Gene Symbol: LILRB4
Description: leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B4
Alias: CD85K, ILT-3, ILT3, LIR-5, LIR5, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 4, CD85 antigen-like family member K, immunoglobulin-like transcript 3, leucocyte Ig-like receptor B4, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 5, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily B (with TM and ITIM domains), member 4, monocyte inhibitory receptor HM18
Species: human
Products:     LILRB4

Top Publications

  1. Cella M, Döhring C, Samaridis J, Dessing M, Brockhaus M, Lanzavecchia A, et al. A novel inhibitory receptor (ILT3) expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells involved in antigen processing. J Exp Med. 1997;185:1743-51 pubmed
    ..The cytoplasmic region of ILT3 contains putative immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs that suggest an inhibitory function of ILT3...
  2. Samaridis J, Colonna M. Cloning of novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptors expressed on human myeloid and lymphoid cells: structural evidence for new stimulatory and inhibitory pathways. Eur J Immunol. 1997;27:660-5 pubmed
    ..These cytoplasmic features suggest that ILT1 and ILT2 may mediate novel transmembrane signals by which myeloid and lymphoid cell responses can be either activated or inhibited. ..
  3. Kim Schulze S, Scotto L, Vlad G, Piazza F, Lin H, Liu Z, et al. Recombinant Ig-like transcript 3-Fc modulates T cell responses via induction of Th anergy and differentiation of CD8+ T suppressor cells. J Immunol. 2006;176:2790-8 pubmed
    ..We have explored the immunomodulatory property of the extracellular region of ILT3 using a cytoplasmic deletion mutant of ILT3 (ILT3delta), expressed as membrane-bound ILT3 on KG1 cells, and a rILT3-..
  4. Chang C, Ciubotariu R, Manavalan J, Yuan J, Colovai A, Piazza F, et al. Tolerization of dendritic cells by T(S) cells: the crucial role of inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:237-43 pubmed
    Immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) and ILT4 belong to a family of inhibitory receptors expressed by human monocytes and dendritic cells...
  5. Vlad G, D Agati V, Zhang Q, Liu Z, Ho E, Mohanakumar T, et al. Immunoglobulin-like transcript 3-Fc suppresses T-cell responses to allogeneic human islet transplants in hu-NOD/SCID mice. Diabetes. 2008;57:1878-86 pubmed publisher
    ..transplant restored euglycemia were humanized with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells and treated with ILT3-Fc or control human IgG or left untreated...
  6. Cortesini R. Pancreas cancer and the role of soluble immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3). JOP. 2007;8:697-703 pubmed
    ..We now describe an immune-escape mechanism mediated by the inhibitory receptor immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) which may be responsible for such failures...
  7. Suciu Foca N, Feirt N, Zhang Q, Vlad G, Liu Z, Lin H, et al. Soluble Ig-like transcript 3 inhibits tumor allograft rejection in humanized SCID mice and T cell responses in cancer patients. J Immunol. 2007;178:7432-41 pubmed
    ..We now describe an immune-escape mechanism mediated by the inhibitory receptor Ig-like transcript 3 (ILT3) that may be responsible for such failures...
  8. Li Q, Wei G, Tao T. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) negatively mediates the pathological cardiac hypertrophy by suppressing fibrosis, inflammation and apoptosis via the activation of NF-κB signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..In the study, we illustrated that the expression of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4), associated with the pathological development of various inflammatory diseases, was down-regulated in pressure ..
  9. Deng M, Gui X, Kim J, Xie L, Chen W, Li Z, et al. LILRB4 signalling in leukaemia cells mediates T cell suppression and tumour infiltration. Nature. 2018;562:605-609 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use mouse models and human cells to show that LILRB4, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif-containing receptor and a marker of monocytic leukaemia, ..

More Information


  1. Liu J, Lu C, Zhang F, Lv W, Liu C. Expression of ILT3 predicts poor prognosis and is inversely associated with infiltration of CD45RO+ T cells in patients with colorectal cancer. Pathol Res Pract. 2018;214:1621-1625 pubmed publisher
    b>Immunoglobulin like transcript 3 (ILT3) was previously identified as an inhibitory receptor to induce T cell anergy in tranplantation, autoimmunity and allergy...
