Gene Symbol: LHCGR
Description: luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor
Alias: HHG, LCGR, LGR2, LH/CG-R, LH/CGR, LHR, LHRHR, LSH-R, ULG5, lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor
Species: human
Products:     LHCGR

Top Publications

  1. Atger M, Misrahi M, Sar S, Le Flem L, Dessen P, Milgrom E. Structure of the human luteinizing hormone-choriogonadotropin receptor gene: unusual promoter and 5' non-coding regions. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1995;111:113-23 pubmed
    ..Primers and PCR conditions are described for the direct genomic sequencing of all the exons of the gene. This information should facilitate the study of pathological mutations of the receptor. ..
  2. Menon B, Franzo Romain M, Damanpour S, Menon K. Luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA down-regulation is mediated through ERK-dependent induction of RNA binding protein. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:282-90 pubmed publisher
    The ligand-induced down-regulation of LH receptor (LHR) expression in the ovaries, at least in part, is regulated by a posttranscriptional process mediated by a specific LH receptor mRNA binding protein (LRBP)...
  3. Bentov Y, Kenigsberg S, Casper R. A novel luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor mutation associated with amenorrhea, low oocyte yield, and recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the cause for poor oocyte yield, amenorrhea, and recurrent pregnancy loss in a patient undergoing IVF...
  4. Gromoll J, Schulz A, Borta H, Gudermann T, Teerds K, Greschniok A, et al. Homozygous mutation within the conserved Ala-Phe-Asn-Glu-Thr motif of exon 7 of the LH receptor causes male pseudohermaphroditism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002;147:597-608 pubmed
    Human chorionic gonadotropin/luteinizing hormone (hCG/LH) function in the male is mediated by the LH receptor (LHR) and is crucial for the normal development of internal and external genitalia...
  5. Rousseau Merck M, Misrahi M, Atger M, Loosfelt H, Milgrom E, Berger R. Localization of the human luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor gene (LHCGR) to chromosome 2p21. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1990;54:77-9 pubmed
    ..Probes corresponding to human and porcine LH (luteinizing hormone) receptor cDNA were used for in situ hybridization to human chromosomes. This allowed us to assign the LH receptor gene to chromosome 2p21. ..
  6. Warrenfeltz S, Lott S, Palmer T, Gray J, Puett D. Luteinizing hormone-induced up-regulation of ErbB-2 is insufficient stimulant of growth and invasion in ovarian cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1775-85 pubmed publisher
    ..development of ovarian cancer, are mediated by specific binding to its G protein-coupled receptor, the LH receptor (LHR). Activated LHR initiates second messenger responses, including cyclic AMP (cAMP) and inositol phosphate...
  7. Liu N, Ma Y, Wang S, Zhang X, Zhang Q, Zhang X, et al. Association of the genetic variants of luteinizing hormone, luteinizing hormone receptor and polycystic ovary syndrome. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012;10:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Certain mutations of LH and LH receptor (LHR) may lead to changes in bioactivity of these hormones...
  8. Valkenburg O, Uitterlinden A, Piersma D, Hofman A, Themmen A, de Jong F, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of GnRH and gonadotrophic hormone receptors affect the phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:2014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..FSHR variants were strongly associated with the severity of clinical features of PCOS, such as levels of gonadotrophic hormones and the presence of hyperandrogenism, but not disease risk. ..
  9. Wang Z, Li T, Zhang W, You L, Zhao Y, Xia M, et al. Variants in DENND1A and LHCGR are associated with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;127:403-5 pubmed publisher
    ..to explore the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs13405728 (in gene LHCGR), rs13429458 (in gene THADA) and rs2479106 (in gene DENND1A) in women with endometrial carcinoma...

More Information


  1. Powell B, Piersma D, Kevenaar M, van Staveren I, Themmen A, Iacopetta B, et al. Luteinizing hormone signaling and breast cancer: polymorphisms and age of onset. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1653-7 pubmed
    ..Estrogen synthesis is under the control of LH and FSH, where LH, through its receptor (LHR), stimulates production of ovarian androgens; and FSH, their aromatization to estrogens...
  2. Minegishi T, Nakamura K, Takakura Y, Miyamoto K, Hasegawa Y, Ibuki Y, et al. Cloning and sequencing of human LH/hCG receptor cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;172:1049-54 pubmed
    ..While the protein is 85 and 87% identical overall with the previously cloned rat and porcine LH/hCG receptor respectively, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane segments (91 and 94% similarity, respectively). ..
