KiSS 1


Gene Symbol: KiSS 1
Description: KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor
Alias: HH13, KiSS-1, metastasis-suppressor KiSS-1, kisspeptin-1, malignant melanoma metastasis-suppressor, metastin, prepro-kisspeptin
Species: human
Products:     KiSS 1

Top Publications

  1. Harms J, Welch D, Miele M. KISS1 metastasis suppression and emergent pathways. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2003;20:11-8 pubmed
    ..Recent identification of a 54 amino acid peptide of KISS1, termed metastin or kisspeptin-54, and its cognate G-protein coupled receptor (hOT7T175, AXOR12, GPR54) have provided additional ..
  2. Jiang Y, Berk M, Singh L, Tan H, Yin L, Powell C, et al. KiSS1 suppresses metastasis in human ovarian cancer via inhibition of protein kinase C alpha. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2005;22:369-76 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor of ovarian cancer and may be a potential molecular target for the treatment. ..
  3. Janneau J, Maldonado Estrada J, Tachdjian G, Miran I, Motté N, Saulnier P, et al. Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cell invasion and migration by normal and tumoral trophoblast cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:5336-9 pubmed
    ..These transcriptional expression profiles are in favor of a predominant role of INSL4, KiSS-1 and KiSS-1R in the control of the invasive and migratory properties of trophoblast cells. ..
  4. Silveira L, Noel S, Silveira Neto A, Abreu A, Brito V, Santos M, et al. Mutations of the KISS1 gene in disorders of puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2276-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The p.P74S variant was associated with higher kisspeptin resistance to degradation in comparison with the wild type, suggesting a role for this mutation in the precocious puberty phenotype. ..
  5. Luan X, Zhou Y, Wang W, Yu H, Li P, Gan X, et al. Association study of the polymorphisms in the KISS1 gene with central precocious puberty in Chinese girls. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157:113-8 pubmed
    ..The polymorphism scanning and typing of KISS1 uncovered several potentially meaningful polymorphisms, but the conclusion was not solid and further studies are necessary for function validation of these polymorphisms. ..
  6. Cebrian V, Fierro M, Orenes Piñero E, Grau L, Moya P, Ecke T, et al. KISS1 methylation and expression as tumor stratification biomarkers and clinical outcome prognosticators for bladder cancer patients. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:540-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Porzionato A, Fenu G, Rucinski M, Macchi V, Montella A, Malendowicz L, et al. KISS1 and KISS1R expression in the human and rat carotid body and superior cervical ganglion. Eur J Histochem. 2011;55:e14 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, a possible role of kisspeptins in the regulation of carotid body blood flow and, indirectly, in chemoreceptor discharge may also be hypothesized. ..
  8. Huijbregts L, Rozé C, Bonafe G, Houang M, Le Bouc Y, Carel J, et al. DNA polymorphisms of the KiSS1 3' untranslated region interfere with the folding of a G-rich sequence into G-quadruplex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;351:239-48 pubmed publisher
    ..They highlight the potential role of this G-quadruplex in the regulation of KISS1 expression and in the timing of pubertal onset. ..
  9. Teng Y, Liu M, Cowell J. Functional interrelationship between the WASF3 and KISS1 metastasis-associated genes in breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:2825-35 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Beck B, Welch D. The KISS1 metastasis suppressor: a good night kiss for disseminated cancer cells. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:1283-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we highlight some key findings from preclinical and clinical studies and discuss strategies whereby KISS1 may be exploited clinically to treat metastases. ..
  2. Park D, Lee S, Hong S, Han A, Kwak Kim J, Yang K. Expression of Kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54 in the first trimester trophoblast of women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012;67:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..738, P<0.001). Decreased kisspeptin expression in trophoblasts is associated with RPL and kisspeptin may engage the regulation of decidual NK cell infiltration. ..
  3. Navenot J, Fujii N, Peiper S. Activation of Rho and Rho-associated kinase by GPR54 and KiSS1 metastasis suppressor gene product induces changes of cell morphology and contributes to apoptosis. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:1300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RhoA and ROCK are additional key components of the antimetastatic effect of kisspeptins. ..