  2. Thorne A, Tomić S, Pavlović B, Mihajlović D, Džopalić T, Čolić M. Tumor necrosis factor-α promotes survival and phenotypic maturation of poly(I:C)-treated dendritic cells but impairs their Th1 and Th17 polarizing capability. Cytotherapy. 2015;17:633-46 pubmed publisher
  3. John S, Chen H, Deng M, Gui X, Wu G, Chen W, et al. A Novel Anti-LILRB4 CAR-T Cell for the Treatment of Monocytic AML. Mol Ther. 2018;26:2487-2495 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor-B4 (LILRB4) is a tumor-associated antigen highly expressed on monocytic AML cells...
  4. Cousens L, Najafian N, Martin W, De Groot A. Tregitope: Immunomodulation powerhouse. Hum Immunol. 2014;75:1139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..leading to modulation of dendritic cell phenotype (down-regulation of Class II, CD80 and CD86 and up-regulation of ILT3), and describe the effects of Tregitopes in the ABM-TCR-transgenic skin transplantation model...
  5. Mann E, Bernardo D, English N, Landy J, Al Hassi H, Peake S, et al. Compartment-specific immunity in the human gut: properties and functions of dendritic cells in the colon versus the ileum. Gut. 2016;65:256-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the inhibitory receptor ILT3 was enhanced on colonic DC...
  6. Dubé M, Zetler R, Barhdadi A, Brown A, Mongrain I, Normand V, et al. CKM and LILRB5 are associated with serum levels of creatine kinase. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014;7:880-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first genome-wide study to report on the underlying genetic determinants of CK variation in a population of statin users. We found statistically significant association for variants in the CKM and LILRB5 genes. ..
  7. Ulges A, Klein M, Reuter S, Gerlitzki B, Hoffmann M, Grebe N, et al. Protein kinase CK2 enables regulatory T cells to suppress excessive TH2 responses in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of the β-subunit of CK2 specifically in Treg cells resulted in the proliferation of a hitherto-unexplored ILT3(+) Treg cell subpopulation that was unable to control the maturation of IRF4(+)PD-L2(+) dendritic cells required ..
  8. Bam R, Khan S, Ling W, Randal S, Li X, Barlogie B, et al. Primary myeloma interaction and growth in coculture with healthy donor hematopoietic bone marrow. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:864 pubmed publisher
    ..g., MMP1, HMCN1, COL3A1, ACAN) and immunomodulatory factors (e.g., IFI16, LILRB4, PTPN6, AZGP1) were changed in the coculture system...
  9. Kamphuis W, Kooijman L, Schetters S, Orre M, Hol E. Transcriptional profiling of CD11c-positive microglia accumulating around amyloid plaques in a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1847-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the increased expression of Gpnmb/DC-HIL, Tm7sf4/DC-STAMP, and Gp49a/Lilrb4, suggests a suppressive/tolerizing influence of CD11c cells...
  10. Butcher M, Filipowicz A, Waseem T, McGary C, Crow K, Magilnick N, et al. Atherosclerosis-Driven Treg Plasticity Results in Formation of a Dysfunctional Subset of Plastic IFN?+ Th1/Tregs. Circ Res. 2016;119:1190-1203 pubmed publisher
    ..of Treg and Th1 lineage genes and a downregulation of Treg-related genes, including Ikzf2, Ikzf4, Tigit, Lilrb4, and Il10...
  11. Zöller T, Attaai A, Potru P, Ruß T, Spittau B. Aged Mouse Cortical Microglia Display an Activation Profile Suggesting Immunotolerogenic Functions. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..and the establishment of a distinct microglia activation profile including upregulation of Ifi204, Lilrb4, Arhgap, Oas1a, Cd244 and Ildr2...
  12. Harakal J, Rival C, Qiao H, Tung K. Regulatory T Cells Control Th2-Dominant Murine Autoimmune Gastritis. J Immunol. 2016;197:27-41 pubmed publisher
    ..expansion of both Th2-promoting IFN regulatory factor 4(+) programmed death ligand 2(+) dendritic cells and ILT3(+) rebounded Tregs was detected after transient Treg depletion...
  13. Xu Z, Chang C, Li M, Zhang Q, Vasilescu E, D AGATI V, et al. ILT3.Fc-CD166 Interaction Induces Inactivation of p70 S6 Kinase and Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth. J Immunol. 2018;200:1207-1219 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between Ig-like transcript 3 (ILT3), a marker of tolerogenic dendritic cells, also known as LILRB4/LIR5/CD85k, and its still unidentified ligand on the surface of activated human T cells is potentially important ..
