Gene Symbol: KPNB1
Description: karyopherin subunit beta 1
Alias: IMB1, IPO1, IPOB, Impnb, NTF97, importin subunit beta-1, PTAC97, importin 1, importin 90, importin beta-1 subunit, karyopherin (importin) beta 1, nuclear factor p97, pore targeting complex 97 kDa subunit
Species: human
Products:     KPNB1

Top Publications

  1. Blower M, Nachury M, Heald R, Weis K. A Rae1-containing ribonucleoprotein complex is required for mitotic spindle assembly. Cell. 2005;121:223-34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that RNA associates with the mitotic spindle and that it plays a direct, translation-independent role in spindle assembly. Our studies reveal an unexpected function for RNA in spindle morphogenesis. ..
  2. Bukrinsky M, Haggerty S, Dempsey M, Sharova N, Adzhubel A, Spitz L, et al. A nuclear localization signal within HIV-1 matrix protein that governs infection of non-dividing cells. Nature. 1993;365:666-9 pubmed
  3. Cingolani G, Petosa C, Weis K, Muller C. Structure of importin-beta bound to the IBB domain of importin-alpha. Nature. 1999;399:221-9 pubmed
    ..The structure indicates that significant conformational changes occur when importin-beta binds or releases the IBB domain domain and suggests how dissociation of the importin-alpha/beta heterodimer may be achieved upon nuclear entry. ..
  4. Vetter I, Arndt A, Kutay U, Gorlich D, Wittinghofer A. Structural view of the Ran-Importin beta interaction at 2.3 A resolution. Cell. 1999;97:635-46 pubmed
    ..They form an irregular crescent, the concave site of which forms the interface with Ran-triphosphate. The importin-binding site of Ran does not overlap with that of the Ran-binding domain of RanBP2. ..
  5. Popov S, Rexach M, Ratner L, Blobel G, Bukrinsky M. Viral protein R regulates docking of the HIV-1 preintegration complex to the nuclear pore complex. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13347-52 pubmed
    ..Vpr stabilized docking by preventing nucleoporin-stimulated dissociation of the import complex. These results suggest a biochemical mechanism for Vpr function in transport of the HIV-1 genome across the nuclear pore complex. ..
  6. Geles K, Adam S. Germline and developmental roles of the nuclear transport factor importin alpha3 in C. elegans. Development. 2001;128:1817-30 pubmed
    ..The functional association of IMA-3 with distinct cellular events, its expression pattern and intracellular localization indicate that regulation of the nuclear transport machinery is involved in the control of developmental pathways. ..
  7. Pryor M, Rawlinson S, Butcher R, Barton C, Waterhouse T, Vasudevan S, et al. Nuclear localization of dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 through its importin alpha/beta-recognized nuclear localization sequences is integral to viral infection. Traffic. 2007;8:795-807 pubmed publisher
    ..The results overall indicate that NS5 nuclear localization through the aNLS is integral to viral infection, with significant implications for other flaviviruses of medical importance, such as yellow fever and West Nile viruses...
  8. Yaseen N, Blobel G. GTP hydrolysis links initiation and termination of nuclear import on the nucleoporin nup358. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26493-502 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that GTP hydrolysis on the RBH domains of Nup358 couples the termination of one cycle of nuclear import with the initiation of the next. ..
  9. van der Watt P, Maske C, Hendricks D, Parker M, Denny L, Govender D, et al. The Karyopherin proteins, Crm1 and Karyopherin beta1, are overexpressed in cervical cancer and are critical for cancer cell survival and proliferation. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1829-40 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Henderson B, Percipalle P. Interactions between HIV Rev and nuclear import and export factors: the Rev nuclear localisation signal mediates specific binding to human importin-beta. J Mol Biol. 1997;274:693-707 pubmed
    ..The series of interactions we describe provide a novel pathway for the import of Rev across the nuclear pore complex, and a mechanism for its release into the nucleoplasm. ..
