Gene Symbol: LPA
Description: lipoprotein(a)
Alias: AK38, APOA, apolipoprotein(a), antiangiogenic AK38 protein, apo(a), lipoprotein, Lp(a), lp(a)
Species: human
Products:     LPA

Top Publications

  1. Hopewell J, Clarke R, Parish S, Armitage J, Lathrop M, Hager J, et al. Lipoprotein(a) genetic variants associated with coronary and peripheral vascular disease but not with stroke risk in the Heart Protection Study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:68-73 pubmed publisher
    Genetic studies have identified 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the LPA locus (rs3798220 and rs10455872) that are strongly and independently related to lipoprotein(a) levels and to coronary disease risk, but their relevance ..
  2. Enkhmaa B, Anuurad E, Zhang W, Tran T, Berglund L. Lipoprotein(a): genotype-phenotype relationship and impact on atherogenic risk. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9:411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..determined by the size of the apolipoprotein a [apo(a)] gene; however, recent studies have identified several other LPA gene polymorphisms that have significant associations with an elevated Lp(a) level and a reduced copy number of K4 ..
  3. Feric N, Boffa M, Johnston S, Koschinsky M. Apolipoprotein(a) inhibits the conversion of Glu-plasminogen to Lys-plasminogen: a novel mechanism for lipoprotein(a)-mediated inhibition of plasminogen activation. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:2113-20 pubmed publisher
  4. Chasman D, Giulianini F, MacFadyen J, Barratt B, Nyberg F, Ridker P. Genetic determinants of statin-induced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction: the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) for genome-wide association (P<5×10(-8)) with LDL-C reduction on rosuvastatin were identified at ABCG2, LPA, and APOE, and a further association at PCSK9 was genome-wide significant for baseline LDL-C and locus-wide ..
  5. Málek F, Dvorak J, Svitil J, Skalnikova V, Mates M, Kmonicek P, et al. Correlation of lipoprotein (a) concentration with the extent of coronary artery disease in patients on lipid lowering therapy. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012;33 Suppl 2:55-9 pubmed
    ..16, p<0.001), and apolipoprotein A levels with GS and AS (r=-0.20, p<0...
  6. Klein J, Hegele R, Hackam D, Koschinsky M, Huff M, Spence J. Lipoprotein(a) is associated differentially with carotid stenosis, occlusion, and total plaque area. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Stenosis and occlusion may not be attributable to plaque progression, but to plaque rupture and thrombosis; this relationship may also apply to other arterial beds. ..
  7. Ronald J, Rajagopalan R, Cerrato F, Nord A, Hatsukami T, Kohler T, et al. Genetic variation in LPAL2, LPA, and PLG predicts plasma lipoprotein(a) level and carotid artery disease risk. Stroke. 2011;42:2-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between genetic variation in the LPA gene region and CAAD risk remains unknown...
  8. Nicholls S, Tang W, Scoffone H, Brennan D, Hartiala J, Allayee H, et al. Lipoprotein(a) levels and long-term cardiovascular risk in the contemporary era of statin therapy. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:3055-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the need to intensify lipid management in patients with elevated Lp(a) levels. ..
  9. Lanktree M, Anand S, Yusuf S, Hegele R. Comprehensive analysis of genomic variation in the LPA locus and its relationship to plasma lipoprotein(a) in South Asians, Chinese, and European Caucasians. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010;3:39-46 pubmed publisher
    Functional copy number variation in the apolipoprotein(a) gene (LPA) underlies a variable number of protein kringle domains repeated in tandem in the lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] particle...

More Information


  1. Umahara T, Uchihara T, Yamada S, Hashimoto T, Akimoto J, Haraoka J, et al. Differential expression of oxidized/native lipoprotein(a) and plasminogen in human carotid and cerebral artery plaques. Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative abundance of Ox-Lp(a) in synthetic phase VSMC is associated with their phenotypic changes during the progression of atherosclerosis. ..
  2. Sharma A, Kasim M, Joshi P, Qian Z, Krivitsky E, Akram K, et al. Abnormal lipoprotein(a) levels predict coronary artery calcification in Southeast Asians but not in Caucasians: use of noninvasive imaging for evaluation of an emerging risk factor. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2011;4:470-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Lp(a) measurements may have a role in risk stratification of Southeast Asians. Ethnic variation should be taken into account when considering the use of Lp(a) measurements in risk assessment. ..