  14. Zhang Z, Hatano H, Shaw J, Olde Nordkamp M, Jiang G, Li D, et al. The Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Family Member LILRB5 Binds to HLA-Class I Heavy Chains. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129063 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique binding specificity of LILRB5 for HLA-class I heavy chains probably results from differences in the D1 and D2 immunoglobulin-like binding domains which are distinct from other LILR which bind to β2m-associated HLA-class I. ..
  15. Hogan L, Jones D, Allen R. Expression of the innate immune receptor LILRB5 on monocytes is associated with mycobacteria exposure. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21780 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that crosslinking of this receptor on T cells increases proliferation of cytotoxic, but not helper, T cells. ..
  16. Leskela S, Rodríguez Muñoz A, de la Fuente H, Figueroa Vega N, Bonay P, Martin P, et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2822-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of DCs and their expression of different regulatory molecules (IDO, ILT2, ILT3, PSGL-1, PD-L1) were studied...
  17. Park M, Liu R, An H, Geczy C, Thomas P, Tedla N. A dual positive and negative regulation of monocyte activation by leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4 depends on the position of the tyrosine residues in its ITIMs. Innate Immun. 2017;23:381-391 pubmed publisher
    The leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) is an inhibitory cell surface receptor, primarily expressed on mono-myeloid cells...
  18. Waschbisch A, Sanderson N, Krumbholz M, Vlad G, Theil D, Schwab S, et al. Interferon beta and vitamin D synergize to induce immunoregulatory receptors on peripheral blood monocytes of multiple sclerosis patients. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115488 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this possibility, we measured expression of ILT3 and ILT4 on immune cells from multiple sclerosis patients, and in post-mortem brain tissue...
  19. Liu W, Kim J, Nwankwo C, Ashworth L, Arm J. Genomic organization of the human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors within the leukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:659-69 pubmed
    ..4 that is immediately centromeric of the killer cell Ig-like receptor genes and are separated from one another by approximately 20 to 30 kb, suggesting that they arose by gene duplication from a common ancestor. ..
  20. Lu H, Rentero C, Raftery M, Borges L, Bryant K, Tedla N. Leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) is a potent inhibitor of FcgammaRI-mediated monocyte activation via dephosphorylation of multiple kinases. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34839-48 pubmed publisher
    ..b>LILRB4 is believed to down-regulate activation signals mediated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase cascades through the ..
  21. Jensen M, Patterson K, Kumar A, Kumabe M, Franek B, Niewold T. Functional genetic polymorphisms in ILT3 are associated with decreased surface expression on dendritic cells and increased serum cytokines in lupus patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:596-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoglobulin like transcript (ILT3) is an immunohibitory transmembrane molecule which is induced by type I IFNs...
  22. Wheeler H, Gamazon E, Stark A, O Donnell P, Gorsic L, Huang R, et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies variants associated with platinating agent susceptibility across populations. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013;13:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven genes previously implicated in platinating agent response, including BCL2 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2), GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase mu 1), GSTT1, ERCC2 and ERCC6, were also implicated in our meta-analyses. ..
  23. Bernardo D, Mann E, Al Hassi H, English N, Man R, Lee G, et al. Lost therapeutic potential of monocyte-derived dendritic cells through lost tissue homing: stable restoration of gut specificity with retinoic acid. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013;174:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..CCR9) and a regulatory phenotype and function [decreased human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) and increased ILT3 and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran uptake) in MoDC]...
  24. Benlahrech A, Yasmin A, Westrop S, Coleman A, Herasimtschuk A, Page E, et al. Dysregulated immunophenotypic attributes of plasmacytoid but not myeloid dendritic cells in HIV-1 infected individuals in the absence of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;170:212-21 pubmed publisher
    ..HAART restored normal expression levels of these receptors. ..
  25. Wilson M, Torkar M, Haude A, Milne S, Jones T, Sheer D, et al. Plasticity in the organization and sequences of human KIR/ILT gene families. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:4778-83 pubmed
    ..KIR genesis was followed by extensive duplication/deletion as well as intergenic sequence exchange, reminiscent of MHC class I genes, which provide KIR ligands. ..
  26. Kim Schulze S, Seki T, Vlad G, Scotto L, Fan J, Colombo P, et al. Regulation of ILT3 gene expression by processing of precursor transcripts in human endothelial cells. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:76-82 pubmed
    ..In previous studies, we showed that allospecific CD8+CD28- T suppressor cells (Ts) induce the expression of ILT3 in human endothelial cells (EC) rendering them tolerogenic...
