LC3

Summary

Gene Symbol: LC3
Description: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha
Alias: ATG8E, LC3, LC3A, MAP1ALC3, MAP1BLC3, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3A, MAP1 light chain 3-like protein 1, MAP1A/1B light chain 3 A, MAP1A/MAP1B LC3 A, MAP1A/MAP1B light chain 3 A, autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier LC3 A, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3
Species: human
Products:     LC3

Top Publications

  1. Han C, Sun B, Wang W, Cai W, Lou D, Sun Y, et al. Overexpression of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 is associated with melanoma metastasis and vasculogenic mimicry. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;223:243-51 pubmed
    ..the expression levels of two autophagy-related proteins, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3) and beclin-1, with respect to melanoma metastasis and vasculogenic mimicry...
  2. Kirkin V, Lamark T, Sou Y, Bjørkøy G, Nunn J, Bruun J, et al. A role for NBR1 in autophagosomal degradation of ubiquitinated substrates. Mol Cell. 2009;33:505-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that NBR1 (neighbor of BRCA1 gene 1) is an autophagy receptor containing LC3- and ubiquitin (Ub)-binding domains...
  3. Sou Y, Tanida I, Komatsu M, Ueno T, Kominami E. Phosphatidylserine in addition to phosphatidylethanolamine is an in vitro target of the mammalian Atg8 modifiers, LC3, GABARAP, and GATE-16. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3017-24 pubmed
    ..Three human Atg8 (hAtg8) homologs, LC3, GABARAP, and GATE-16, have been characterized as modifiers in reactions mediated by hAtg7 (an E1-like enzyme) and ..
  4. Scherz Shouval R, Weidberg H, Gonen C, Wilder S, Elazar Z, Oren M. p53-dependent regulation of autophagy protein LC3 supports cancer cell survival under prolonged starvation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cells exposed to prolonged nutrient deprivation, the endogenous wt p53 posttranscriptionally down-regulates LC3, a pivotal component of the autophagic machinery. This enables reduced, yet sustainable autophagic flux...
  5. Bjørkøy G, Lamark T, Brech A, Outzen H, Perander M, Overvatn A, et al. p62/SQSTM1 forms protein aggregates degraded by autophagy and has a protective effect on huntingtin-induced cell death. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:603-14 pubmed
    ..The autophagic marker light chain 3 (LC3) colocalized with p62 bodies and co-immunoprecipitated with p62, suggesting that these two proteins participate in ..
  6. Sancho A, Duran J, Garcia Espana A, Mauvezin C, Alemu E, Lamark T, et al. DOR/Tp53inp2 and Tp53inp1 constitute a metazoan gene family encoding dual regulators of autophagy and transcription. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34034 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify a functional and conserved LC3-interacting motif (LIR) in region 1 of DOR and TP53INP1 proteins...
  7. Jiang L, Huang S, Li W, Zhang D, Zhang S, Zhang W, et al. Expression of autophagy and ER stress-related proteins in primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2012;208:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress and autophagy are involved in human cancer. We investigated the expression of autophagic proteins (LC3 and beclin 1) and ER stress-related protein (GRP78) in head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma tissue...
  8. Thurston T, Ryzhakov G, Bloor S, von Muhlinen N, Randow F. The TBK1 adaptor and autophagy receptor NDP52 restricts the proliferation of ubiquitin-coated bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..NDP52 also recruited LC3, an autophagosomal marker, and knockdown of NDP52 impaired autophagy of salmonella...
  9. Liu L, Feng D, Chen G, Chen M, Zheng Q, Song P, et al. Mitochondrial outer-membrane protein FUNDC1 mediates hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..FUNDC1 interacted with LC3 through its typical LC3-binding motif Y(18)xxL(21), and mutation of the LC3-interaction region impaired its ..

More Information

Publications88

  1. Itoh T, Fujita N, Kanno E, Yamamoto A, Yoshimori T, Fukuda M. Golgi-resident small GTPase Rab33B interacts with Atg16L and modulates autophagosome formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2916-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of a GTPase-deficient mutant Rab33B (Rab33B-Q92L) induced the lipidation of LC3, which is an essential process in autophagosome formation, even under nutrient-rich conditions, and attenuated ..
  2. Kouno T, Mizuguchi M, Tanida I, Ueno T, Kanematsu T, Mori Y, et al. Solution structure of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 and identification of its functional subdomains. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24610-7 pubmed
    Microtubule-associated protein (MAP) light chain 3 (LC3) is a human homologue of yeast Apg8/Aut7/Cvt5 (Atg8), which is essential for autophagy...
