gene-gene synergistic effect on atopic asthma: tumour necrosis factor-alpha-308 and lymphotoxin-alpha-NcoI in Taiwan's children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:184-8 pubmed
    ..59, 95% CI=1.10-6.10) when compared with all controls. We have concluded that TNF-alpha-308 may be a risk factor for atopic asthma, whereas the LT-alpha-NcoI polymorphism may modify risk to atopic asthma with TNF-alpha-308. ..
  22. Niwa Y, Hirose K, Matsuo K, Tajima K, Ikoma Y, Nakanishi T, et al. Lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphism and the risk of cervical cancer in Japanese subjects. Cancer Lett. 2005;218:63-8 pubmed
    ..64, 95% CI = 0.40-1.02; and OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95, respectively), especially of SCC (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.32-0.91; and OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16-0.92, respectively). ..
  23. Satoh T, Pandey J, Okazaki Y, Yasuoka H, Kawakami Y, Ikeda Y, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the inflammatory cytokine genes in adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Br J Haematol. 2004;124:796-801 pubmed
    ..02 and P < 0.001, respectively). These findings suggest that the SNP located at TNF-beta (+252) contributes to susceptibility to chronic ITP by controlling the autoreactive B-cell responses to platelet membrane glycoproteins. ..
  24. Jiffri E, Elhawary N. The impact of common tumor necrosis factor haplotypes on the development of asthma in children: an Egyptian model. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2011;15:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined common TNF polymorphisms (TNFA -1031C>T, TNFA -308G>A, and TNFB +252A>G) to develop a model of the associations between these genetic markers and the development of the disease ..
  25. Young J, Yu X, Wolslegel K, Nguyen A, Kung C, Chiang E, et al. Lymphotoxin-alphabeta heterotrimers are cleaved by metalloproteinases and contribute to synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis. Cytokine. 2010;51:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, soluble LTalphabeta in synovial fluid is associated with a proinflammatory cytokine milieu that contributes to synovitis in RA. ..
  26. Boraska V, Rayner N, Groves C, Frayling T, Diakite M, Rockett K, et al. Large-scale association analysis of TNF/LTA gene region polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:69 pubmed publisher
    The TNF/LTA locus has been a long-standing T2D candidate gene. Several studies have examined association of TNF/LTA SNPs with T2D but the majority have been small-scale and produced no convincing evidence of association...
  27. Ovsyannikova I, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, Poland G. Extended LTA, TNF, LST1 and HLA gene haplotypes and their association with rubella vaccine-induced immunity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11806 pubmed publisher
    ..The telomeric class III region of the HLA complex harbors several genes, including lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and leukocyte specific transcript -1 (LST1) genes, located between the ..
  28. Vejbaesya S, Luangtrakool P, Luangtrakool K, Kalayanarooj S, Vaughn D, Endy T, et al. TNF and LTA gene, allele, and extended HLA haplotype associations with severe dengue virus infection in ethnic Thais. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1442-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed a variety of polymorphisms in the TNF and LTA genes of 435 ethnic Thais who had subclinical DENV infection, primary or secondary dengue fever (DF), or primary or ..
  29. Aissani B, Ogwaro K, Shrestha S, Tang J, Breen E, Wong H, et al. The major histocompatibility complex conserved extended haplotype 8.1 in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:170-9 pubmed publisher
    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adjacent genes, lymphotoxin alpha (LTA +252G, rs909253 A>G) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF -308A, rs1800629 G>A), form the G-A haplotype repeatedly associated with increased risk of non-..
  30. Randall L, Kenangalem E, Lampah D, Tjitra E, Mwaikambo E, Handojo T, et al. Age-related susceptibility to severe malaria associated with galectin-2 in highland Papuans. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:117-24 pubmed publisher
  31. Schürks M, Rist P, Zee R, Chasman D, Kurth T. Tumour necrosis factor gene polymorphisms and migraine: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:1381-404 pubmed publisher
    ..However, associations differed among specific populations. Our findings need to be treated with caution and further targeted research is warranted to evaluate population-specific effects including population stratification. ..
  32. Zhao Z, Nyholt D, Le L, Thomas S, Engwerda C, Randall L, et al. Genetic variation in tumour necrosis factor and lymphotoxin is not associated with endometriosis in an Australian sample. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2389-97 pubmed
    ..Variation in the promoter region of TNF and the neighbouring lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) gene might be associated with endometriosis...
  33. Lu R, Dou X, Gao X, Zhang J, Ni J, Guo L. A functional polymorphism of lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) gene rs909253 is associated with gastric cancer risk in an Asian population. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36:e380-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between the lymphotoxin-? gene (LTA)+252 (G>A) polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility...