  3. Nakamura K, Yamashita S, Omori Y, Minegishi T. A splice variant of the human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor modulates the expression of wild-type human LH receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1461-70 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrated that hLHR is capable of forming receptor complexes. Our findings may expand the possibility of a splice variant of hLHR specifically modulating the functional property of the wild-type hLHR. ..
  4. Misrahi M, Meduri G, Pissard S, Bouvattier C, Beau I, Loosfelt H, et al. Comparison of immunocytochemical and molecular features with the phenotype in a case of incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism associated with a mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:2159-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that the partial impairment of LH receptor function, as reflected by the presence of Leydig cells, was responsible for the incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism observed in our patient. ..
  5. Ascoli M, Fanelli F, Segaloff D. The lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor, a 2002 perspective. Endocr Rev. 2002;23:141-74 pubmed
    Reproduction cannot take place without the proper functioning of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHR)...
  6. Arnhold I, Lofrano Porto A, Latronico A. Inactivating mutations of luteinizing hormone beta-subunit or luteinizing hormone receptor cause oligo-amenorrhea and infertility in women. Horm Res. 2009;71:75-82 pubmed publisher
    Women harbouring inactivating mutations in luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit (LHB) or LH receptor (LHCGR) genes have similar clinical manifestations characterized by female external genitalia, spontaneous breast and pubic hair ..
  7. Guan R, Feng X, Wu X, Zhang M, Zhang X, Hebert T, et al. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies reveal constitutive dimerization of the human lutropin receptor and a lack of correlation between receptor activation and the propensity for dimerization. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7483-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken altogether, our data suggest that hLHR dimers/oligomers are formed early in the biosynthetic pathway in the ER, are constitutively expressed on the plasma membrane, and are not affected by the activation state of the hLHR. ..
  8. Piersma D, Themmen A, Look M, Klijn J, Foekens J, Uitterlinden A, et al. GnRH and LHR gene variants predict adverse outcome in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:R51 pubmed
    ..of genes involved in the HPG-axis, the GnRH (encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone) 16Trp/Ser genotype and the LHR (encoding the luteinizing hormone receptor) insLQ variant, in retrospectively collected premenopausal breast cancer ..
  9. Chen Z, Zhao H, He L, Shi Y, Qin Y, Shi Y, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for polycystic ovary syndrome on chromosome 2p16.3, 2p21 and 9q33.3. Nat Genet. 2011;43:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..73 × 10?²³, OR 0.67); and 9q33.3 (rs2479106, P(meta) = 8.12 × 10?¹?, OR 1.34). These findings provide new insight into the pathogenesis of PCOS. Follow-up studies of the candidate genes in these regions are recommended. ..
  10. Boot A, Lumbroso S, Verhoef Post M, Richter Unruh A, Looijenga L, Funaro A, et al. Mutation analysis of the LH receptor gene in Leydig cell adenoma and hyperplasia and functional and biochemical studies of activating mutations of the LH receptor gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1197-205 pubmed publisher
    Germline and somatic activating mutations in the LH receptor (LHR) gene have been reported. Our objective was to perform mutation analysis of the LHR gene of patients with Leydig cell adenoma or hyperplasia...
  11. Yariz K, Walsh T, Uzak A, Spiliopoulos M, Duman D, Onalan G, et al. Inherited mutation of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) in empty follicle syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:e125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Discovery of a mutation in the LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) as the cause of EFS. A novel missense mutation in LHCGR, p...
  12. Brokken L, Lundberg Giwercman Y, Rajpert De Meyts E, Eberhard J, Ståhl O, Cohn Cedermark G, et al. Association of polymorphisms in genes encoding hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 and LHCGR with the risk and clinical features of testicular germ cell cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;351:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in ESR2 (rs1256063; OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79) and LHCGR (rs4597581; OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.89, and rs4953617; OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.21-2.94) associated with risk of TGCC...
  13. Madhra M, Gay E, Fraser H, Duncan W. Alternative splicing of the human luteal LH receptor during luteolysis and maternal recognition of pregnancy. Mol Hum Reprod. 2004;10:599-603 pubmed
    ..These data do not support the hypothesis that qualitative changes in LH receptor splicing have a role in luteolysis or that a naturally occurring LH receptor lacking exon 10 has a role in maternal recognition of pregnancy. ..