  3. He H, Dang Y, Dai F, Guo Z, Wu J, She X, et al. Post-translational modifications of three members of the human MAP1LC3 family and detection of a novel type of modification for MAP1LC3B. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29278-87 pubmed
    ..These results revealed different regulation of the three human isoforms of MAP1LC3 and implicate that the three isoforms may have different physiological functions. ..
  4. Wild P, Farhan H, McEwan D, Wagner S, Rogov V, Brady N, et al. Phosphorylation of the autophagy receptor optineurin restricts Salmonella growth. Science. 2011;333:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers...
  5. Drake K, Kang M, Kenworthy A. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution and dynamics of the autophagosome marker EGFP-LC3. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9806 pubmed publisher
    ..Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) was the first protein shown to specifically label autophagosomal membranes in mammalian cells, and subsequently ..
  6. Seillier M, Peuget S, Gayet O, Gauthier C, N Guessan P, Monte M, et al. TP53INP1, a tumor suppressor, interacts with LC3 and ATG8-family proteins through the LC3-interacting region (LIR) and promotes autophagy-dependent cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1525-35 pubmed publisher
    ..TP53INP1-LC3 interaction occurs via a functional LC3-interacting region (LIR)...
  7. Zhu W, Pan X, Li F, Zhang Y, Lu X. Expression of Beclin 1 and LC3 in FIGO stage I-II cervical squamous cell carcinoma and relationship to survival. Tumour Biol. 2012;33:1653-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of autophagy-related proteins Beclin 1 and LC3 in cervical normal epithelial cells and squamous cancer cells, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of Beclin 1 and LC3 ..
  8. Tanida I, Tanida Miyake E, Ueno T, Kominami E. The human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apg7p is a Protein-activating enzyme for multiple substrates including human Apg12p, GATE-16, GABARAP, and MAP-LC3. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1701-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that hApg7p is an authentic protein-activating enzyme for hApg12p and the three Apg8p homologs. ..
  9. Novak I, Kirkin V, McEwan D, Zhang J, Wild P, Rozenknop A, et al. Nix is a selective autophagy receptor for mitochondrial clearance. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the mitochondrial protein Nix is a selective autophagy receptor by binding to LC3/GABARAP proteins, ubiquitin-like modifiers that are required for the growth of autophagosomal membranes...
  10. Li J, Liu Y, Wang Z, Liu K, Wang Y, Liu J, et al. Subversion of cellular autophagy machinery by hepatitis B virus for viral envelopment. J Virol. 2011;85:6319-33 pubmed publisher
    ..protein responses (UPR), and the blockage of UPR signaling pathways abrogated the SHB-induced lipidation of LC3-I. Meanwhile, the role of the autophagosome in HBV replication was examined...
  11. Alemu E, Lamark T, Torgersen K, Birgisdottir A, Larsen K, Jain A, et al. ATG8 family proteins act as scaffolds for assembly of the ULK complex: sequence requirements for LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39275-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the LIR motif is required for starvation-induced association of ULK1 with autophagosomes. Our data suggest that ATG8 proteins act as scaffolds for assembly of the ULK complex at the phagophore. ..
  12. Popovic D, Akutsu M, Novak I, Harper J, Behrends C, Dikic I. Rab GTPase-activating proteins in autophagy: regulation of endocytic and autophagy pathways by direct binding to human ATG8 modifiers. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1733-44 pubmed publisher
    ..membranes to act selectively toward specific cargo is dependent on the small ubiquitin-like modifier ATG8/LC3 and the LC3-interacting region (LIR) present in autophagy receptors...
  13. Mann S, Hammarback J. Molecular characterization of light chain 3. A microtubule binding subunit of MAP1A and MAP1B. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:11492-7 pubmed
    Light chain 3 (LC3) is a subunit of the neuronal microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MAP1A and MAP1B...
  14. Rothenberg C, Srinivasan D, Mah L, Kaushik S, Peterhoff C, Ugolino J, et al. Ubiquilin functions in autophagy and is degraded by chaperone-mediated autophagy. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3219-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that ubiquilin binds the autophagosome marker LC3 in a complex and that reduction of ubiquilin expression reduces autophagosome formation, which correlates with a ..