  3. Qi Q, Workalemahu T, Zhang C, Hu F, Qi L. Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetes. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNP rs10455872 in LPA was most strongly associated with Lp(a) (P= 4.60 × 10(-39))...
  4. Sharma S, Merchant J, Fleming S. Lp(a)-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:10 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Lp(a) cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children. ..
  5. Dubé J, Boffa M, Hegele R, Koschinsky M. Lipoprotein(a): more interesting than ever after 50 years. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2012;23:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The Mendelian randomization approach has also associated LPA variants with Lp(a) concentration and CHD risk...
  6. Chasman D, Shiffman D, Zee R, Louie J, Luke M, Rowland C, et al. Polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) gene, plasma lipoprotein(a), cardiovascular disease, and low-dose aspirin therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..048). In the Women's Health Study, carriers of an apolipoprotein(a) variant had elevated Lp(a), doubled cardiovascular risk, and appeared to benefit more from aspirin than non-carriers. ..
  7. Boronat M, Saavedra P, Pérez Martín N, López Madrazo M, Rodríguez Pérez C, Novoa F. High levels of lipoprotein(a) are associated with a lower prevalence of diabetes with advancing age: results of a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in Gran Canaria, Spain. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:81 pubmed publisher
    ..This could be explained in part by a lower insulin resistance in this subset of the population. ..
  8. Utermann G. The mysteries of lipoprotein(a). Science. 1989;246:904-10 pubmed
    ..Though of high theoretical and practical interest, many aspects of the metabolism, function, evolution, and regulation of plasma concentrations of Lp(a) are presently unknown, controversial, or mysterious. ..
  9. Nawawi H, Muhajir M, Kian Y, Mohamud W, Yusoff K, Khalid B. Type of diabetes and waist-hip ratio are important determinants of serum lipoprotein (a) levels in diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002;56:221-7 pubmed
    ..0001 and P<0.0001, respectively), and were higher in type 1 than type 2 diabetic patients (P<0.05). Waist-hip ratio (WHR) was an independent determinant of Lp(a) concentrations in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. ..
  10. Chimienti G, Lamanuzzi B, Nardulli M, Colacicco A, Capurso A, La Gioia R, et al. APO(a) variants and lipoprotein(a) in men with or without myocardial infarction. Exp Mol Pathol. 2002;73:28-34 pubmed
    ..The putative apo(a) enhancer within LINE1 in the apo(a)-plasminogen intergenic region was investigated for functional polymorphisms. No variants that could be associated to the Lp(a) variability were found. ..
  11. Harich N, Esteban E, López Alomar A, Chafik A, Moral P. Apolipoprotein molecular variation in Moroccan Berbers: pentanucleotide (TTTTA)n repeat in the LPA gene and APOE-C1-C2 gene cluster. Clin Genet. 2002;62:240-4 pubmed
    Apolipoprotein LPA, APOE, APOC1, and APOC2 genotype frequencies have been determined for the first time in a North African population. A sample of 140 Berber individuals from the Moroccan Moyen Atlas region has been analyzed...
  12. Moral P, Valveny N, López Alomar A, Calo C, Kandil M, Harich N, et al. Molecular variation at functional genes and the history of human populations--data on candidate genes for cardiovascular risk in the Mediterranean. Coll Antropol. 2003;27:523-36 pubmed
    ..genes for cardiovascular disease including apolipopoteins and their receptors (APOA1, APOB, APOE, APOC1, APOC2, LPA, and LDLR), genes implied in the hemostasis regulation (Factor VII, alpha and beta-fibrinogen, alpha and beta ..
  13. Thanassoulis G, Campbell C, Owens D, Smith J, Smith A, Peloso G, et al. Genetic associations with valvular calcification and aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..One SNP in the lipoprotein(a) (LPA) locus (rs10455872) reached genomewide significance for the presence of aortic-valve calcification (odds ratio per ..
  14. Smolders B, Lemmens R, Thijs V. Lipoprotein (a) and stroke: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Stroke. 2007;38:1959-66 pubmed
    ..22; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.43). There was no publication bias or heterogeneity in the prospective studies (I(2)=0.00%; P=0.67). This meta-analysis suggests that elevated Lp(a) is a risk factor for incident stroke. ..