  34. Sedlacek K, Neureuther K, Mueller J, Stark K, Fischer M, Baessler A, et al. Lymphotoxin-alpha and galectin-2 SNPs are not associated with myocardial infarction in two different German populations. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007;85:997-1004 pubmed
    ..provided strong evidence for the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) and galectin-2 (LGALS2) genes with myocardial infarction (MI) in a Japanese population...
  35. Yang M, Fu X, Zhang Y, Zhang J, He J, Tian C, et al. The +252A/G polymorphism in the lymphotoxin-? gene increases the risk of asthma: a meta-analysis. Respirology. 2012;17:1229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..55, 95% CI: 1.28-1.87) but not non-atopic individuals (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.53-1.68). This meta-analysis suggested that the +252A/G polymorphism in the LT-? gene is a risk factor for asthma in adults and atopic populations. ..
  36. Messer G, Spengler U, Jung M, Honold G, Blömer K, Pape G, et al. Polymorphic structure of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus: an NcoI polymorphism in the first intron of the human TNF-beta gene correlates with a variant amino acid in position 26 and a reduced level of TNF-beta production. J Exp Med. 1991;173:209-19 pubmed
    ..On days 2-4 after stimulation with mitogen, the TNFB*1 allele corresponding to a 5.3-kb NcoI fragment presented with a significantly higher TNF-beta response...
  37. Stuart S, Maher B, Sutherland H, Benton M, Rodríguez A, Lea R, et al. Genetic variation in cytokine-related genes and migraine susceptibility. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013;16:1079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene cluster, made up of TNF?, lymphotoxin ? (LTA), and lymphotoxin ? (LTB), has been implicated to influence the intensity and duration of local inflammation...
  38. Browning J, Sizing I, Lawton P, Bourdon P, Rennert P, Majeau G, et al. Characterization of lymphotoxin-alpha beta complexes on the surface of mouse lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1997;159:3288-98 pubmed
    The lymphotoxin-alpha beta complex (LT alpha beta) is found on the surface of activated lymphocytes and binds to a specific receptor called the LT beta receptor (LT beta R)...
  39. Shin H, Park B, Kim L, Jung J, Wang H, Kim Y, et al. Association of tumor necrosis factor polymorphisms with asthma and serum total IgE. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:397-403 pubmed
    Tumor necrosis factors (TNF; TNFA and TNFB) are major pro-inflammatory cytokines that are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of asthma...
  40. Liu Y, Herrington D, Burdon K, Langefeld C, Rich S, Bowden D, et al. A functional polymorphism in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene is associated with carotid artery wall thickness: the Diabetes Heart Study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006;13:655-7 pubmed
    The lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
  41. Belfer I, Buzas B, Hipp H, Dean M, Evans C, Lorincz I, et al. Haplotype structure of inflammatory cytokines genes (IL1B, IL6 and TNF/LTA) in US Caucasians and African Americans. Genes Immun. 2004;5:505-12 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we created marker panels for IL1B, IL6 and TNF/LTA that included the known functional marker but also other markers evenly spaced and with sufficient density to ..
  42. Gunter M, Canzian F, Landi S, Chanock S, Sinha R, Rothman N. Inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and colorectal adenoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1126-31 pubmed
    ..adenoma with 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a range of important proinflammatory (IL1B, IL6, IL8, TNF, and LTA) and anti-inflammatory (IL4, IL10, and IL13) cytokines and other inflammation-related genes (PTGS2 and PPARG) in a ..
  43. Migita O, Noguchi E, Koga M, Jian Z, Shibasaki M, Migita T, et al. Haplotype analysis of a 100 kb region spanning TNF-LTA identifies a polymorphism in the LTA promoter region that is associated with atopic asthma susceptibility in Japan. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:790-6 pubmed
    The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) gene family, which includes TNF, LTA, and LTB, is located consecutively on human chromosome 6p21 region, which has been linked to asthma by several genome-wide screens...
  44. Laxton R, Pearce E, Kyriakou T, Ye S. Association of the lymphotoxin-alpha gene Thr26Asn polymorphism with severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Genes Immun. 2005;6:539-41 pubmed
    ..association between susceptibility to myocardial infarction and the Thr26Asn polymorphism in the lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) gene...
  45. Seidemann K, Zimmermann M, Book M, Meyer U, Burkhardt B, Welte K, et al. Tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin alfa genetic polymorphisms and outcome in pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results from Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Trial NHL-BFM 95. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8414-21 pubmed
    ..The TNF -308 (G-->A) and LT-a +252 (A-->G) polymorphisms were negative prognostic factors in pediatric BL/B-ALL. Among patients with serum LDH > or = 500 U/L, haplotype analysis further determined patients at risk for events. ..