  15. Mauvezin C, Orpinell M, Francis V, Mansilla F, Duran J, Ribas V, et al. The nuclear cofactor DOR regulates autophagy in mammalian and Drosophila cells. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Flies lacking CG11347 show reduced autophagy in the fat body during pupal development. All together, our data indicate that DOR regulates autophagosome formation and protein degradation in mammalian and Drosophila cells. ..
  16. Shvets E, Fass E, Scherz Shouval R, Elazar Z. The N-terminus and Phe52 residue of LC3 recruit p62/SQSTM1 into autophagosomes. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2685-95 pubmed publisher
    b>LC3 belongs to a novel ubiquitin-like protein family that is involved in different intracellular trafficking processes, including autophagy...
  17. Xi S, Lu J, Chen J, Cao Y, Luo R, Wu Q, et al. The "stone-like" pattern of LC3A expression and its clinicopathologic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:760-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A (LC3A), an autophagic gene, is differentially expressed in human cancers...
  18. Tanida I, Sou Y, Ezaki J, Minematsu Ikeguchi N, Ueno T, Kominami E. HsAtg4B/HsApg4B/autophagin-1 cleaves the carboxyl termini of three human Atg8 homologues and delipidates microtubule-associated protein light chain 3- and GABAA receptor-associated protein-phospholipid conjugates. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36268-76 pubmed
    ..cleave the carboxyl termini of the three human Atg8 homologues, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), GABARAP, and GATE-16...
  19. Pankiv S, Clausen T, Lamark T, Brech A, Bruun J, Outzen H, et al. p62/SQSTM1 binds directly to Atg8/LC3 to facilitate degradation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates by autophagy. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24131-45 pubmed
    ..Here we show for the first time a direct interaction between p62 and the autophagic effector proteins LC3A and -B and the related gamma-aminobutyrate receptor-associated protein and gamma-aminobutyrate receptor-associated-..
  20. Clausen T, Lamark T, Isakson P, Finley K, Larsen K, Brech A, et al. p62/SQSTM1 and ALFY interact to facilitate the formation of p62 bodies/ALIS and their degradation by autophagy. Autophagy. 2010;6:330-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that p62 and ALFY interact to organize misfolded, ubiquitinated proteins into protein bodies that become degraded by autophagy. ..
  21. Jiang Z, Shao L, Wang W, Yan X, Liu R. Decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3 in human lung cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Two important autophagic genes-Beclin-1 and LC3 are reported in several human cancers...
  22. Yoshioka A, Miyata H, Doki Y, Yamasaki M, Sohma I, Gotoh K, et al. LC3, an autophagosome marker, is highly expressed in gastrointestinal cancers. Int J Oncol. 2008;33:461-8 pubmed
    ..Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), the mammalian homologue of yeast Atg8, is involved in autophagosome formation during autophagy...
  23. Sivridis E, Koukourakis M, Mendrinos S, Touloupidis S, Giatromanolaki A. Patterns of autophagy in urothelial cell carcinomas--the significance of "stone-like" structures (SLS) in transurethral resection biopsies. Urol Oncol. 2013;31:1254-60 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the microtubule-associated protein LC3A, presumed to reflect autophagic activity, in urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) for its relevance with muscle invasion in transurethral resection (TUR) biopsies...
  24. Sivridis E, Koukourakis M, Zois C, Ledaki I, Ferguson D, Harris A, et al. LC3A-positive light microscopy detected patterns of autophagy and prognosis in operable breast carcinomas. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2477-89 pubmed publisher
    ..An antibody to the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3A), recognizing both the soluble (LC3A-I) and the membrane-bound form (LC3A-II) of the protein, was used to detect ..
  25. He J, Luo R, Cai M, Li M, Lu J, Yuan Z. Decreased expression of light chain 3 (LC3) increased the risk of distant metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer. Med Oncol. 2013;30:468 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of light chain 3 (LC3) expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and describe the association of LC3 expression with the occurrence of metastasis...
  26. Nowak J, Archange C, Tardivel Lacombe J, Pontarotti P, Pébusque M, Vaccaro M, et al. The TP53INP2 protein is required for autophagy in mammalian cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:870-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of the TP53INP2 protein, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screening that showed that TP53INP2 binds to the LC3-related proteins GABARAP and GABARAP-like2, and then we demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation that TP53INP2 ..
  27. Lin Y, Wang H, Hsu Y, Cho C, Yang M, Chien C. Capsaicin Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells by Downregulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Capsaicin induced autophagy by increasing levels of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Atg5, enhancing p62 and Fap-1 degradation and increasing caspase-3 activity to induce apoptosis, suggesting ..