  4. Kaiser U, Kuohung W. KiSS-1 and GPR54 as new players in gonadotropin regulation and puberty. Endocrine. 2005;26:277-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings weave a compelling case for a role of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the activation of GnRH neurons at the time of pubertal awakening of the reproductive axis. ..
  5. Sun Y, Xu S. Expression of KISS1 and KISS1R (GPR54) may be used as favorable prognostic markers for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..KISS1 or KISS1R expression in NSCLC can be used to indicate favorable prognosis for disease outcome. Metastin, the product of the KISS1 gene, was lower in the serum of patients with stage IV NSCLC compared to that in stage ..
  6. Dhillo W, Chaudhri O, Patterson M, Thompson E, Murphy K, Badman M, et al. Kisspeptin-54 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in human males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:6609-15 pubmed
    ..Kisspeptin infusion provides a novel mechanism for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis manipulation in disorders of the reproductive system. ..
  7. Li N, Li S, Zhang H, Xuan X, Zheng X, Wang F, et al. [Effect of KISS-1 on invasive potential and proliferation of esophageal squamous carcinoma cell line EC-1]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2009;38:263-7 pubmed
    ..1 (236.3 +/- 78.1; t = 3.441, P < 0.01) and the control cells (242.5 +/- 48.6; t = 2.250, P < 0.05). KISS-1 gene inhibits the potential of invasion and proliferation of EC-1 cells. ..
  8. Mitchell D, Abdelrahim M, Weng J, Stafford L, Safe S, Bar Eli M, et al. Regulation of KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene expression in breast cancer cells by direct interaction of transcription factors activator protein-2alpha and specificity protein-1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:51-8 pubmed
  9. Shengbing Z, Feng L, Bin W, Lingyun G, Aimin H. Expression of KiSS-1 gene and its role in invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1128-34 pubmed publisher
  10. Lee K, Kim J. Kiss-1 suppresses MMP-9 expression by activating p38 MAP kinase in human stomach cancer. Oncol Res. 2009;18:107-16 pubmed
    ..Downregulation of Kiss-1 using Kiss-1 shRNA also increased in vitro cell invasion. In conclusion, Kiss-1 suppresses MMP-9 expression by activating the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway. ..
  11. Yoshioka K, Ohno Y, Horiguchi Y, Ozu C, Namiki K, Tachibana M. Effects of a KiSS-1 peptide, a metastasis suppressor gene, on the invasive ability of renal cell carcinoma cells through a modulation of a matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression. Life Sci. 2008;83:332-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A synthesized truncated KiSS-1 peptide, metastin (45-54), produced a marked suppression of the invasive ability in KU19-20 cells, which were deficient for KiSS-1 ..
  12. Dhillo W, Murphy K, Bloom S. The neuroendocrine physiology of kisspeptin in the human. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2007;8:41-6 pubmed
    ..Kisspeptin represents a novel tool for the manipulation of the HPG axis in humans and plasma kisspeptin may be a novel tumour marker in patients with GTN. ..
  13. Takino T, Koshikawa N, Miyamori H, Tanaka M, Sasaki T, Okada Y, et al. Cleavage of metastasis suppressor gene product KiSS-1 protein/metastin by matrix metalloproteinases. Oncogene. 2003;22:4617-26 pubmed
    ..KiSS-1 protein is known to be processed to peptide ligand of a G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) named metastin, and suppresses metastasis of tumors expressing the receptor...
  14. Zhang H, Long Q, Ling L, Gao A, Li H, Lin Q. Elevated expression of KiSS-1 in placenta of preeclampsia and its effect on trophoblast. Reprod Biol. 2011;11:99-115 pubmed
    ..The data suggests that KiSS-1 gene plays an important role in inhibiting trophoblast invasion during placental development. ..
  15. Hori A, Honda S, Asada M, Ohtaki T, Oda K, Watanabe T, et al. Metastin suppresses the motility and growth of CHO cells transfected with its receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:958-63 pubmed
    ..We further showed that the ligand, which we named "metastin," inhibits chemotaxis and invasion of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with hOT7T175 cDNA (CHO/..