  14. Bukovsky A, Indrapichate K, Fujiwara H, Cekanova M, Ayala M, Dominguez R, et al. Multiple luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) protein variants, interspecies reactivity of anti-LHR mAb clone 3B5, subcellular localization of LHR in human placenta, pelvic floor and brain, and possible role for LHR in the development of abnormal pregn. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:46 pubmed
    Distinct luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) protein variants exist due to the posttranslational modifications...
  15. Muller T, Gromoll J, Simoni M. Absence of exon 10 of the human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor impairs LH, but not human chorionic gonadotropin action. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2242-9 pubmed
    The LH receptor (LHR) mediates the actions of LH and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In vivo data showed that deletion of exon 10 does not affect hCG action, whereas LH action is impaired...
  16. Amsterdam A, Hanoch T, Dantes A, Tajima K, Strauss J, Seger R. Mechanisms of gonadotropin desensitization. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;187:69-74 pubmed
  17. Abdallah M, Lei Z, Li X, Greenwold N, Nakajima S, Jauniaux E, et al. Human fetal nongonadal tissues contain human chorionic gonadotropin/luteinizing hormone receptors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:952-6 pubmed
    ..Although the role of fetal nongonadal hCG/LH receptors is not known, they may mediate the pleiotropic actions of hCG in the growing human fetus. ..
  18. Lin P, Li X, Lei Z, Rao C. Human cervix contains functional luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3409-14 pubmed
    ..In summary, human cervix contains functional LH/hCG receptors, which suggests that LH during the menstrual cycle and hCG during pregnancy may regulate cervical functions. ..
  19. Segaloff D. Diseases associated with mutations of the human lutropin receptor. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2009;89:97-114 pubmed publisher
    The human lutropin receptor (LHCGR) plays an integral role in male and female reproductive physiology. In response to either placental hCG or pituitary LH, gonadal LHCGR mediates its effects primarily through Gs activation...
  20. Tian M, Liu F, Liu H, Zhang Q, Li L, Hou X, et al. Grape seed procyanidins extract attenuates Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and testosterone synthase inhibition in rat testes. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2018;64:246-259 pubmed publisher
    ..MDA: malondialdehyde; GSH: glutathione; T-AOC: total antioxidant capacity; TNOS: total nitric oxide synthases; Lhcgr: luteinizing hormone receptor; Scarb1: lipoprotein-receptor; Cyp19a1: 19α-hydroxylase; ELISA: enzyme linked ..
  21. Subramaniam E, Colazo M, Gobikrushanth M, Sun Y, Ruiz Sanchez A, Ponce Barajas P, et al. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:2762-2774 pubmed publisher
    ..Diets did not alter the expression profiles of LHr, estrogen receptor β, CYP19, and GPx3 genes in granulosa cells...
  22. Yue Z, Yu M, Zhang X, Wang J, Ru S. The anti-androgenic effect of chronic exposure to semicarbazide on male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its potential mechanisms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;210:30-34 pubmed publisher
    ..hormone beta subunit (lh?), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr) and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) mRNA...
  23. Hu X, Lei X, Wang J, Pan H, Li C, Yao Z. Lentivirus vector-mediated mitofusin-2 overexpression in rat ovary changes endocrine function and promotes follicular development in vivo. Exp Ther Med. 2014;8:731-736 pubmed
    ..the expression of rMfn2 and the progesterone receptor (PR), estradiol receptor (ER), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)...
  24. Yang G, Song Q, Sun C, Qin J, Jia J, Yuan X, et al. Ctrp9 and adiponectin receptors in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and effects on reproductive genes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;265:160-173 pubmed publisher
    ..as well as gth? (gonadotropic hormone ?), fsh? (follicle-stimulating hormone ?), lh? (luteinizing hormone ?), lhr (LH receptor) and fshr (FSH receptor) mRNA levels in the pituitary...
  25. Minegishi T, Nakamura K, Yamashita S, Omori Y. The effect of splice variant of the human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor on the expression of gonadotropin receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;260-262:117-25 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism of regulation for gonadotropin receptor expression. ..
  26. Kleppe L, Andersson E, Skaftnesmo K, Edvardsen R, Fjelldal P, Norberg B, et al. Sex steroid production associated with puberty is absent in germ cell-free salmon. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12584 pubmed publisher
    ..cyp11?, cyp19a1a), gonadal somatic cells (insl3, amh, igf3), oocytes (bmp15), gonadotropin receptors (fshr, lhcgr), and pituitary gonadotropic cells (fshb, lhb, gnrhr4) showed an immature status and failure to up-regulate ..