  28. Lin S, Chu P, Liao W, Wu M, Tsui K, Lin L, et al. Glycyrrhizic acid induces human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell death and autophagy via the ROS-mitochondrial pathway. Oncol Rep. 2018;39:703-710 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of p62- and beclin 1-associated proteins occurred after GA treatment, and, the conversion of LC3 and increased ROS without significant changes in caspase?associated proteins and intracellular responses were ..
  29. Mendes V, Bartholomeusz G, Ayres M, Gandhi V, Salvador J. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel A-ring cleaved ursolic acid derivatives in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Eur J Med Chem. 2016;123:317-331 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, induction of autophagy was also detected with increased levels of Beclin-1 and LC3A/B-II and decreased levels of mTOR and p62...
  30. Uyama T, Kawai K, Kono N, Watanabe M, Tsuboi K, Inoue T, et al. Interaction of Phospholipase A/Acyltransferase-3 with Pex19p: A POSSIBLE INVOLVEMENT IN THE DOWN-REGULATION OF PEROXISOMES. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:17520-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A time-dependent decrease in ether-type lipid levels was also seen. Because the activation of LC3, a marker of autophagy, was not observed, the involvement of autophagy was unlikely...
  31. Hiniker A, Daniels B, Margeta M. T-Cell-Mediated Inflammatory Myopathies in HIV-Positive Individuals: A Histologic Study of 19 Cases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016;75:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..As with sporadic cases, quantitative immunohistochemistry for LC3, p62, and TDP-43 showed significantly greater percentage of stained fibers (% FS) in HIV-IBM compared to HIV-PM ..
  32. Chang H, Lu C, Chiang J, Tsai F, Juan Y, Tsao J, et al. Pterostilbene modulates the suppression of multidrug resistance protein 1 and triggers autophagic and apoptotic mechanisms in cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer CAR cells via AKT signaling. Int J Oncol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, pterostilbene upregulated mRNA levels of LC3-II and Atg12, as well as the expression of Atgs/Beclin-1/LC3-associated signaling, suggesting that it enhances ..
  33. Kaufman D, Papillon J, Larose L, Iwawaki T, Cybulsky A. Deletion of inositol-requiring enzyme-1? in podocytes disrupts glomerular capillary integrity and autophagy. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28:1636-1651 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II expression and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 phosphorylation were decreased in IRE1?-deletion glomeruli, in keeping ..
  34. Luo C, Ouyang M, Fang Y, Li S, Zhou Q, Fan J, et al. Dexmedetomidine Protects Mouse Brain from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Autophagy through Up-Regulating HIF-1?. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:197 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of Bcl-1 and p62, while reduced the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin 1 in primary cultured neurons through inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy...
  35. Ren J, Liu Y, Li L, Zhao Y, Li Z, Wu C, et al. OAMDP, a novel podophyllotoxin derivative, induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and autophagy in hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cell Biol Int. 2018;42:194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, MDC staining and LC3 protein expression indicated that autophagy was induced by OAMDP in HepG2 cells...
  36. Zhao Y, Yang R, Xiao M, Guan M, Zhao N, Zeng T. Kupffer cells activation promoted binge drinking-induced fatty liver by activating lipolysis in white adipose tissues. Toxicology. 2017;390:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..could affect binge drinking-induced decrease of PPAR-?, ACOX, FAS, ACC and SCD protein levels, or increase of the LC3 II/LC3 I ratio and p62 protein level...
  37. Broecker Preuss M, Viehof J, Jastrow H, Becher Boveleth N, Fuhrer D, Mann K. Cell death induction by the BH3 mimetic GX15-070 in thyroid carcinoma cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015;34:69 pubmed publisher
    ..death via the caspase 3/7 activity, caspase cleavage products, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) liberation assays, and a LC3 analysis by western blot. Ultrastructural changes were analysed by electron microscopy of GX15-070-treated cells...
  38. Rodríguez Arribas M, Pizarro Estrella E, Gómez Sánchez R, Yakhine Diop S, Gragera Hidalgo A, Cristo A, et al. IFDOTMETER: A New Software Application for Automated Immunofluorescence Analysis. J Lab Autom. 2016;21:246-59 pubmed publisher
    ..g., LC3-puncta quantification and determination of the number and size of lysosomes)...