  15. Momiyama Y, Ohmori R, Fayad Z, Tanaka N, Kato R, Taniguchi H, et al. Associations between serum lipoprotein(a) levels and the severity of coronary and aortic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2012;222:241-4 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Lp(a) was an independent factor for CAD and abdominal aortic plaques, but not thoracic plaques. Thus, Lp(a) levels were associated with aortic atherosclerosis, especially in abdominal aorta, as well as coronary atherosclerosis. ..
  16. Anderson J, Knight S, May H, Horne B, Bair T, Huntinghouse J, et al. Validation and quantification of genetic determinants of lipoprotein-a levels and predictive value for angiographic coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2013;112:799-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Two genetic variants in the LPA gene have been reported to influence Lp(a) levels and increase CAD risk...
  17. Li Z, Li G, Zhou Y, Chen Z, Yang J, Zhang Y, et al. Lack of association between lipoprotein(a) genetic variants and subsequent cardiovascular events in Chinese Han patients with coronary artery disease after percutaneous coronary intervention. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:127 pubmed publisher
    ..variants in the rs3798220, rs10455872 and rs6415084 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Lp(a) gene (LPA) correlate with elevated Lp(a) levels, but whether these SNPs have prognostic value for CAD patients is unknown...
  18. Kamstrup P, Tybjærg Hansen A, Nordestgaard B. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and improved cardiovascular risk prediction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:1146-56 pubmed publisher
    The study tested whether extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and/or corresponding LPA risk genotypes improve myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors...
  19. Deshmukh H, Colhoun H, Johnson T, McKeigue P, Betteridge D, Durrington P, et al. Genome-wide association study of genetic determinants of LDL-c response to atorvastatin therapy: importance of Lp(a). J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1000-11 pubmed publisher
    ..13 × 10(-9)) within the LPA gene and at two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the APOE region (rs445925; P = 2...
  20. Deo R, Wilson J, Xing C, Lawson K, Kao W, Reich D, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in LPA explain most of the ancestry-specific variation in Lp(a) levels in African Americans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14581 pubmed publisher
    ..6) at 6q25.3, which spans the LPA locus...
  21. Nestel P, Barnes E, Tonkin A, Simes J, Fournier M, White H, et al. Plasma lipoprotein(a) concentration predicts future coronary and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2902-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased Lp(a) concentrations after 1 year were also associated with future events, supporting measurement of Lp(a) for risk assessment of patients with known CHD. ..
  22. Khera A, Everett B, Caulfield M, Hantash F, Wohlgemuth J, Ridker P, et al. Lipoprotein(a) concentrations, rosuvastatin therapy, and residual vascular risk: an analysis from the JUPITER Trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin). Circulation. 2014;129:635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The magnitude of relative risk reduction with rosuvastatin was similar among participants with high or low Lp(a). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681. ..
  23. Kamstrup P, Tybjærg Hansen A, Nordestgaard B. Lipoprotein(a) and risk of myocardial infarction--genetic epidemiologic evidence of causality. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011;71:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..realtime PCR assay to genotype for the lipoprotein(a) kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) repeat polymorphism in the LPA gene in > 40,000 individuals...
  24. McLean J, Tomlinson J, Kuang W, Eaton D, Chen E, Fless G, et al. cDNA sequence of human apolipoprotein(a) is homologous to plasminogen. Nature. 1987;330:132-7 pubmed
    ..It contains a serine protease domain and two types of plasminogen-like kringle domains, one of which is present in 37 copies. ..
  25. Clarke R, Peden J, Hopewell J, Kyriakou T, Goel A, Heath S, et al. Genetic variants associated with Lp(a) lipoprotein level and coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The LPA locus on 6q26-27 encoding Lp(a) lipoprotein had the strongest association...
  26. Sotiriou S, Orlova V, Al Fakhri N, Ihanus E, Economopoulou M, Isermann B, et al. Lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic plaques recruits inflammatory cells through interaction with Mac-1 integrin. FASEB J. 2006;20:559-61 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a novel mechanism for the atherogenic properties of Lp(a). ..