  27. Latronico A, Anasti J, Arnhold I, Mendonca B, Domenice S, Albano M, et al. A novel mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene causing male gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:2490-4 pubmed
  28. Martens J, Verhoef Post M, Abelin N, Ezabella M, Toledo S, Brunner H, et al. A homozygous mutation in the luteinizing hormone receptor causes partial Leydig cell hypoplasia: correlation between receptor activity and phenotype. Mol Endocrinol. 1998;12:775-84 pubmed
    ..We have evaluated three brothers with a mild form of LCH. Analysis of their LH receptor (LHR) gene revealed a homozygous missense mutation resulting in a substitution of a lysine residue for a isoleucine ..
  29. Wu Y, Barad D, Kushnir V, Lazzaroni E, Wang Q, Albertini D, et al. Aging-related premature luteinization of granulosa cells is avoided by early oocyte retrieval. J Endocrinol. 2015;226:167-80 pubmed publisher
    ..dehydrogenase (HSD17B) expression were found down regulated with advancing age, while LH receptor (LHCGR), P450scc (CYP11A1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were up regulated...
  30. Latronico A, Segaloff D. Insights learned from L457(3.43)R, an activating mutant of the human lutropin receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;260-262:287-93 pubmed
    ..As such, this mutant has provided novel insights into the properties of target cells expressing activating hLHR mutants and into the structural basis for hLHR activation. ..
  31. Feng Z, Wen H, Bi R, Ju X, Chen X, Yang W, et al. A clinically applicable molecular classification for high-grade serous ovarian cancer based on hormone receptor expression. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25408 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of the hormone receptors were as follows: ER 64.4%, PR 12.6%, AR 35.6%, FSHR 54.5%, LHR 34.8%, and GnRHR 88.3%...
  32. Benny B, George Priya Doss C, Thirumal Kumar D, Asha Devi S. Assessing reproductive toxicity and antioxidant enzymes on beta asarone induced male Wistar albino rats: In vivo and computational analysis. Life Sci. 2017;173:150-160 pubmed publisher
    ..used molecular docking studies to predict the binding nature of beta asarone with luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR). Beta asarone administered at a dose of 50mg/kgb.wt...
  33. Veraguas D, Gallegos P, Velasquez A, Castro F, Rodríguez Alvarez L. FSH stimulation of anestrous cats improves oocyte quality and development of parthenogenetic embryos. Theriogenology. 2017;87:25-35 pubmed publisher
    ..were classified morphologically and a proportion of grade I and II COCs was used for expression analysis of FSHR, LHCGR, EGFR, PTGS2, EGR1, GDF9, and GATM by RT-qPCR...
  34. Sun L, Wu Z, Li F, Liu L, Li J, Zhang D, et al. Effect of light intensity on ovarian gene expression, reproductive performance and body weight of rabbit does. Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;183:118-125 pubmed publisher
    ..of estradiol receptor-α (ER-α), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (GnRHR1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) mRNA...
  35. Zhang H, Zhang F, Zhu M, Wang J, Sheng X, Yuan Z, et al. Seasonal expressions of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and luteinizing hormone receptor in the scented gland of the male muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;312:R569-R574 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the seasonal expression patterns of FSH receptor (FSHR) and LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR)...
  36. Ben Hadj Hmida I, Mougou Zerelli S, Hadded A, Dimassi S, Kammoun M, Bignon Topalovic J, et al. Novel homozygous nonsense mutations in the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) gene associated with 46,XY primary amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2016;106:225-229.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..Three novel homozygous nonsense mutations in the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) gene were identified:c.1573 C?T, p.Gln525Ter, c.1435 C?T p.Arg479Ter, and c.508 C?T, p.Gln170Ter...
  37. Yenuganti V, Viergutz T, Vanselow J. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;232:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the ..
  38. Vezzoli V, Duminuco P, Vottero A, Kleinau G, Schülein R, Minari R, et al. A new variant in signal peptide of the human luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) affects receptor biogenesis causing leydig cell hypoplasia. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6003-12 pubmed publisher
    ..1847C>A p.S616Y, already described in association to Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism, and the other, c.29 C>T p...