  2. Delphin C, Guan T, Melchior F, Gerace L. RanGTP targets p97 to RanBP2, a filamentous protein localized at the cytoplasmic periphery of the nuclear pore complex. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8:2379-90 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that RanGTP acts to specifically target p97 to RanBP2, where p97 may support the binding of an nuclear localization signal receptor/substrate complex to RanBP2 in an early step of nuclear import. ..
  3. Kohler M, Speck C, Christiansen M, Bischoff F, Prehn S, Haller H, et al. Evidence for distinct substrate specificities of importin alpha family members in nuclear protein import. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7782-91 pubmed
    ..However, strikingly different substrate preferences of the various importin alpha proteins were revealed when two substrates were offered simultaneously. ..
  4. Ciciarello M, Mangiacasale R, Thibier C, Guarguaglini G, Marchetti E, Di Fiore B, et al. Importin beta is transported to spindle poles during mitosis and regulates Ran-dependent spindle assembly factors in mammalian cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6511-22 pubmed
    ..Targeting of TPX2/importin-beta complexes to poles is a key aspect in Ran-dependent control of the mitotic apparatus in mammalian cells. ..
  5. Kutay U, Bischoff F, Kostka S, Kraft R, Gorlich D. Export of importin alpha from the nucleus is mediated by a specific nuclear transport factor. Cell. 1997;90:1061-71 pubmed
    ..Importin alpha is released from this complex in the cytoplasm by the combined action of RanBP1 and RanGAP1. CAS binds preferentially to NLS-free importin alpha, explaining why import substrates stay in the nucleus. ..
  6. Kutay U, Izaurralde E, Bischoff F, Mattaj I, Gorlich D. Dominant-negative mutants of importin-beta block multiple pathways of import and export through the nuclear pore complex. EMBO J. 1997;16:1153-63 pubmed
    ..This suggests that mediators of these various transport events share binding sites on the NPC and/or that mechanisms exist to coordinate translocation through the NPC via different nucleocytoplasmic transport pathways. ..
  7. Percipalle P, Clarkson W, Kent H, Rhodes D, Stewart M. Molecular interactions between the importin alpha/beta heterodimer and proteins involved in vertebrate nuclear protein import. J Mol Biol. 1997;266:722-32 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with models for nuclear protein import in which Ran nucleotide exchange modulates the binding of the importin-substrate complexes during translocation through nuclear pore complexes. ..
  8. Kelley J, Talley A, Spencer A, Gioeli D, Paschal B. Karyopherin alpha7 (KPNA7), a divergent member of the importin alpha family of nuclear import receptors. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:63 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties suggest that KPNA7 could be specialized for interactions with select NLS-containing proteins, potentially impacting developmental regulation. ..
  9. Plafker S, Macara I. Importin-11, a nuclear import receptor for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcM2. EMBO J. 2000;19:5502-13 pubmed
    ..These data establish importin-11 as a new member of the karyopherin family of transport receptors, and identify UbcM2 as a nuclear member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. ..
  10. Ben Efraim I, Gerace L. Gradient of increasing affinity of importin beta for nucleoporins along the pathway of nuclear import. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:411-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that nucleoporins themselves, as well as the nucleocytoplasmic compartmentalization of the Ran system, are likely to play an important role in conferring directionality to nuclear protein import. ..
  11. Lam M, Hu W, Xiao C, Gillespie M, Jans D. Molecular dissection of the importin beta1-recognized nuclear targeting signal of parathyroid hormone-related protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;282:629-34 pubmed
    ..This study represents the first detailed examination of a modular, non-arginine-rich importin beta1-recognized nuclear targeting signal. ..
  12. Chook Y, Blobel G. Karyopherins and nuclear import. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2001;11:703-15 pubmed
    ..These karyopherin structures provide valuable insights into understanding the molecular mechanism of nuclear import, especially substrate recognition, substrate release by GTPase and interactions with the nuclear pore complex. ..