  16. Muir A, Chamberlain L, Elshourbagy N, Michalovich D, Moore D, Calamari A, et al. AXOR12, a novel human G protein-coupled receptor, activated by the peptide KiSS-1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28969-75 pubmed
    ..The biological significance of these expression patterns and the nature of the putative cognate ligand for AXOR12 are discussed. ..
  17. Roseweir A, Katz A, Millar R. Kisspeptin-10 inhibits cell migration in vitro via a receptor-GSK3 beta-FAK feedback loop in HTR8SVneo cells. Placenta. 2012;33:408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that kisspeptin-10 inhibits the migration of human placental trophoblast-derived HTR8SVneo cells by stimulating complex ERK1/2-p90rsk-GSK3 beta-FAK feedback interactions...
  18. Yan C, Wang H, Boyd D. KiSS-1 represses 92-kDa type IV collagenase expression by down-regulating NF-kappa B binding to the promoter as a consequence of Ikappa Balpha -induced block of p65/p50 nuclear translocation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1164-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, KiSS-1 diminishes MMP-9 expression by effecting reduced NF-kappaB binding to the promoter. ..
  19. Rhie Y, Lee K, Eun S, Choi B, Chae H, Kwon A, et al. Serum kisspeptin levels in Korean girls with central precocious puberty. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:927-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum kisspeptin may be used as a marker of CPP. Further studies on KISS1 gene polymorphisms leading to higher risk of premature increase of kisspeptin and upstream regulator of kisspeptin are also needed. ..
  20. Ruiz M, Galbiatti A, Pavarino E, Maniglia J, Goloni Bertollo E. Q36R polymorphism of KiSS-1 gene in Brazilian head and neck cancer patients. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6029-34 pubmed publisher
    The KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor gene (KiSS-1) product (metastin, kisspeptin) is reported to act after binding with the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor and this gene product inhibits chemotaxis, invasion, and metastasis of ..
  21. Li N, Wang H, Zhang J, Ye Y, He G. KISS-1 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of gastric carcinoma cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:1827-33 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (0.668 ± 0.55 g) and control tumors (0.682 ± 0.38 g) (P < 0.05). KISS-1 may inhibit the proliferation and invasion of gastric carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo through the downregulation of MMP-9. ..
  22. Molnár C, Vida B, Sipos M, Ciofi P, Borsay B, Rácz K, et al. Morphological evidence for enhanced kisspeptin and neurokinin B signaling in the infundibular nucleus of the aging man. Endocrinology. 2012;153:5428-39 pubmed publisher
  23. Lee J, Welch D. Identification of highly expressed genes in metastasis-suppressed chromosome 6/human malignant melanoma hybrid cells using subtractive hybridization and differential display. Int J Cancer. 1997;71:1035-44 pubmed
    ..9, following transfection and constitutive expression. Our results illustrate the power of subtractive hybridization and differential display to identify functional metastasis-controlling genes in human melanoma. ..
  24. Lee J, Miele M, Hicks D, Phillips K, Trent J, Weissman B, et al. KiSS-1, a novel human malignant melanoma metastasis-suppressor gene. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88:1731-7 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that KiSS-1 expression may suppress the metastatic potential of malignant melanoma cells. KiSS-1 may be a useful marker for distinguishing metastatic melanomas from nonmetastatic melanomas. ..
  25. Kotani M, Detheux M, Vandenbogaerde A, Communi D, Vanderwinden J, Le Poul E, et al. The metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1 encodes kisspeptins, the natural ligands of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR54. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34631-6 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of oxytocin secretion after kisspeptin administration to rats confirmed this hypothesis. ..
  26. Shirasaki F, Takata M, Hatta N, Takehara K. Loss of expression of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS1 during melanoma progression and its association with LOH of chromosome 6q16.3-q23. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7422-5 pubmed
    ..3-q23 by deletion or mutation coupled with LOH may lead to the down-regulation of KiSS1. ..
  27. Ikeguchi M, Yamaguchi K, Kaibara N. Clinical significance of the loss of KiSS-1 and orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1379-83 pubmed
    ..Loss of KiSS-1 or hOT7T175 gene expression may be an important biomarker for detection of lymph node metastasis in ESCC. ..