  27. Chretien J, Coresh J, Berthier Schaad Y, Kao W, Fink N, Klag M, et al. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in LPA account for most of the increase in lipoprotein(a) level elevation in African Americans compared with European Americans. J Med Genet. 2006;43:917-23 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the association between LPA sequence variations and Lp(a) in European Americans and African Americans and to determine the extent to which LPA ..
  28. Catalano M, Cortelazzo A, Yilmaz Y, Perilli E, Carzaniga G, Emanuele E. The LPA gene C93T polymorphism influences plasma lipoprotein(a) levels and is independently associated with susceptibility to peripheral arterial disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;387:109-12 pubmed
    ..The C93T polymorphism is a naturally occurring variant of the LPA gene that may influence Lp(a) concentration...
  29. Kamstrup P, Benn M, Tybjaerg Hansen A, Nordestgaard B. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 2008;117:176-84 pubmed
    ..Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict a 3- to 4-fold increase in risk of MI in the general population and absolute 10-year risks of 20% and 35% in high-risk women and men. ..
  30. Cho T, Jung Y, Koschinsky M. Apolipoprotein(a), through its strong lysine-binding site in KIV(10'), mediates increased endothelial cell contraction and permeability via a Rho/Rho kinase/MYPT1-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies are ongoing to further dissect the molecular basis of these findings. ..
  31. Ober C, Nord A, Thompson E, Pan L, Tan Z, Cusanovich D, et al. Genome-wide association study of plasma lipoprotein(a) levels identifies multiple genes on chromosome 6q. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:798-806 pubmed publisher
    ..3 x 10(-7)) and were within or flanking nine genes, including LPA. We show that variation in at least six genes in addition to LPA are significantly associated with Lp(a) levels ..
  32. Tregouet D, Konig I, Erdmann J, Munteanu A, Braund P, Hall A, et al. Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster as a risk locus for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet. 2009;41:283-5 pubmed publisher
    We identify the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster as a strong susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) through a genome-wide haplotype association (GWHA) study...
  33. Yang H, Chen X, Hu W, Lv D, Ding W, Tang L, et al. Lipoprotein(a) level and its association with tumor stage in male patients with primary lung cancer. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..03). There is a significant association between Lp(a) and the presence and stage of lung cancer. Additional investigations with a larger number of lung cancer patients are needed to confirm these findings. ..
  34. Qasim A, Martin S, Mehta N, Wolfe M, Park J, Schwartz S, et al. Lipoprotein(a) is strongly associated with coronary artery calcification in type-2 diabetic women. Int J Cardiol. 2011;150:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Lp(a) is a strong independent predictor of CAC in type-2 diabetic women, regardless of race, but not in men. Lp(a) does not relate to CAC in men or women without type-2 diabetes. ..
  35. Kamstrup P, Tybjaerg Hansen A, Steffensen R, Nordestgaard B. Genetically elevated lipoprotein(a) and increased risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2009;301:2331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.12). These data are consistent with a causal association between elevated lipoprotein(a) levels and increased risk of MI. ..
  36. Zabaneh D, Kumari M, Sandhu M, Wareham N, Wainwright N, Papamarkou T, et al. Meta analysis of candidate gene variants outside the LPA locus with Lp(a) plasma levels in 14,500 participants of six White European cohorts. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have reported that the major determinant of plasma levels of the Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] reside within the LPA locus on chromosome 6...
  37. Shaw S, Cheng S, Cupples L, Larson M, McCabe E, Ngwa J, et al. Genetic and clinical correlates of early-outgrowth colony-forming units. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:296-304 pubmed publisher
    ..3 × 10(-7)) and at the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA locus (P = 4.9 × 10(-7)), a previously replicated susceptibility locus for myocardial infarction...
  38. Kadoglou N, Fotiadis G, Athanasiadou Z, Vitta I, Lampropoulos S, Vrabas I. The effects of resistance training on ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, Lp(a) and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Endocrine. 2012;42:561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical parameters, cardiorespiratory capacity, glycemic and lipid profile, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), ..
  39. Morishita R, Ishii J, Kusumi Y, Yamada S, Komai N, Ohishi M, et al. Association of serum oxidized lipoprotein(a) concentration with coronary artery disease: potential role of oxidized lipoprotein(a) in the vasucular wall. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16:410-8 pubmed
    ..As the deposition of oxidized Lp(a) was detected in calcified areas of coronary arteries, oxidized Lp(a) might be implicated in endothelial dysfunction. ..