  39. Liu S, Li C, Wang Y, Hong T, Song T, Li L, et al. In utero methoxychlor exposure increases rat fetal Leydig cell number but inhibits its function. Toxicology. 2016;370:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative PCR results show that MXC increased Lhcgr expression at dose of 10mg/kg and Scarb1 and Cyp11a1 mRNA levels at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg...
  40. Lan Z, Krause M, Redding S, Li X, Wu G, Zhou H, et al. Selective deletion of Pten in theca-interstitial cells leads to androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction in mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;444:26-37 pubmed publisher
    ..androgen levels, ovary enlargement, antral follicle accumulation, early fertility loss and increased expression of Lhcgr and genes that are crucial to androgenesis...
  41. Majumdar R, Railkar R, Dighe R. Insights into differential modulation of receptor function by hinge region using novel agonistic lutropin receptor and inverse agonistic thyrotropin receptor antibodies. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:810-7 pubmed publisher
    We report two antibodies, scFv 13B1 and MAb PD1.37, against the hinge regions of LHR and TSHR, respectively, which have similar epitopes but different effects on receptor function...
  42. Kopalli S, Cha K, Ryu J, Lee S, Jeong M, Hwang S, et al. Korean red ginseng improves testicular ineffectiveness in aging rats by modulating spermatogenesis-related molecules. Exp Gerontol. 2017;90:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..protein [CREB]-1), sex hormone receptors (androgen, luteinizing- and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors [AR, LHR, and FSHR, respectively]), and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase mu [GSTm]-5, glutathione peroxidase [..
  43. Oluyomi Obi T, Kuret V, Puligandla P, Lodha A, Lee Robertson H, Lee K, et al. Antenatal predictors of outcome in prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). J Pediatr Surg. 2017;52:881-888 pubmed publisher
    ..Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science on the ability of lung-to-head ratio (LHR), observed-to-expected LHR (o/e LHR), total fetal lung volume (TFLV), o/e TFLV, percentage predicted lung volume (..
  44. Parkash J, Lei Z, Rao C. The Presence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin/Luteinizing Hormone Receptors in Pancreatic β-Cells. Reprod Sci. 2015;22:1000-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings place hCG and LH among the regulators of insulin release with potential implications for insulin-level changes during the periods of altered hCG and LH secretion. ..
  45. Santamaría C, Rodriguez H, Abud J, Rivera O, Munoz De Toro M, Luque E. Impaired ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropins in female rat offspring born to mothers perinatally exposed to Bisphenol A. Reprod Toxicol. 2017;73:259-268 pubmed publisher
    ..After ovulation, there was an increase in antral atretic follicles, reduced Lhcgr mRNA expression and high serum levels of E2...
  46. Nguyen T, Filliatreau L, Klett D, Combarnous Y. Comparative effects of sub-stimulating concentrations of non-human versus human Luteinizing Hormones (LH) or chorionic gonadotropins (CG) on adenylate cyclase activation by forskolin in MLTC cells. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;261:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This points out the risk of using hCG as a reference ligand for LHR in studies using non-human cells.
  47. Song J, Luo S, Li S. miRNA-592 is downregulated and may target LHCGR in polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Reprod Biol. 2015;15:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..found that miR-592 was inversely correlated with the level of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR)...
  48. Jozan C, Huissoud C, Labaune J, Fichez A, Sesques A, Cortet M. [Contribution of ultrasound pulmonary ratio in pre-viable premature ruptures of membranes]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol. 2018;46:78-85 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the ultrasound measurement of the observed-to-expected (o/e) lung-to-head ratio (LHR) and the Quantitative Lung Index (QLI) for the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia in the pre-viable preterm premature ruptures of membranes (..
  49. Borgbo T, Chrudimska J, Macek M, Jeppesen J, Bøtkjær J, Kristensen S, et al. The polymorphic insertion of the luteinizing hormone receptor "insLQ" show a negative association to LHR gene expression and to the follicular fluid hormonal profile in human small antral follicles. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018;460:57-62 pubmed publisher
    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) has a little studied polymorphic 6 bp insertion (rs4539842/insLQ)...
  50. Partridge E, Peranteau W, Herkert L, Rintoul N, Flake A, Adzick N, et al. Rate of increase of lung-to-head ratio over the course of gestation is predictive of survival in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:703-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to examine the relationship between the rate of interval increase of LHR and postnatal survival in left-sided CDH...