  28. Bilban M, Ghaffari Tabrizi N, Hintermann E, Bauer S, Molzer S, Zoratti C, et al. Kisspeptin-10, a KiSS-1/metastin-derived decapeptide, is a physiological invasion inhibitor of primary human trophoblasts. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1319-28 pubmed
    ..These results identified Kp-10 as a novel paracrine/endocrine regulator in fine-tuning trophoblast invasion generated by the trophoblast itself. ..
  29. Kostadima L, Pentheroudakis G, Pavlidis N. The missing kiss of life: transcriptional activity of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS1 in early breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2499-504 pubmed
    ..These findings support the antimetastatic role of the gene and warrant its study as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target. ..
  30. Moya P, Esteban S, Fernandez Suarez A, Maestro M, Morente M, Sanchez Carbayo M. KiSS-1 methylation and protein expression patterns contribute to diagnostic and prognostic assessments in tissue specimens for colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..KiSS-1 was revealed epigenetically modified in colorectal cancer. The diagnostic and prognostic utility of KiSS-1 methylation and expression patterns suggests their assessment for the clinical management of colorectal cancer patients. ..
  31. Lee J, Welch D. Suppression of metastasis in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435 cells after transfection with the metastasis suppressor gene, KiSS-1. Cancer Res. 1997;57:2384-7 pubmed
    ..In addition to its already described role in melanoma, our results show that KiSS-1 also functions as a metastasis suppressor gene in at least some human breast cancers. ..
  32. Mooez S, Malik F, Kayani M, Rashid R, Zahid A, Khan A. Expressional alterations and transcript isoforms of metastasis suppressor genes (KAI1 and KiSS1) in breast cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:2785-91 pubmed
    ..This splice variant has not been reported previously. Metastasis suppressor genes demonstrate reduced expression in breast cancers in Pakistan. ..
  33. Ringel M, Hardy E, Bernet V, Burch H, Schuppert F, Burman K, et al. Metastin receptor is overexpressed in papillary thyroid cancer and activates MAP kinase in thyroid cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:2399 pubmed
    ..KiSS-1 is a recently cloned human metastasis suppressor gene whose product, metastin, was recently identified as the endogenous agonist for a novel Gq/11 coupled receptor (metastin receptor)...
  34. Logie J, Denison F, Riley S, Ramaesh T, Forbes S, Norman J, et al. Evaluation of kisspeptin levels in obese pregnancy as a biomarker for pre-eclampsia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;76:887-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Large-scale studies are required to assess its potential in a panel of biomarkers. ..
  35. Sanchez Carbayo M, Capodieci P, Cordon Cardo C. Tumor suppressor role of KiSS-1 in bladder cancer: loss of KiSS-1 expression is associated with bladder cancer progression and clinical outcome. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:609-17 pubmed
    ..A potential tumor suppressor role in bladder cancer was revealed for KiSS-1. Moreover, it showed predictive value by identifying patients with poor outcome. ..
  36. Horikoshi Y, Matsumoto H, Takatsu Y, Ohtaki T, Kitada C, Usuki S, et al. Dramatic elevation of plasma metastin concentrations in human pregnancy: metastin as a novel placenta-derived hormone in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:914-9 pubmed
    b>Metastin is a novel peptide that was recently isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan heptahelical receptor, hOT7T175...
  37. Mead E, Maguire J, Kuc R, Davenport A. Kisspeptins are novel potent vasoconstrictors in humans, with a discrete localization of their receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 54, to atherosclerosis-prone vessels. Endocrinology. 2007;148:140-7 pubmed
  38. Smets E, Deurloo K, Go A, van Vugt J, Blankenstein M, Oudejans C. Decreased plasma levels of metastin in early pregnancy are associated with small for gestational age neonates. Prenat Diagn. 2008;28:299-303 pubmed publisher
    ..SGA) neonates, defined as customized birth weight below the 10th centile, are associated with altered levels of metastin in maternal plasma in the first trimester. Maternal blood was obtained between 8 and 14 weeks of pregnancy...