  39. Guo W, Chen Z, Chen H, Lin T, Zhao M, Liu H, et al. [Sericin regulates proliferation of human gastric cancer MKN45 cells through autophagic pathway]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2018;38:148-154 pubmed
    ..MKN45 cells were transfected by LC3 double fluorescent autophagic virus, and the positive cells screened by puromycin were divided into blank group, ..
  40. Wang Y, Xu S, Xu W, Yang H, Hu P, Li Y. Sodium formate induces autophagy and apoptosis via the JNK signaling pathway of photoreceptor cells. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:1111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑9 and microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3 (LC3) was assessed by western blotting...
  41. Beale R, Wise H, Stuart A, Ravenhill B, Digard P, Randow F. A LC3-interacting motif in the influenza A virus M2 protein is required to subvert autophagy and maintain virion stability. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;15:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the cytoplasmic tail of IAV M2 interacts directly with the essential autophagy protein LC3 and promotes LC3 relocalization to the unexpected destination of the plasma membrane...
  42. Liu S, Zhu L, Zhang J, Yu J, Cheng X, Peng B. Anti-osteoclastogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin via inhibition of NF-κB-dependent autophagic pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2016;106:82-93 pubmed publisher
    ..ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and suppressed autophagic microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II and Beclin 1 accumulation...
  43. Nassar M, Samaha H, Ghabriel M, Yehia M, Taha H, Salem S, et al. LC3A Silencing Hinders Aggresome Vimentin Cage Clearance in Primary Choroid Plexus Carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8022 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence we propose that absence of MAP1LC3A disrupts the autophagic pathway and leads to the failure of aggresome vimentin cage degradation. Consequently, this could represent a targetable pathway in autophagy-dependent cancers. ..
  44. Wang H, Zhou Y, Guo Z, Dong Y, Xu J, Huang H, et al. Sitagliptin Attenuates Endothelial Dysfunction of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats: Implication of the Antiperoxynitrite and Autophagy. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2018;23:66-78 pubmed publisher
    ..increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, 3-nitrotyrosine, and p62 in ZDF rats...
  45. Song W, Ma Z, Zhang Y, Yang C. Autophagy plays a dual role during intracellular siRNA delivery by lipoplex and polyplex nanoparticles. Acta Biomater. 2017;58:196-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot revealed that the LC3-II expression was significantly increased after transfection, whereas p-mTOR expression was not influenced ..
  46. Jian X, Xiao yan Z, Bin H, Yu feng Z, Bo K, Zhi nong W, et al. MiR-204 regulate cardiomyocyte autophagy induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation through LC3-II. Int J Cardiol. 2011;148:110-2 pubmed publisher
  47. Chen S, Li Y, Tu C, Salazar N, Tseng Y, Huang S, et al. Blockade of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins in Combination with Conventional Chemotherapy Leads to Synergistic Antitumor Activity in Medulloblastoma and Cancer Stem-Like Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161299 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy was assessed by the conversion of light chain (LC) 3-I to LC3-II and Cyto-ID autophagy detection kit...
  48. Katagiri H, Nakayama K, Razia S, Nakamura K, Sato E, Ishibashi T, et al. Loss of autophagy-related protein Beclin 1 may define poor prognosis in ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Int J Oncol. 2015;47:2037-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy was measured using: i) western blot analysis of LC3 and p62 and ii) microscopic observation of GFP-LC3 puncta...
  49. Han H, Zhou H, Sun W, Liu C, Hou X, Zhou W. [Knockdown of TRAIL-DR5 gene inhibits autophagy of ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by SAHA]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;33:1504-1510 pubmed
    ..to detect the mRNA levels of autophagy-related gene 9B (ATG9B), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A (LC3A) and LC3B in the different groups...
  50. Moore A, Holzbaur E. Dynamic recruitment and activation of ALS-associated TBK1 with its target optineurin are required for efficient mitophagy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E3349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..and mediate autophagic engulfment through their association with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)...
  51. Unuma K, Aki T, Noritake K, Funakoshi T, Uemura K. A CO-releasing molecule prevents annexin A2 down-regulation and associated disorders in LPS-administered rat lung. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;487:748-754 pubmed publisher
    ..Concordant with the levels of AnxA2, the levels of both LC3 and collagen VI (COL VI) were decreased in the LPS group but not in the LPS + CORM group...
  52. Cho Y, Park J, Lim D, Lee J. Tranexamic acid inhibits melanogenesis by activating the autophagy system in cultured melanoma cells. J Dermatol Sci. 2017;88:96-102 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Beclin-1, Atg12, and light chain 3 (LC3) I-II, whereas it decreased the synthesis of the mTOR complex...