  51. Han H, Sun Z, Luo G, Wang C, Wei R, Wang J. Fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of reproductive related genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of male mice. Chemosphere. 2015;135:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..level, the expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), inhibin alpha (INHα), inhibin beta-B (INHβB), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) mRNA in testis were ..
  52. Feng Z, Wen H, Ju X, Bi R, Chen X, Yang W, et al. Expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis-related hormone receptors in low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSC). J Ovarian Res. 2017;10:7 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of the hormone receptors were as follows: ER, 80.8%; PR, 34.6%; AR, 53.8%; FSHR, 84.0%; LHR, 65.4%; and GnRHR, 100%...
  53. Głodek A, Jankowska A. CGB activates ERK and AKT kinases in cancer cells via LHCGR-independent mechanism. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:5467-79 pubmed publisher
    ..unknown especially that not all tumors secreting hCG? express the receptor for human chorionic gonadotropin (LHCGR)...
  54. Kossack N, Simoni M, Richter Unruh A, Themmen A, Gromoll J. Mutations in a novel, cryptic exon of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene cause male pseudohermaphroditism. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e88 pubmed publisher
    ..It is caused by mutations in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene (LHCGR), which impair either LH/CG binding or signal transduction...
  55. Song T, Wang Y, Li H, Chen L, Liu J, Chen X, et al. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Promotes Rat Stem Leydig Cell Differentiation. Front Physiol. 2017;8:911 pubmed publisher
    ..cell-depleted testis from post-EDS day 7 to 21 significantly increased serum testosterone level, up-regulated LHCGR, SCARB1, CYP11A1, 11?-HSD1, and CYP17A1 expressions...
  56. Arato I, Luca G, Mancuso F, Bellucci C, Lilli C, Calvitti M, et al. An in vitro prototype of a porcine biomimetic testis-like cell culture system: a novel tool for the study of reassembled Sertoli and Leydig cells. Asian J Androl. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..B, and testosterone secretion in the medium, and Real-Time PCR analysis of AMH, inhibin B, FSH-r, aromatase, LHr, and 3?-HSD mRNA expression levels...
  57. Doroszko M, Chruściel M, Stelmaszewska J, Ślężak T, Rivero Muller A, Padzik A, et al. Luteinizing Hormone and GATA4 Action in the Adrenocortical Tumorigenesis of Gonadectomized Female Mice. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;43:1064-1076 pubmed publisher
    Physiological role of luteinizing hormone (LH) and its receptor (LHCGR) in adrenal remains unknown...
  58. Feng X, Muller T, Mizrachi D, Fanelli F, Segaloff D. An intracellular loop (IL2) residue confers different basal constitutive activities to the human lutropin receptor and human thyrotropin receptor through structural communication between IL2 and helix 6, via helix 3. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1705-17 pubmed
    ..30 interaction. Our results suggest a H3-mediated structural connection between IL2 and the cytosolic extension of H6. Thus, IL2 contributes significantly to the inactive and active state ensembles of these G protein-coupled receptors. ..
  59. Urizar E, Montanelli L, Loy T, Bonomi M, Swillens S, Gales C, et al. Glycoprotein hormone receptors: link between receptor homodimerization and negative cooperativity. EMBO J. 2005;24:1954-64 pubmed
    ..This study is the first report of homodimerization associated with negative cooperativity in rhodopsin-like GPCRs. As such, it may warrant revisitation of allosterism in the whole GPCR family. ..
  60. Fanelli F, Verhoef Post M, Timmerman M, Zeilemaker A, Martens J, Themmen A. Insight into mutation-induced activation of the luteinizing hormone receptor: molecular simulations predict the functional behavior of engineered mutants at M398. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1499-508 pubmed
    ..43), a LH (lutropin) receptor (LHR) site in helix 2 susceptible to spontaneous activating mutations, and to develop a computational tool for ..
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    ..Quantitative real-time PCR also reveals increased expressions of LH/hCG receptor in endometrial cancerous tissues compared with surrounding microscopically normal tissues. ..
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    Human luteinizing hormone (hLH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor (LHCGR) but it is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response...
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    ..deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), induces derepression of the human luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene by de-recruitment of the pRB homologue p107 repressor from the promoter in JAR and MCF-7 cancer cells...
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    ..Further studies are needed to evaluate LH/hCGR and hCG protein function in the course of neoplastic development. ..