  13. Lounsbury K, Richards S, Perlungher R, Macara I. Ran binding domains promote the interaction of Ran with p97/beta-karyopherin, linking the docking and translocation steps of nuclear import. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2357-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a physical link between docking and translocation mediated by a Ran GTPase-Ran binding protein complex. ..
  14. Riddick G, Macara I. A systems analysis of importin-{alpha}-{beta} mediated nuclear protein import. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:1027-38 pubmed
    ..The model revealed that inhibition by RCC1 is caused by sequestration of nuclear Ran. Inhibition by Impbeta results from depletion nuclear RanGTP, and, in support of this mechanism, expression of mRFP-Ran reversed the inhibition. ..
  15. Cingolani G, Bednenko J, Gillespie M, Gerace L. Molecular basis for the recognition of a nonclassical nuclear localization signal by importin beta. Mol Cell. 2002;10:1345-53 pubmed
    ..We propose that this region contains a prototypical nuclear import receptor domain, which could have evolved into the modern importin beta superfamily. ..
  16. Walther T, Askjaer P, Gentzel M, Habermann A, Griffiths G, Wilm M, et al. RanGTP mediates nuclear pore complex assembly. Nature. 2003;424:689-94 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that RanGTP triggers distinct steps of NPC assembly, and suggest a mechanism for the spatial restriction of NPC assembly to the surface of chromatin. ..
  17. Lee S, Matsuura Y, Liu S, Stewart M. Structural basis for nuclear import complex dissociation by RanGTP. Nature. 2005;435:693-6 pubmed
    ..This interaction produces a change in helicoidal pitch that locks Kap95p in a conformation that cannot bind importin-alpha or cargo. We suggest an allosteric mechanism for nuclear import complex disassembly by RanGTP. ..
  18. Gorlich D, Dabrowski M, Bischoff F, Kutay U, Bork P, Hartmann E, et al. A novel class of RanGTP binding proteins. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:65-80 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we propose that RanBP7 might represent a nuclear transport factor that carries an as yet unknown cargo, which could apply as well for this entire class of related RanGTP-binding proteins. ..
  19. Cimica V, Chen H, Iyer J, Reich N. Dynamics of the STAT3 transcription factor: nuclear import dependent on Ran and importin-?1. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20188 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the Ran interfering mutant inhibited STAT3 nuclear import. This study defines importin-?/importin-?1/Ran as the molecular mechanism by which STAT3 traffics to the nucleus. ..
  20. Gorlich D, Henklein P, Laskey R, Hartmann E. A 41 amino acid motif in importin-alpha confers binding to importin-beta and hence transit into the nucleus. EMBO J. 1996;15:1810-7 pubmed
    ..The domain that binds to importin-beta appears to confer import only, but not re-export out of the nucleus, suggesting that the return of importin-alpha into the cytoplasm is not a simple reversal of its entry. ..
  21. Chi N, Adam E, Adam S. Sequence and characterization of cytoplasmic nuclear protein import factor p97. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:265-74 pubmed
    ..cDNA cloning of p97 shows that it is a unique protein containing 23 cysteine residues. Recombinant p97 binds zinc and a bound metal ion is required for the nuclear envelope binding activity of the protein. ..
  22. Jäkel S, Gorlich D. Importin beta, transportin, RanBP5 and RanBP7 mediate nuclear import of ribosomal proteins in mammalian cells. EMBO J. 1998;17:4491-502 pubmed
    ..The presence of distinct binding sites for rpL23a and the M9 import signal in transportin, and for rpL23a and importin alpha in importin beta might explain how a single receptor can recognize very different import signals. ..