  27. Heinzmann A, Blattmann S, Forster J, Kuehr J, Deichmann K. Common polymorphisms and alternative splicing in the ILT3 gene are not associated with atopy. Eur J Immunogenet. 2000;27:121-7 pubmed
    ..This region harbours the so-called leucocyte receptor cluster with the gene for immunoglobulin-like-transcript 3 (ILT3) as a member. ILT3 represents an inhibitory receptor bearing three immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibitory motifs (ITIM)...
  28. Chang C, Zhang Q, Liu Z, Clynes R, Suciu Foca N, Vlad G. Downregulation of inflammatory microRNAs by Ig-like transcript 3 is essential for the differentiation of human CD8(+) T suppressor cells. J Immunol. 2012;188:3042-52 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the mechanism underlying the immunoregulatory function of membrane Ig-like transcript 3 (ILT3) and soluble ILT3Fc...
  29. Colovai A, Tsao L, Wang S, Lin H, Wang C, Seki T, et al. Expression of inhibitory receptor ILT3 on neoplastic B cells is associated with lymphoid tissue involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2007;72:354-62 pubmed
    ..Inhibitory receptors from the Ig-like transcript (ILT) family, such as ILT3 and ILT4, are crucial to the tolerogenic activity of antigen presenting cells...
  30. Tedla N, Lee C, Borges L, Geczy C, Arm J. Differential expression of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors on cord-blood-derived human mast cell progenitors and mature mast cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:334-43 pubmed
  31. Cheng H, Mohammed F, Nam G, Chen Y, Qi J, Garner L, et al. Crystal structure of leukocyte Ig-like receptor LILRB4 (ILT3/LIR-5/CD85k): a myeloid inhibitory receptor involved in immune tolerance. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18013-25 pubmed publisher
    The myeloid inhibitory receptor LILRB4 (also called ILT3, LIR-5, CD85k), a member of the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRs/LIRs), is an important mediator of immune tolerance...
  32. Torkar M, Norgate Z, Colonna M, Trowsdale J, Wilson M. Isotypic variation of novel immunoglobulin-like transcript/killer cell inhibitory receptor loci in the leukocyte receptor complex. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:3959-67 pubmed
    ..Extensive sequence data were collected for ILT3, two novel genes, ILT9 and ILT10, and one novel KIR locus (KIRCI)...
  33. Lemaoult J, Zafaranloo K, Le Danff C, Carosella E. HLA-G up-regulates ILT2, ILT3, ILT4, and KIR2DL4 in antigen presenting cells, NK cells, and T cells. FASEB J. 2005;19:662-4 pubmed
    ..We report that ILT2, ILT3, ILT4, and KIR2DL4 expression is up-regulated by HLA-G in antigen-presenting cells, NK cells, and T cells...
  34. Malena A, Loro E, Di Re M, Holt I, Vergani L. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission favours mutant over wild-type mitochondrial DNA. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that the level of mutant and wild-type mitochondrial DNA can be manipulated by altering the expression of nuclear encoded factors involved in mitochondrial fission suggests new interventions for mitochondrial DNA disorders. ..
  35. Inui M, Sugahara Tobinai A, Fujii H, Itoh Nakadai A, Fukuyama H, Kurosaki T, et al. Tolerogenic immunoreceptor ILT3/LILRB4 paradoxically marks pathogenic auto-antibody-producing plasmablasts and plasma cells in non-treated SLE. Int Immunol. 2016;28:597-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study indicated that leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR) B4 (B4, also known as ILT3/LIR-5/CD85k), a tolerogenic receptor in antigen-presenting cells, is ectopically expressed on the PB/PC surface in healthy ..
  36. Kuroiwa A, Yamashita Y, Inui M, Yuasa T, Ono M, Nagabukuro A, et al. Association of tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2, inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP with gp49B1, and chromosomal assignment of the gene. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1070-4 pubmed
    ..The gene pair was shown to locate in the B4 band of mouse chromosome 10. In this region, no conserved linkage homology to human chromosome 19, where the genes for killer cell inhibitory receptors are found, has been identified. ..
  37. Zurli V, Wimmer G, Cattaneo F, Candi V, Cencini E, Gozzetti A, et al. Ectopic ILT3 controls BCR-dependent activation of Akt in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2017;130:2006-2017 pubmed publisher
    ..lack of p66Shc shapes the transcriptional profile of CLL cells and leads to an upregulation of the surface receptor ILT3, the immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 that is normally found on myeloid cells...