  46. Guo W, Wang N, Li Y, Zhang J. Polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor genes and susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma in a population of high incidence region of North China. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:1870-8 pubmed
    ..37 and 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15 - 0.92 and 0.13 - 0.90, respectively). Therefore, the TNF-alpha-308G/A and TNF-beta+252G/A genotyping may be used as a stratification markers to predicate the risk of ESCC and GCA development in North China. ..
  47. Chae Y, Kim J, Sohn S, Moon J, Kim S, Lee S, et al. Lymphotoxin alfa and receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 gene polymorphisms may correlate with prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010;65:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The multivariate analysis showed that the AA genotype of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) C804A (rs1041981) and GG genotype of RIPK1 G83A (rs2272990) were significantly correlated with a worse ..
  48. Banner D, D Arcy A, Janes W, Gentz R, Schoenfeld H, Broger C, et al. Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd TNF receptor-human TNF beta complex: implications for TNF receptor activation. Cell. 1993;73:431-45 pubmed
    ..of the complex of the extracellular domain of the human 55 kd tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor with human TNF beta has been determined at 2.85 A resolution...
  49. Lanas A, Garcia Gonzalez M, Santolaria S, Crusius J, Serrano M, Benito R, et al. TNF and LTA gene polymorphisms reveal different risk in gastric and duodenal ulcer patients. Genes Immun. 2001;2:415-21 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms in the genes encoding tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) have been shown to contribute to the severity of infectious disease...
  50. Selvaraj P, Sriram U, Mathan Kurian S, Reetha A, Narayanan P. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (-238 and -308) and beta gene polymorphisms in pulmonary tuberculosis: haplotype analysis with HLA-A, B and DR genes. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2001;81:335-41 pubmed
  51. Knight J, Keating B, Kwiatkowski D. Allele-specific repression of lymphotoxin-alpha by activated B cell factor-1. Nat Genet. 2004;36:394-9 pubmed
    Genetic variation at the human LTA locus, encoding lymphotoxin-alpha, is associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction, asthma and other diseases...
  52. Randolph A, Lange C, Silverman E, Lazarus R, Weiss S. Extended haplotype in the tumor necrosis factor gene cluster is associated with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:687-92 pubmed
    ..The TNF-alpha (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes belong to the TNF gene superfamily located within the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome ..
  53. McHugh N, Owen P, Cox B, Dunphy J, Welsh K. MHC class II, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and lymphotoxin alpha gene haplotype associations with serological subsets of systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:488-94 pubmed
    ..a case-control study to investigate whether there are independent tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) or lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) haplotype associations with SLE or with any of the major serological subsets of SLE...
  54. Yoshioka K, Yoshida T, Takakura Y, Umekawa T, Kogure A, Toda H, et al. Relationship between polymorphisms 804C/A and 252A/G of lymphotoxin-alpha gene and -308G/A of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene and diabetic retinopathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2006;55:1406-10 pubmed
    To clarify whether polymorphisms of the lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) gene and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene were related to diabetic retinopathy (DR), we performed a case-control study in 251 Japanese patients with type 2 ..
  55. Ennas M, Moore P, Zucca M, Angelucci E, Cabras M, Melis M, et al. Interleukin-1B (IL1B) and interleukin-6 (IL6) gene polymorphisms are associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Hematol Oncol. 2008;26:98-103 pubmed publisher; T, IL2-384T > G, IL6-174G > C, IL6-597G > A, IL10-1082A > G, IL10-3575T > A, TNF-308G > A, LTA- 91A > C, LTA 252A > G and CARD15 nt1007...
  56. Spink C, Keen L, Mensah F, Law G, Bidwell J, Morgan G. Association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma and haplotypes in the TNF region. Br J Haematol. 2006;133:293-300 pubmed
    ..Prediction of disease risk was improved by the addition of loci to the haplotype, demonstrating the importance of considering the haplotype-specific context of the loci in genetic risk assessment. ..
  57. Purdue M, Sakoda L, Graubard B, Welch R, Chanock S, Sesterhenn I, et al. A case-control investigation of immune function gene polymorphisms and risk of testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:77-83 pubmed
    ..07; seminoma, P 0.04; nonseminoma, P 0.11). We also observed excess frequencies among TGCT cases versus controls of LTA 252G (P(trend) = 0.08) and of the TNF variants -1042C (P(trend) = 0.06), -1036T (P(trend) = 0...