  53. Gao T, Zhang S, Wang J, Liu L, Wang Y, Cao Z, et al. TLR3 contributes to persistent autophagy and heart failure in mice after myocardial infarction. J Cell Mol Med. 2018;22:395-408 pubmed publisher
    ..of TLR3 in cultured cardiomyocytes was observed to increase protein levels of autophagic components, including LC3-II, a specific marker for autophagy induction, and p62/SQSTM1, an autophagy receptor normally degraded in the final ..
  54. Boulate D, Arthur Ataam J, Connolly A, Giraldeau G, Amsallem M, Decante B, et al. Early Development of Right Ventricular Ischemic Lesions in a Novel Large Animal Model of Acute Right Heart Failure in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension. J Card Fail. 2017;23:876-886 pubmed publisher
    ..ventricular subendocardial and subepicardial focal ischemic lesions and in expression of autophagy-related protein LC3-II (Western blot) in the ARHF-cPH group compared with the cPH (n?=?5) and control (n?=?5) groups...
  55. Mandell M, Jain A, Arko Mensah J, Chauhan S, Kimura T, Dinkins C, et al. TRIM proteins regulate autophagy and can target autophagic substrates by direct recognition. Dev Cell. 2014;30:394-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study establishes that TRIMs can function both as regulators of autophagy and as autophagic cargo receptors, and reveals a basis for selective autophagy in mammalian cells. ..
  56. Mukhopadhyay S, Schlaepfer I, Bergman B, Panda P, Praharaj P, Naik P, et al. ATG14 facilitated lipophagy in cancer cells induce ER stress mediated mitoptosis through a ROS dependent pathway. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;104:199-213 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we found that ATG14 interacted with Ulk1 and LC3, and knock down of Ulk1 prevented the lipidation of LC3 and autophagy in HeLa-ATG14 cells...
  57. Schoenfeld T, McKerracher L, Obar R, Vallee R. MAP 1A and MAP 1B are structurally related microtubule associated proteins with distinct developmental patterns in the CNS. J Neurosci. 1989;9:1712-30 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that MAP 1A and MAP 1B are structurally related components of the neuronal cytoskeleton with complementary patterns of expression. ..
  58. Erwin D, Nydam S, Call D. Vibrio parahaemolyticus ExsE is requisite for initial adhesion and subsequent type III secretion system 1-dependent autophagy in HeLa cells. Microbiology. 2012;158:2303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..unable to induce cytotoxicity, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), or autophagy, as measured by LC3 conversion. This is markedly different from P...
  59. Diaz Morales N, Iannantuoni F, Escribano Lopez I, Bañuls C, Rovira Llopis S, Sola E, et al. Does metformin modulate endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in type 2 diabetic PBMCs?. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose an autophagy-dependent clearance of misfolded proteins in non-metformin-treated T2D patients that can be repressed by metformin treatment...
  60. Theofylaktopoulou D, Midttun Ø, Ueland P, Meyer K, Fanidi A, Zheng W, et al. Impaired functional vitamin B6 status is associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..a nested case-control study consisting of 5,364 matched case control pairs from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3)...
  61. Coppens I. How Toxoplasma and malaria parasites defy first, then exploit host autophagic and endocytic pathways for growth. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2017;40:32-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Shortly after invasion, a noncanonical xenophagic pathway resembling LC3-associated phagocytosis is activated by the host cell to control infections...
  62. Cherra S, Kulich S, Uechi G, Balasubramani M, Mountzouris J, Day B, et al. Regulation of the autophagy protein LC3 by phosphorylation. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..has spurred rapid advances in understanding the recruitment of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in autophagy induction, although braking mechanisms remain less understood...
  63. Sasaki M, Nitta T, Sato Y, Nakanuma Y. Autophagy may occur at an early stage of cholangiocarcinogenesis via biliary intraepithelial neoplasia. Hum Pathol. 2015;46:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..immunohistochemical expression of autophagy-related proteins, microtubule-associated proteins light chain 3β (LC3), beclin-1, and p62/sequestosome-1 (p62), as well as tumor suppressor gene product p53...
  64. Cao C, Wang W, Lu L, Wang L, Chen X, Guo R, et al. Inactivation of Beclin-1-dependent autophagy promotes ursolic acid-induced apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Exp Dermatol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Autophagy activity was detected by LC3 immunoblotting and electron microscopy, and siRNAs targeting Beclin-1 were used to inhibit autophagy...
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