  38. Arm J, Nwankwo C, Austen K. Molecular identification of a novel family of human Ig superfamily members that possess immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and homology to the mouse gp49B1 inhibitory receptor. J Immunol. 1997;159:2342-9 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that HM18 is a novel mononuclear cell inhibitory receptor homologous to mouse gp49B1. ..
  39. Vlad G, Liu Z, Zhang Q, Cortesini R, Suciu Foca N. Immunosuppressive activity of recombinant ILT3. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:1889-94 pubmed
    Tolerogenic antigen presenting cells (APC) are characterized by high expression of the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4...
  40. Brown D, Jones D, Anderson K, Lapaque N, Buerki R, Trowsdale J, et al. The inhibitory receptor LILRB4 (ILT3) modulates antigen presenting cell phenotype and, along with LILRB2 (ILT4), is upregulated in response to Salmonella infection. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:56 pubmed publisher
    ..High-level expression of the receptors LILRB2 (ILT4) and LILRB4 (ILT3) is a feature of tolerogenic antigen presenting cells and has been observed in cancer and transplant ..
  41. Brenk M, Scheler M, Koch S, Neumann J, Takikawa O, Hacker G, et al. Tryptophan deprivation induces inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 on dendritic cells favoring the induction of human CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 are significantly increased...
  42. Chang C, Liu Z, Vlad G, Qin H, Qiao X, Mancini D, et al. Ig-like transcript 3 regulates expression of proinflammatory cytokines and migration of activated T cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:5208-16 pubmed publisher
    Ig-like transcript 3 (ILT3), an inhibitory receptor expressed by APC is involved in functional shaping of T cell responses toward a tolerant state...
  43. Young N, Canavez F, Uhrberg M, Shum B, Parham P. Conserved organization of the ILT/LIR gene family within the polymorphic human leukocyte receptor complex. Immunogenetics. 2001;53:270-8 pubmed
    ..Investigation of gene expression identified novel cDNA sequences related to the ILT2/LIR1, ILT4/LIR2, ILT3/LIR5, and ILT7 loci, while phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct lineages of ILT/LIR genes...
  44. Vlad G, Suciu Foca N. Induction of antigen-specific human T suppressor cells by membrane and soluble ILT3. Exp Mol Pathol. 2012;93:294-301 pubmed publisher
    ..CD8(+) Ts induce the upregulation of the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 on monocytes and dendritic cells rendering these antigen presenting cells (APCs) tolerogenic...
  45. Wang L, Blasioli J, Plas D, Thomas M, Yokoyama W. Specificity of the SH2 domains of SHP-1 in the interaction with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-bearing receptor gp49B. J Immunol. 1999;162:1318-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, gp49B signaling involves SHP-1, and this association is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of the gp49B ITIMs, and an intact SHP-1 carboxyl SH2 domain. ..
  46. K Siddiqui M, Maroteau C, Veluchamy A, Tornio A, Tavendale R, Carr F, et al. A common missense variant of LILRB5 is associated with statin intolerance and myalgia. Eur Heart J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association of this variant with statin intolerance ascertained from electronic medical records in the GoDARTS study...
  47. Benito M, Lopez Hoyos M, Fernandez Fresnedo G, Ruiz J, Benito A, San Segundo D, et al. Changes in the expression of the immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) and ILT4 receptors in renal allograft recipients: effect of donor and recipient aging. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:2894-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal grafts from young but not from aged donors seem to induce DC of a tolerogenic phenotype, both in aged and young recipients. These preliminary results suggested that donor age may have consequences in terms of tolerance induction. ..
  48. Mori Y, Tsuji S, Inui M, Sakamoto Y, Endo S, Ito Y, et al. Inhibitory immunoglobulin-like receptors LILRB and PIR-B negatively regulate osteoclast development. J Immunol. 2008;181:4742-51 pubmed
    ..Modulation of these regulatory receptors may be a novel way to control various skeletal system disorders and inflammatory arthritis. ..
  49. Borges L, Hsu M, Fanger N, Kubin M, Cosman D. A family of human lymphoid and myeloid Ig-like receptors, some of which bind to MHC class I molecules. J Immunol. 1997;159:5192-6 pubmed
    ..Like killer inhibitory receptors, at least two LIRs bind to MHC class I Ags, but their different cellular distribution suggests a distinct role in immune system modulation. ..