  23. Huber J, Cronshagen U, Kadokura M, Marshallsay C, Wada T, Sekine M, et al. Snurportin1, an m3G-cap-specific nuclear import receptor with a novel domain structure. EMBO J. 1998;17:4114-26 pubmed publisher
  24. Vodicka M, Koepp D, Silver P, Emerman M. HIV-1 Vpr interacts with the nuclear transport pathway to promote macrophage infection. Genes Dev. 1998;12:175-85 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest Vpr functionally resembles importin-beta in nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex and this function is essential for the role of Vpr in macrophage infection, but not G2 arrest. ..
  25. Gallay P, Hope T, Chin D, Trono D. HIV-1 infection of nondividing cells through the recognition of integrase by the importin/karyopherin pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9825-30 pubmed
    ..This novel function of integrase reflects the recognition of an atypical bipartite nuclear localization signal by the importin/karyopherin pathway. ..
  26. Bonifaci N, Moroianu J, Radu A, Blobel G. Karyopherin beta2 mediates nuclear import of a mRNA binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5055-60 pubmed
  27. Yasuhara N, Takeda E, Inoue H, Kotera I, Yoneda Y. Importin alpha/beta-mediated nuclear protein import is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Exp Cell Res. 2004;297:285-93 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the importin alpha/beta-mediated nuclear import machinery is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner through the modulation of interaction modes between importins alpha and beta. ..
  28. Chi N, Adam E, Visser G, Adam S. RanBP1 stabilizes the interaction of Ran with p97 nuclear protein import. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:559-69 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that RanBP1 promotes both the docking and translocation steps in nuclear protein import by stabilizing the interaction of Ran-GDP with p97. ..
  29. Zhong Y, Wang Y, Yang H, Ballar P, Lee J, Ye Y, et al. Importin beta interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation machinery and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of mutant alpha1-antitrypsin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33921-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that importin ? cooperates with Ran GTPase to promote ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of mutant ?1-antitrypsin. These results establish an unanticipated role for importin ? in ER protein quality control. ..
  30. Wagstaff K, Sivakumaran H, Heaton S, Harrich D, Jans D. Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin ?/?-mediated nuclear import able to inhibit replication of HIV-1 and dengue virus. Biochem J. 2012;443:851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ivermectin would appear to be an invaluable tool for the study of protein nuclear import, as well as the basis for future development of antiviral agents. ..
  31. Arnold M, Nath A, Hauber J, Kehlenbach R. Multiple importins function as nuclear transport receptors for the Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20883-90 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the viral protein takes advantage of multiple cellular transport pathways for its nuclear accumulation. ..
  32. Gorlich D, Kostka S, Kraft R, Dingwall C, Laskey R, Hartmann E, et al. Two different subunits of importin cooperate to recognize nuclear localization signals and bind them to the nuclear envelope. Curr Biol. 1995;5:383-92 pubmed
    ..We have identified importin 90, a 90 kD second subunit that dissociates from importin 60 during affinity chromatography on nickel (II)-..
  33. Forwood J, Jans D. Nuclear import pathway of the telomere elongation suppressor TRF1: inhibition by importin alpha. Biochemistry. 2002;41:9333-40 pubmed
  34. Bayliss R, Littlewood T, Stewart M. Structural basis for the interaction between FxFG nucleoporin repeats and importin-beta in nuclear trafficking. Cell. 2000;102:99-108 pubmed
    ..Instead, RanGTP may release importin-beta from FxFG nucleoporins by generating a conformational change that alters the structure of the FxFG binding site. ..
  35. Moroianu J, Blobel G, Radu A. Nuclear protein import: Ran-GTP dissociates the karyopherin alphabeta heterodimer by displacing alpha from an overlapping binding site on beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7059-62 pubmed
    ..We also mapped Ran's binding site for karyopherin beta to a cluster of basic residues analogous to those previously shown to constitute karyopherin alpha's binding site to karyopherin beta...