  58. Sharma S, Sharma A, Kumar S, Sharma S, Ghosh B. Association of TNF haplotypes with asthma, serum IgE levels, and correlation with serum TNF-alpha levels. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;35:488-95 pubmed
    Both biochemical and genetic evidence have implicated the genes for TNF-alpha (TNFA) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) in atopic asthma...
  59. Smirnova A, Ferreira Silva K, Mine K, Andrade Oliveira V, Shulzhenko N, Gerbase Delima M, et al. Differential expression of new LTA splice variants upon lymphocyte activation. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:295-300 pubmed
    b>Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) is a member of the TNF cytokine superfamily, produced principally by lymphocytes. It plays an important role in immune and inflammatory responses...
  60. Wang S, Cerhan J, Hartge P, Davis S, Cozen W, Severson R, et al. Common genetic variants in proinflammatory and other immunoregulatory genes and risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9771-80 pubmed
    ..Our results require replication but potentially provide important clues for investigating common genetic variants as susceptibility factors and in disease outcomes, treatment responses, and immunotherapy targets. ..
  61. Izakovicova Holla L, Vasku A, Izakovic V, Znojil V. The interaction of the polymorphisms in transporter of antigen peptides (TAP) and lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) genes and atopic diseases in the Czech population. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:1418-23 pubmed
    ..These genes, inducible by interferon gamma, as well as lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha), are located in the HLA region...
  62. Ozaki K, Ohnishi Y, Iida A, Sekine A, Yamada R, Tsunoda T, et al. Functional SNPs in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene that are associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction. Nat Genet. 2002;32:650-4 pubmed
    ..significant associations between myocardial infarction and a single 50 kb halpotype comprised of five SNPs in LTA (encoding lymphotoxin-alpha), NFKBIL1 (encoding nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, ..
  63. Bouqbis L, Akhayat O, Garchon H, Calafell F, Izaabel H. TNFA-TNFB haplotypes modify susceptibility to type I diabetes mellitus independently of HLA class II in a Moroccan population. Tissue Antigens. 2003;61:72-9 pubmed
    ..At least two polymorphisms seem to have functional relevance in the respective genes: TNFA-307 and TNFB+252...
  64. Um J, An N, Kim H. TNF-alpha and TNF-beta gene polymorphisms in cerebral infarction. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;21:167-71 pubmed
    ..These results show that the TNF-alpha -308 and TNF-beta +252 locus plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of CI. ..
  65. Liu Y, Sheng H, Lu L, Wu Z, Chen Q, Xiao H, et al. Haplotype-based association of four lymphotoxin-alpha gene polymorphisms with the risk of coronary artery disease in Han Chinese. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;224:119-25 pubmed
    Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis...
  66. Posch P, Cruz I, Bradshaw D, Medhekar B. Novel polymorphisms and the definition of promoter 'alleles' of the tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin alpha loci: inclusion in HLA haplotypes. Genes Immun. 2003;4:547-58 pubmed
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) influence a variety of cellular responses and play a complex role in the immune response...
  67. Kimura A, Takahashi M, Choi B, Bae S, Hohta S, Sasaoka T, et al. Lack of association between LTA and LGALS2 polymorphisms and myocardial infarction in Japanese and Korean populations. Tissue Antigens. 2007;69:265-9 pubmed
    To investigate the recently reported associations of polymorphisms in lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) and galectin-2 (LGALS2) with myocardial infarction (MI), we analyzed a single nucleotide polymorphism of LTA (LTA 252A>G in LTA intron 1) ..
  68. Clarke R, Xu P, Bennett D, Lewington S, Zondervan K, Parish S, et al. Lymphotoxin-alpha gene and risk of myocardial infarction in 6,928 cases and 2,712 controls in the ISIS case-control study. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e107 pubmed
    Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the immune system and local inflammatory response...
  69. Suzuki G, Izumi S, Hakoda M, Takahashi N. LTA 252G allele containing haplotype block is associated with high serum C-reactive protein levels. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176:91-4 pubmed
    ..We examined the association between gene polymorphism of the LT-alpha coding gene, LTA A252G, and CRP based on a case-control study...
  70. Barbier M, Delahaye N, Fumoux F, Rihet P. Family-based association of a low producing lymphotoxin-alpha allele with reduced Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:673-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF polymorphisms have been associated with severe malaria, mild malaria, and parasitemia. Lymphotoxin-alpha gene (LTA) that belongs to the TNF family is one such candidate gene...