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    LH receptor (LHR) gene transcription is subject to repression/derepression through various modes and multiple effectors...
  66. Hannah Shmouni F, Moraitis A, Romero V, Faucz F, Mastroyannis S, Berthon A, et al. Successful Treatment of Estrogen Excess in Primary Bilateral Macronodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia with Leuprolide Acetate. Horm Metab Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..of a 64-year-old postmenopausal female with PBMAH whose adrenal lesions expressed luteinizing hormone receptors (LHr)...
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    ..This suggests that in the presence of mutant-LHR, hFSHR, which is trapped in the ER and associated with hLHR(exon 9), is unable to come up to the plasma membrane...
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    ..star), ovary aromatase (cyp19a), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr), and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) were evaluated in ovary of female fish after 14 days...
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    ..0 × 10-5, STON1-GTF2A1L/LHCGR/FSHR, PLXNA1, CTNNA3, ARMS2/HTRA1, LHFP, and FLJ38725...
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    ..associated genes, the deleted chromosomal section encompassed genes including NRXN1, CRIPT, CALM2, FBXO11, LHCGR, MCFD2, TTC7A, EPAS1, PRKCE, and 15 others...
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    To explore the value of circulating luteinizing human chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) forms for the prediction of preeclampsia (PE) in the first trimester of pregnancy...
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    Our previous genome-wide association study identified LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) as a susceptibility gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
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    ..006, odds ratio = 3.986 (95% confidence interval 1.490-10.667)). A novel APP gene duplication was observed in one case sample. Further investigation of the identified genes in independent and larger samples is warranted. ..
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    ..Analysis of nucleotide mutations for LH polymorphisms (Trp8Arg and Ile15Thr), LHR polymorphism (insLQ), and FSHR polymorphism (Asn680Ser) were performed by PCR...
  79. Nakamura K, Liu X, Ascoli M. Seven non-contiguous intracellular residues of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor dictate the rate of agonist-induced internalization and its sensitivity to non-visual arrestins. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:241-7 pubmed
    The amino acid sequences of the human (h) and rat (r) lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptors (LHR) are 87% identical, but the rate of agonist-induced internalization of the hLHR is approximately 7 times faster than that of the rLHR...
  80. Thangavelu S, Elaiyapillai S, Ramachandran I, Bhaskaran R, Jagadeesan A. Lactational exposure of polychlorinated biphenyls impair Leydig cellular steroidogenesis in F1 progeny rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2018;75:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we observed a significant decrease in LHR, SR-B1, StAR protein, Cyp11a1, 3β-HSD, Cyp17a1, 17β-HSD, 5α-reductase, Cyp19a1 and AR gene expression in the ..
  81. Wu X, Liu J, Duan Y, Gao S, Lu Y, Li X, et al. A Short-Term Exposure to Tributyltin Blocks Leydig Cell Regeneration in the Adult Rat Testis. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:704 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study demonstrated that the mRNA or protein levels of Leydig (Lhcgr, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd17b3) and Sertoli cells (Fshr, Dhh, and Sox9
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    Efforts to identify the manner in which human choriogonadotropin (hCG) contacts lutropin receptors (LHR) have been stymied by the complex structure of the hormone and the likelihood that it contacts the receptor at multiple sites...
  84. Dukic Stefanovic S, Walther J, Wosch S, Zimmermann G, Wiedemann P, Alexander H, et al. Chorionic gonadotropin and its receptor are both expressed in human retina, possible implications in normal and pathological conditions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52567 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact physiological functions of this circuit have still to be identified, but the proliferation of photoreceptor-derived tumor induced by hCG demonstrated the need to control this neuroendocrine loop. ..
  85. Mercer R, Walker B, Yang X, McMullen L, Ganzle M. The locus of heat resistance (LHR) mediates heat resistance in Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae. Food Microbiol. 2017;64:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Heat resistance in E. coli was attributed to a genomic island called the locus of heat resistance (LHR)...
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    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a pivotal role during follicular development. Consequently, its expression pattern is of major importance for research and has clinical implications...
  87. Costagliola S, Panneels V, Bonomi M, Koch J, Many M, Smits G, et al. Tyrosine sulfation is required for agonist recognition by glycoprotein hormone receptors. EMBO J. 2002;21:504-13 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that the motif, which is conserved in all members of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family, seems to play a similar role in the LH/CG and FSH receptors. ..