  36. Jäkel S, Albig W, Kutay U, Bischoff F, Schwamborn K, Doenecke D, et al. The importin beta/importin 7 heterodimer is a functional nuclear import receptor for histone H1. EMBO J. 1999;18:2411-23 pubmed
    ..Its Ran-binding site is essential when operating as an autonomous import receptor, i.e. independently of Impbeta. Within the Impbeta/Imp7 heterodimer, however, Imp7 plays a more passive role than Impbeta and resembles an import adapter. ..
  37. Truant R, Cullen B. The arginine-rich domains present in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat and Rev function as direct importin beta-dependent nuclear localization signals. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:1210-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies define a novel class of arginine-rich NLS sequences that are direct targets for Imp beta and that therefore function independently of Imp alpha. ..
  38. Weis K, Ryder U, Lamond A. The conserved amino-terminal domain of hSRP1 alpha is essential for nuclear protein import. EMBO J. 1996;15:1818-25 pubmed
    ..We conclude that hSRP1 alpha functions as an adaptor to tether NLS-containing substrates to the protein import machinery. ..
  39. Gorlich D, Pante N, Kutay U, Aebi U, Bischoff F. Identification of different roles for RanGDP and RanGTP in nuclear protein import. EMBO J. 1996;15:5584-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, binding of nucleoplasmic RanGTP to importin-beta probably triggers termination, i.e. the dissociation of importin-alpha from importin-beta and the subsequent release of the import substrate into the nucleoplasm. ..
  40. Chi N, Adam E, Adam S. Different binding domains for Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP/RanBP1 on nuclear import factor p97. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6818-22 pubmed
    ..These results support a direct active role for Ran-GDP in the receptor complex and provide evidence that the activity of downstream effectors of small GTPases may be regulated by both GTP- and GDP-bound forms of the protein. ..
  41. Efthymiadis A, Briggs L, Jans D. The HIV-1 Tat nuclear localization sequence confers novel nuclear import properties. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1623-8 pubmed
    ..These unique properties indicate that Tat accumulates in the nucleus through a novel import pathway. ..
  42. Guo H, Wei W, Wei Z, Liu X, Evans S, Yang W, et al. Identification of critical regions in human SAMHD1 required for nuclear localization and Vpx-mediated degradation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66201 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the linker region and HD domain may be involved in SAMHD1 multimerization, our results suggest that SAMHD1 multimerization may be required for Vpx-mediation degradation. ..
  43. Popov S, Rexach M, Zybarth G, Reiling N, Lee M, Ratner L, et al. Viral protein R regulates nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex. EMBO J. 1998;17:909-17 pubmed
    ..These results identify the biochemical mechanism of Vpr function in transport of the viral pre-integration complex to, and across, the nuclear membrane. ..
  44. Fouchier R, Meyer B, Simon J, Fischer U, Albright A, Gonzalez Scarano F, et al. Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein with the nuclear pore complex. J Virol. 1998;72:6004-13 pubmed
    ..These findings not only demonstrate that Vpr harbors a bona fide NLS but also raise the possibility that one (or more) of Vpr's functions may take place at the NPC. ..
  45. Bachi A, Braun I, Rodrigues J, Pante N, Ribbeck K, von Kobbe C, et al. The C-terminal domain of TAP interacts with the nuclear pore complex and promotes export of specific CTE-bearing RNA substrates. RNA. 2000;6:136-58 pubmed
  46. Plafker K, Macara I. Facilitated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Ran binding protein RanBP1. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:3510-21 pubmed
    ..Shuttling of RanBP1 may function to clear nuclear pores of Ran:GTP, to prevent premature release of import cargo from transport receptors. ..
  47. Kim Y, Ha S, Kim J, Ham S. Identification of KPNB1 as a Cellular Target of Aminothiazole Derivatives with Anticancer Activity. ChemMedChem. 2016;11:1406-9 pubmed publisher
    ..activity, and undertook proteomics approaches to identify the target protein of compound 1, importin??1 (KPNB1)...