  71. Lee K, Jang S, Sohn K, Won H, Kim M, Kim J, et al. Association between a polymorphism in the lymphotoxin-a promoter region and migraine. Headache. 2007;47:1056-62 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms in the lymphotoxin (LTA)-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) region are associated with the risk of migraine...
  72. Skibola C, Bracci P, Nieters A, Brooks Wilson A, de Sanjose S, Hughes A, et al. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) polymorphisms and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the InterLymph Consortium. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..7,999 cases, 8,452 controls) for testing of polymorphisms in the TNF -308G>A (rs1800629), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) 252A>G (rs909253), IL10 -3575T>A (rs1800890, rs1800896), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain ..
  73. Asselbergs F, Pai J, Rexrode K, Hunter D, Rimm E. Effects of lymphotoxin-alpha gene and galectin-2 gene polymorphisms on inflammatory biomarkers, cellular adhesion molecules and risk of coronary heart disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 2007;112:291-8 pubmed
    The pro-inflammatory cytokine LTA (lymphotoxin-alpha) has multiple functions in regulating the immune system and may contribute to inflammatory processes leading to CHD (coronary heart disease)...
  74. Clark T, Diakite M, Auburn S, Campino S, Fry A, Green A, et al. Tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphisms and severe malaria in African populations. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:569-75 pubmed publisher
    The tumor necrosis factor gene (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha gene (LTA) have long attracted attention as candidate genes for susceptibility traits for malaria, and several of their polymorphisms have been found to be associated with severe ..
  75. Cerhan J, Liu Mares W, Fredericksen Z, Novak A, Cunningham J, Kay N, et al. Genetic variation in tumor necrosis factor and the nuclear factor-kappaB canonical pathway and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:3161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within TNF, lymphotoxin A LTA, and nine NF-kappaB genes from the canonical pathway (TNFRSF1A, TRADD, TRAF2, TRAF5, RIPK1, CHUK, IKBKB, NFKB1, and ..
  76. Jacobs E, Hsing A, Bain E, Stevens V, Wang Y, Chen J, et al. Polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined associations between 58 SNPs in nine angiogenesis-related candidate genes (EGF, LTA, HIF1A, HIF1AN, MMP2, MMP9, NOS2A, NOS3, VEGF) and risk of overall and advanced prostate cancer...
  77. Wang Q. Molecular genetics of coronary artery disease. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2005;20:182-8 pubmed
    ..Genome-wide association studies identified significant association for myocardiaI infarction with the LTA gene (encoding lymphotoxin-alpha), and a follow-up study found that an LTA-interacting gene, LGALS2 (encoding ..
  78. Ghosh J, Joshi G, Pradhan S, Mittal B. Investigation of TNFA 308G > A and TNFB 252G > A polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to migraine. J Neurol. 2010;257:898-904 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to look for the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene polymorphisms (TNFA 308G > A, and TNFB 252G > A) in genetic susceptibility to migraine...
  79. García Gonzalez M, Lanas A, Quintero E, Nicolas D, Parra Blanco A, Strunk M, et al. Gastric cancer susceptibility is not linked to pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms in whites: a Nationwide Multicenter Study in Spain. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:1878-92 pubmed
    ..and 404 sex- and age-matched healthy controls was typed for several functional polymorphisms in pro- (IL-1B, TNFA, LTA, IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-1RN, IL-10, TGFB1) genes by PCR, RFLP, and TaqMan assays. H...
  80. García González M, Aísa M, Strunk M, Benito R, Piazuelo E, Jimenez P, et al. Relevance of IL-1 and TNF gene polymorphisms on interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gastric mucosal production. Hum Immunol. 2009;70:935-45 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA was typed for the IL1B-511, IL1B+3954, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) IL1RN, TNFA-308, TNFA-238, LTA NcoI, and LTA Bsi gene polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and ..
  81. Lin Y, Lu C, Su H, Shen C, Lei H, Guo Y. The association between tumor necrosis factor, HLA-DR alleles, and IgE-mediated asthma in Taiwanese adolescents. Allergy. 2002;57:831-4 pubmed
    ..6, 95% CI = [2.2-1378]) than for the others. In Taiwanese children sensitized to Der f, the DR13(+)/LTalphaNcoI*1 haplotype was associated with a much higher risk of having clinical asthma than any other DR13/LTalphaNcoI haplotype. ..
  82. Liu X, Plummer S, Nock N, Casey G, Witte J. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and decreased risk of advanced prostate cancer: modification by lymphotoxin alpha. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:984-9 pubmed
    ..2001 and 2004 and evaluated whether this association was modified by a functional polymorphism in the lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) gene (LTA C+80A, where the CC genotype results in higher LTA production)...