  39. Armstrong R, Reynolds R, Leask R, Shearing C, Calder A, Riley S. Decreased serum levels of kisspeptin in early pregnancy are associated with intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. Prenat Diagn. 2009;29:982-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the role of kisspeptin in the establishment of the placenta may further our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying placental function. ..
  40. Semple R, Achermann J, Ellery J, Farooqi I, Karet F, Stanhope R, et al. Two novel missense mutations in g protein-coupled receptor 54 in a patient with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1849-55 pubmed
    ..These novel mutations provide further evidence that human HH may be caused by loss-of-function mutations in GPR54. ..
  41. Papaoiconomou E, Lymperi M, Petraki C, Philippou A, Msaouel P, Michalopoulou F, et al. Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:1401-7 pubmed
    ..Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues...
  42. Ziegler E, Olbrich T, Emons G, Gründker C. Antiproliferative effects of kisspeptin?10 depend on artificial GPR54 (KISS1R) expression levels. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the antiproliferative action of kisspeptin seems not to be important for pathophysiological processes. ..
  43. Martinez Fuentes A, Molina M, Vazquez Martinez R, Gahete M, Jimenez Reina L, Moreno Fernández J, et al. Expression of functional KISS1 and KISS1R system is altered in human pituitary adenomas: evidence for apoptotic action of kisspeptin-10. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:355-62 pubmed publisher
  44. Jiffar T, Yilmaz T, Lee J, Hanna E, el Naggar A, Yu D, et al. KiSS1 mediates platinum sensitivity and metastasis suppression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oncogene. 2011;30:3163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provided further direct evidence for the role of KiSS1 loss in biologically aggressive HNSCC and suggest potential targets for therapy in CR cancers. ..
  45. Topaloglu A, Tello J, Kotan L, Ozbek M, Yilmaz M, Erdogan S, et al. Inactivating KISS1 mutation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey [TÜB?TAK] and others.). ..
  46. Panidis D, Rousso D, Koliakos G, Kourtis A, Katsikis I, Farmakiotis D, et al. Plasma metastin levels are negatively correlated with insulin resistance and free androgens in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:1778-83 pubmed
    This study was designed to: [1] measure, for the first time, metastin (kisspeptin) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with hypersecretion of LH and hyperandrogenemia; and [2] investigate the ..
  47. Nash K, Welch D. The KISS1 metastasis suppressor: mechanistic insights and clinical utility. Front Biosci. 2006;11:647-59 pubmed
    ..In addition, clinical data that supports KISS1 as having a dual role as a prognostic indicator and a therapeutic target for the management of metastatic disease will be highlighted. ..
  48. Cho S, Li D, Stafford L, Luo J, Rodriguez Villanueva M, Wang Y, et al. KiSS1 suppresses TNFalpha-induced breast cancer cell invasion via an inhibition of RhoA-mediated NF-kappaB activation. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:1139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data demonstrate that KiSS1 inhibits TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation via downregulation of RhoA activation and suppression of breast cancer cell migration and invasion. ..
  49. Marot D, Bieche I, Aumas C, Esselin S, Bouquet C, Vacher S, et al. High tumoral levels of Kiss1 and G-protein-coupled receptor 54 expression are correlated with poor prognosis of estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007;14:691-702 pubmed
  50. Wang F, Chen H, Wu Z, Lin J. KISS1 expression in osteosarcoma: high in chinese clinical cases, but lower in cell lines. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:3229-34 pubmed
    ..This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between expression of KISS1 and invasion ability in osteosarcoma cell lines, and the relationships between KISS1 expression levels and prognosis of clinical cases...
  51. Matsui H, Takatsu Y, Kumano S, Matsumoto H, Ohtaki T. Peripheral administration of metastin induces marked gonadotropin release and ovulation in the rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;320:383-8 pubmed
    b>Metastin is a novel peptide that has been isolated from the human placenta as the cognate ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor OT7T175 (or GPR54). However, its physiological functions have not yet been fully investigated...