  50. Hof Nahor I, Leshansky L, Shivtiel S, Eldor L, Aberdam D, Itskovitz Eldor J, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells shift CD8+ T cells towards a suppressive phenotype by inducing tolerogenic monocytes. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of action has to be taken into account in clinical trials, where it should be beneficial in grafts and autoimmune diseases, but potentially detrimental in malignant diseases. ..
  51. Park M, Raftery M, Thomas P, Geczy C, Bryant K, Tedla N. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 regulates key signalling molecules involved in FcγRI-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis and phagocytosis. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35085 pubmed publisher
    ..We proposed the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) that inhibits FcγRI-mediated cytokine production via Tyr dephosphorylation of multiple kinases, may also ..
  52. Smirnova E, Shurland D, Ryazantsev S, van der Bliek A. A human dynamin-related protein controls the distribution of mitochondria. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:351-8 pubmed
    ..The function of this new dynamin-related protein in organelle morphology represents a novel role for a member of the dynamin family of proteins. ..
  53. Jiang Z, Qin J, Zhang Y, Cheng W, Ji Y, Gong F, et al. LILRB4 deficiency aggravates the development of atherosclerosis and plaque instability by increasing the macrophage inflammatory response via NF-?B signaling. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. LILRB4 is associated with the pathological processes of various inflammatory diseases...
  54. Jones D, Roghanian A, Brown D, Chang C, Allen R, Trowsdale J, et al. Alternative mRNA splicing creates transcripts encoding soluble proteins from most LILR genes. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Soluble LILRB1 may act as a dominant negative regulator of HLA-class I-mediated LILRB1 inhibition. Soluble isoforms of the other LILR may function in a comparable way. ..
  55. Lu Y, Jiang Z, Dai H, Miao R, Shu J, Gu H, et al. Hepatic leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via SHP1-TRAF6 pathway. Hepatology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..gain- and loss-of-function approaches to identify the key immune factor leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) as a negative regulator of NAFLD...
  56. Suciu Foca N, Cortesini R. Central role of ILT3 in the T suppressor cell cascade. Cell Immunol. 2007;248:59-67 pubmed
    ..such as dendritic cells and endothelial cells, respectively is due to the upregulation of the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4...
  57. Dobrowolska H, Gill K, Serban G, Ivan E, Li Q, Qiao P, et al. Expression of immune inhibitory receptor ILT3 in acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2013;84:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) is an immune inhibitory receptor expressed by myelomonocytic cells and at high levels by tolerogenic dendritic ..
  58. Dokić J, Tomic S, Markovic M, Milosavljević P, Colic M. Mesenchymal stem cells from periapical lesions modulate differentiation and functional properties of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:1862-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PL-MSCs significantly modulate the development and functions of DCs, depending on the phase of DCs development during which the interaction occurs. ..
  59. Chang C, Silvia E, Ho E, Vlad G, Suciu Foca N, Vasilescu E. Polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium of immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 gene. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:284-90 pubmed publisher
    Immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) is an inhibitory receptor molecule expressed by dendritic cells, monocytes, and endothelial cells...
  60. Hofer J, Forster F, Isenman D, Wahrmann M, Leitner J, Hölzl M, et al. Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d. FASEB J. 2016;30:1492-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Isenman, D. E., Wahrmann, M., Leitner, J., Hölzl, M. A., Kovarik, J. K., Stockinger, H., Böhmig, G. A., Steinberger, P., Zlabinger, G. J. Ig-like transcript 4 as a cellular receptor for soluble complement fragment C4d. ..
  61. Si Y, Bian X, Lu N, Jia Y, Hou Z, Zhang Y. Cyclosporine induces up-regulation of immunoglobulin-like transcripts 3 and 4 expression on and activity of NKL cells. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:1407-11 pubmed publisher
    ..There are some studies about the effects of CsA on various human immunologic reactions, but its impact on ILT3 and ILT4 expression on natural killer (NK) cells is less well understood...
  62. Garner L, Salim M, Mohammed F, Willcox B. Expression, purification, and refolding of the myeloid inhibitory receptor leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor-5 for structural and ligand identification studies. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;47:490-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we describe recombinant production and characterisation of the extracellular portion of LIR-5 (ILT3), a poorly understood inhibitory receptor that transduces tolerising signals to dendritic cells...