  40. Lv X, Zhang Y, Rao S, Liu F, Zuo X, Su D, et al. Lack of association between four SNPs in the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster and coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population: a case control study. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:128 pubmed publisher
    Lipoprotein (a) (Lp [a]) is known being correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster, relating with modulating the level of plasma Lp (a), has recently been reported to be associated with CAD in ..
  41. Luke M, Kane J, Liu D, Rowland C, Shiffman D, Cassano J, et al. A polymorphism in the protease-like domain of apolipoprotein(a) is associated with severe coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2030-6 pubmed
    ..Testing these 302 SNPs in Study 2 (471 cases, 298 controls), we found 5 (in LPA, CALM1, HAP1, AP3B1, and ABCG2) were nominally associated with severe CAD and had the same risk alleles in both ..
  42. Grainger D, Kemp P, Liu A, Lawn R, Metcalfe J. Activation of transforming growth factor-beta is inhibited in transgenic apolipoprotein(a) mice. Nature. 1994;370:460-2 pubmed
    ..These effects are closely correlated with VSMC activation. ..
  43. Liu J, Hernandez Ono A, Graham M, Galton V, Ginsberg H. Type 1 Deiodinase Regulates ApoA-I Gene Expression and ApoA-I Synthesis Independent of Thyroid Hormone Signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1356-66 pubmed publisher
    Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are reduced in individuals with defective insulin signaling...
  44. Zhao D, Yang L, Wang X, Yuan S, Yu C, Wang Z, et al. Different relationship between ANGPTL3 and HDL components in female non-diabetic subjects and type-2 diabetic patients. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2016;15:132 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma samples were fractionated to obtain HDLs. HDL components including apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), triglyceride, serum amyloid A (SAA), phospholipid and Sphingosine-1-phosphate were measured...
  45. Jung Y, Jang H, Guo M, Gao J, Matthews K. Sanitizer efficacy in preventing cross-contamination of heads of lettuce during retail crisping. Food Microbiol. 2017;64:179-185 pubmed publisher
    ..TW), electrolyzed water (EW, free chlorine: 43 ± 6 ppm), lactic acid and phosphoric acid-based sanitizer (LPA, pH 2.89), or citric acid-based sanitizer (CA, pH 2.78) and soaked for 5 min...
  46. Undas A, Ciesla Dul M, Drążkiewicz T, Sadowski J. Altered fibrin clot properties are associated with residual vein obstruction: effects of lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein(a) isoform. Thromb Res. 2012;130:e184-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype related to elevated lipoprotein(a) with smaller apolipoprotein(a) isoforms might represent a novel risk factor for RVO. ..
  47. Chen Z, Luo Q, Lin C, Song G. Simulated microgravity inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through down regulating the transcriptional co-activator TAZ. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;468:21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we found that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) could activate TAZ and retain osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs under SMG...
  48. Remaley A, Stonik J, Demosky S, Neufeld E, Bocharov A, Vishnyakova T, et al. Apolipoprotein specificity for lipid efflux by the human ABCAI transporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:818-23 pubmed
    ..b>ApoA-I and all of the other exchangeable apolipoproteins tested (apoA-II, apoA-IV, apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE) ..
  49. Phillips M. Molecular mechanisms of cellular cholesterol efflux. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:24020-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these four efflux pathways is presented in this minireview. ..
  50. Wang S, Peng D, Yi Y. The unsolved mystery of apoA-I recycling in adipocyte. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:35 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ApoA-I is the main constituent of HDL and plays an important role in removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral ..
  51. Quan Q, Huang Y, Chen Q, Qiu H, Hu Q, Rong Y, et al. Impact of Serum Apolipoprotein A-I on Prognosis and Bevacizumab Efficacy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: a Propensity Score-Matched Analysis. Transl Oncol. 2017;10:288-294 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate the role of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) as a predictor of prognosis and treatment efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without ..
  52. Kotani K, Shimohiro H, Adachi S, Sakane N. Relationship between lipoprotein(a), metabolic syndrome, and carotid atherosclerosis in older Japanese people. Gerontology. 2008;54:361-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of our results including weak additive effects of Lp(a) and MS among older subjects may be partly throughout aging. ..