  52. Castellano J, Bentsen A, Mikkelsen J, Tena Sempere M. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction. Brain Res. 2010;1364:129-38 pubmed publisher
  53. Ko J, Lee H, Hwang J. KISS1 gene analysis in Korean girls with central precocious puberty: a polymorphism, p.P110T, suggested to exert a protective effect. Endocr J. 2010;57:701-9 pubmed
    ..P110T, appeared to be meaningful. This polymorphism was suggested to exert a protective effect on pubertal precocity, even though more evidence will be required to confirm the accurate function. ..
  54. Hrabovszky E, Ciofi P, Vida B, Horvath M, Keller E, Caraty A, et al. The kisspeptin system of the human hypothalamus: sexual dimorphism and relationship with gonadotropin-releasing hormone and neurokinin B neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1984-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuroanatomical information will contribute to our understanding of central mechanisms whereby kisspeptins regulate human fertility. ..
  55. Thompson E, Patterson M, Murphy K, Smith K, Dhillo W, Todd J, et al. Central and peripheral administration of kisspeptin-10 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:850-8 pubmed
    ..Kisspeptin therefore potently stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. These effects are likely to be mediated via the hypothalamic LHRH system. ..
  56. Dhar D, Naora H, Kubota H, Maruyama R, Yoshimura H, Tonomoto Y, et al. Downregulation of KiSS-1 expression is responsible for tumor invasion and worse prognosis in gastric carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2004;111:868-72 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that KiSS-1 may play a crucial role in gastric cancer invasion and could be a useful target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  57. Ikeguchi M, Hirooka Y, Kaibara N. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis for KiSS-1 and orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2003;129:531-5 pubmed
  58. Ohtaki T, Shintani Y, Honda S, Matsumoto H, Hori A, Kanehashi K, et al. Metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1 encodes peptide ligand of a G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature. 2001;411:613-7 pubmed
    ..from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) and have named 'metastin'...
  59. Navenot J, Evans B, Oishi S, Setsuda S, Fujii N, Peiper S. The metastasis suppressor KISS1 lacks antimetastatic activity in the C8161.9 xenograft model of melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2012;22:140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..9 cell line and the high risk of artifact linked to single-cell selection. A different xenograft model will be necessary to evaluate the use of KISS1 analogs as antimetastatic therapy. ..
  60. de Roux N, Genin E, Carel J, Matsuda F, Chaussain J, Milgrom E. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to loss of function of the KiSS1-derived peptide receptor GPR54. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10972-6 pubmed
    ..The present study shows that loss of function of GPR54 is a cause of IHH, and it identifies GPR54 and possibly KiSS1 protein-derived peptide as playing a major and previously unsuspected role in the physiology of the gonadotropic axis. ..
  61. West A, Vojta P, Welch D, Weissman B. Chromosome localization and genomic structure of the KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene (KISS1). Genomics. 1998;54:145-8 pubmed
    ..The gene maps to chromosome 1q32 as determined by radiation hybrid mapping and FISH analysis. The relatively simple organization of this gene will facilitate analyses for mutations and abnormal expression in human tumors. ..
  62. d Anglemont de Tassigny X, Colledge W. The role of kisspeptin signaling in reproduction. Physiology (Bethesda). 2010;25:207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on our understanding of the way in which kisspeptin signaling regulates mammalian fertility and how they act as central integrators of different hormonal and physiological signals. ..
  63. Hrabovszky E, Borsay B, Rácz K, Herczeg L, Ciofi P, Bloom S, et al. Substance P immunoreactivity exhibits frequent colocalization with kisspeptin and neurokinin B in the human infundibular region. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72369 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, possible co-release of SP with KP and NKB into the portal circulation could underlie further actions on adenohypophysial gonadotrophs. ..
  64. Sawyer I, Smillie S, Bodkin J, Fernandes E, O Byrne K, Brain S. The vasoactive potential of kisspeptin-10 in the peripheral vasculature. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14671 pubmed publisher
    ..Firstly, plasma extravasation indicative of ability to induce oedema formation and secondly decreased peripheral blood flow, indicating microvascular constriction. Thus Kp-10 has vasoactive properties in the peripheral microvasculature...