  48. Burton L, HENDERSON V, Liburd L, Odero Marah V. Snail transcription factor NLS and importin ?1 regulate the subcellular localization of Cathepsin L and Cux1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:59-64 pubmed publisher
  49. Zhu Z, Liu J, Li K, Zheng J, Xiong Z. KPNB1 inhibition disrupts proteostasis and triggers unfolded protein response-mediated apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. Oncogene. 2018;37:2936-2952 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear import receptor karyopherin β1 (KPNB1) is involved in the nuclear import of most proteins and in the regulation of multiple mitotic events. Upregulation of KPNB1 has been observed in cancers including glioblastoma...
  50. van der Watt P, Ngarande E, Leaner V. Overexpression of Kpn?1 and Kpn?2 importin proteins in cancer derives from deregulated E2F activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27723 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study is a first to show that elevated Kpn?1 and Kpn?2 expression in cancer cells correlates with altered transcriptional regulation associated with deregulated E2F/Rb activities. ..
  51. Theodore M, Kawai Y, Yang J, Kleshchenko Y, Reddy S, Villalta F, et al. Multiple nuclear localization signals function in the nuclear import of the transcription factor Nrf2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8984-94 pubmed publisher
  52. Desmond C, Atwal R, Xia J, Truant R. Identification of a karyopherin ?1/?2 proline-tyrosine nuclear localization signal in huntingtin protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this huntingtin PY-NLS may comprise a new class of multiple import factor-dependent NLSs with an internal structural component that may regulate NLS activity. ..
  53. Nekhai S, Jeang K. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression: role of cellular factors for Tat and Rev. Future Microbiol. 2006;1:417-26 pubmed
    ..Rev primarily functions to export unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. For this activity, Rev cooperates with cellular transport protein CRM1 and RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3, amongst others. ..
  54. Liang P, Zhang H, Wang G, Li S, Cong S, Luo Y, et al. KPNB1, XPO7 and IPO8 mediate the translocation ofNF-?B/p65 into the nucleus. Traffic. 2013;14:1132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showed that knockdown of KPNB1, XPO7 and IPO8 reduced the amount of nuclear p65 following tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) stimulation, resulting ..
  55. Schaller T, Pollpeter D, Apolonia L, Goujon C, Malim M. Nuclear import of SAMHD1 is mediated by a classical karyopherin ?/?1 dependent pathway and confers sensitivity to VpxMAC induced ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Retrovirology. 2014;11:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduction of karyopherin ?1 (KPNB1) or KPNA2 by RNAi also led to cytoplasmic re-distribution of SAMHD1...
  56. Yan W, Li R, He J, Du J, Hou J. Importin β1 mediates nuclear factor-κB signal transduction into the nuclei of myeloma cells and affects their proliferation and apoptosis. Cell Signal. 2015;27:851-9 pubmed publisher
  57. Frieman M, Yount B, Heise M, Kopecky Bromberg S, Palese P, Baric R. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF6 antagonizes STAT1 function by sequestering nuclear import factors on the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi membrane. J Virol. 2007;81:9812-24 pubmed
    ..We discuss the likely implications of these data on SARS-CoV replication and pathogenesis. ..
  58. Kodama M, Kodama T, Newberg J, Katayama H, Kobayashi M, Hanash S, et al. In vivo loss-of-function screens identify KPNB1 as a new druggable oncogene in epithelial ovarian cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E7301-E7310 pubmed publisher
    ..drug targets that included well-known oncogenes such as ERBB2 and RAF1, and novel oncogenes, notably KPNB1, which we investigated further...
  59. Rebane A, Aab A, Steitz J. Transportins 1 and 2 are redundant nuclear import factors for hnRNP A1 and HuR. RNA. 2004;10:590-9 pubmed
    ..Possible nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mechanisms for hnRNP A1 and HuR are discussed. ..
  60. Zhang Z, Satterly N, Fontoura B, Chook Y. Evolutionary development of redundant nuclear localization signals in the mRNA export factor NXF1. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4657-68 pubmed publisher