  53. Zhu L, Petrlova J, Gysbers P, Hebert H, Wallin S, Jegerschöld C, et al. Structures of apolipoprotein A-I in high density lipoprotein generated by electron microscopy and biased simulations. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:2726-2738 pubmed publisher
    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key protein for the transport of cholesterol from the vascular wall to the liver...
  54. Lv P, Zhao M, Liu Y, Jin H, Cui W, Fan C, et al. Apolipoprotein C-III in the high-density lipoprotein proteome of cerebral lacunar infarction patients impairs its anti-inflammatory function. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41:61-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum amyloid A, apolipoprotein C (apoC-III) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) were selected to confirm the proteomics results via western blotting...
  55. Kim M, de Beer M, Wroblewski J, Charnigo R, Ji A, Webb N, et al. Impact of individual acute phase serum amyloid A isoforms on HDL metabolism in mice. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:969-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The fractional clearance rates (FCRs) of apoA-I, apoA-II, and SAA were distinct, indicating that HDL is not cleared as intact particles. The FCRs of SAA1...
  56. Liu D, Ji L, Tong X, Pan B, Han J, Huang Y, et al. Human apolipoprotein A-I induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin I-2 release in endothelial cells through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C739-48 pubmed publisher
    ..However, whether apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDL, could induce COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release still remains unclear...
  57. Lin J, Reilly M, Terembula K, Wilson F. Plasma lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with mild renal impairment in type 2 diabetics independent of albuminuria. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114397 pubmed publisher
    ..17) as well as apoC-III (p = 0.067) in the fully adjusted model. Elevated Lp(a) levels have a robust association with mild GFR impairment in type 2 diabetics independent of race, insulin resistance, and albuminuria. ..
  58. Hennuyer N, Duplan I, Paquet C, Vanhoutte J, Woitrain E, Touche V, et al. The novel selective PPAR? modulator (SPPARM?) pemafibrate improves dyslipidemia, enhances reverse cholesterol transport and decreases inflammation and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2016;249:200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, plasma levels of functional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apoA-I are protective against CVD by enhancing reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)...
  59. Reddy S, Hama S, Ng C, Grijalva V, Navab M, Fogelman A. ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 participates in LDL oxidation by artery wall cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:1877-83 pubmed
    ..as cholesterol linoleate hydroperoxides, collectively termed seeding molecules, are removed by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from the artery wall cells and render low density lipoprotein (LDL) resistant to oxidation by human artery wall ..
  60. Donnelly L, Van Zuydam N, Zhou K, Tavendale R, Carr F, Maitland van der Zee A, et al. Robust association of the LPA locus with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering response to statin treatment in a meta-analysis of 30 467 individuals from both randomized control trials and observational studies and association with coronary ar. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013;23:518-25 pubmed publisher
    The LPA single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10455872 has been associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) lowering response to statins in several randomized control trials (RCTs) and is a known coronary artery disease (CAD) ..
  61. Nassir F, Xie Y, Davidson N. Apolipoprotein[a] secretion from hepatoma cells is regulated in a size-dependent manner by alterations in disulfide bond formation. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:816-27 pubmed
    ..The demonstration that DTT modulates apo[a] secretion in a manner influenced by both the type and number of K4 repeats extends understanding of the mechanisms that regulate its exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  62. Matsuda A, Nagao K, Matsuo M, Kioka N, Ueda K. 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol is actively eliminated from neuronal cells by ABCA1. J Neurochem. 2013;126:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ABCA1 actively eliminates 24-OHC in the presence of HDL as a lipid acceptor and protects neuronal cells...
  63. Karwatsky J, Ma L, Dong F, Zha X. Cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in ABCA1-expressing cells is regulated by Ca2+-dependent calcineurin signaling. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1144-56 pubmed publisher
    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is required for the lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), although molecular mechanisms supporting this process remain poorly defined...
  64. Choi H, Rahmani M, Wong B, Allahverdian S, McManus B, Pickering J, et al. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression and apolipoprotein A-I binding are impaired in intima-type arterial smooth muscle cells. Circulation. 2009;119:3223-31 pubmed publisher