Gene Symbol: KIR2DL4
Description: killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 4
Alias: CD158D, G9P, KIR-103AS, KIR-2DL4, KIR103, KIR103AS, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4, CD158 antigen-like family member D, KIR2DL4 Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor, MHC class I NK cell receptor KIR103AS, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4, killer cell inhibitory receptor 103AS
Species: human
Products:     KIR2DL4

Top Publications

  1. Goris A, Dobosi R, Boonen S, Nagels G, Dubois B. KIR2DL4 (CD158d) polymorphisms and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;210:113-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated the CD56(bright) NK cell effector molecule KIR2DL4 for its involvement in genetic susceptibility to MS in a study population of 763 cases and 967 controls...
  2. Witt C, Whiteway J, Warren H, Barden A, Rogers M, Martin A, et al. Alleles of the KIR2DL4 receptor and their lack of association with pre-eclampsia. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:18-29 pubmed
    A survey of KIR2DL4 polymorphism revealed seven common sequences in the Australian population. The seven sequences encode three different amino acid sequences of the immunoglobulin domains...
  3. Vargas R, Bompeixe E, França P, Marques de Moraes M, da Graça Bicalho M. Activating killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes' association with recurrent miscarriage. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;62:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..71; 95% CI (1.23-6.01)]. Our results indicate that RM could be associated with NK cell activation mediated by a profile rich in activating KIR genes. ..
  4. Rajagopalan S, Long E. A human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-specific receptor expressed on all natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1093-100 pubmed
    ..One such KIR, denoted KIR2DL4, is structurally divergent from other KIRs in the configuration of its two extracellular Ig domains and of its ..
  5. Faure M, Long E. KIR2DL4 (CD158d), an NK cell-activating receptor with inhibitory potential. J Immunol. 2002;168:6208-14 pubmed
    b>KIR2DL4 (CD158d) is an unusual member of the killer cell Ig-like receptor family expressed in all NK cells and some T cells...
  6. Li C, Houser B, Nicotra M, Strominger J. HLA-G homodimer-induced cytokine secretion through HLA-G receptors on human decidual macrophages and natural killer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5767-72 pubmed publisher MHC class Ib protein that is expressed on extravillous trophoblasts), LILRB1 on CD14(+) macrophages and KIR2DL4 on CD56(+) NK cells...
  7. Valiante N, Uhrberg M, Shilling H, Lienert Weidenbach K, Arnett K, D ANDREA A, et al. Functionally and structurally distinct NK cell receptor repertoires in the peripheral blood of two human donors. Immunity. 1997;7:739-51 pubmed
    ..Because of these differences, the first donor has subpopulations of NK cells that kill cells of the second donor, whereas the NK cells of the second donor are universally tolerant of cells from the first donor. ..
  8. Uhrberg M, Valiante N, Shum B, Shilling H, Lienert Weidenbach K, Corliss B, et al. Human diversity in killer cell inhibitory receptor genes. Immunity. 1997;7:753-63 pubmed
    ..Group B comprises more noninhibitory KIR genes and contains at least one additional gene not represented in group A. The KIR locus therefore appears to be polygenic and polymorphic within the human population. ..
  9. Kikuchi Maki A, Yusa S, Catina T, Campbell K. KIR2DL4 is an IL-2-regulated NK cell receptor that exhibits limited expression in humans but triggers strong IFN-gamma production. J Immunol. 2003;171:3415-25 pubmed
    Killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR)2DL4 (2DL4, CD158d) was previously described as the only KIR expressed by every human NK cell...

More Information

Publications132 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kikuchi Maki A, Catina T, Campbell K. Cutting edge: KIR2DL4 transduces signals into human NK cells through association with the Fc receptor gamma protein. J Immunol. 2005;174:3859-63 pubmed
    b>KIR2DL4 (2DL4, CD158d), a member of the human killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family, triggers potent IFN-gamma responses but weak cytotoxicity in resting NK cells...
  2. Goodridge J, Lathbury L, John E, Charles A, Christiansen F, Witt C. The genotype of the NK cell receptor, KIR2DL4, influences INFgamma secretion by decidual natural killer cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Membrane expression of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) KIR2DL4 on peripheral blood NK (pNK) cells is controlled by the 9A/10A transmembrane genetic polymorphism...
  3. Selvakumar A, Steffens U, Dupont B. NK cell receptor gene of the KIR family with two IG domains but highest homology to KIR receptors with three IG domains. Tissue Antigens. 1996;48:285-94 pubmed
    ..3 and in NK cells obtained from some but not all normal donors. The clone, KIR103AS, has an open reading frame consistent with a KIR with two extracellular Ig domains, a transmembrane region and a ..
  4. Rajagopalan S, Fu J, Long E. Cutting edge: induction of IFN-gamma production but not cytotoxicity by the killer cell Ig-like receptor KIR2DL4 (CD158d) in resting NK cells. J Immunol. 2001;167:1877-81 pubmed
    ..We now describe a receptor, KIR2DL4, that has the unique property of inducing IFN-gamma production, but not cytotoxicity, by resting NK cells in the ..
  5. Santourlidis S, Trompeter H, Weinhold S, Eisermann B, Meyer K, Wernet P, et al. Crucial role of DNA methylation in determination of clonally distributed killer cell Ig-like receptor expression patterns in NK cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:4253-61 pubmed
    ..In vitro methylation of KIR CpG islands repressed reporter gene expression in NK cells. We conclude that clonal patterns of KIR expression are mainly epigenetically determined and maintained through DNA methylation. ..
  6. Stewart C, van Bergen J, Trowsdale J. Different and divergent regulation of the KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL1 promoters. J Immunol. 2003;170:6073-81 pubmed
    ..We compared the promoter for KIR3DL1, which exhibits variegated gene expression, with that for KIR2DL4, which is expressed by all NK cell clones...
  7. Goodridge J, Witt C, Christiansen F, Warren H. KIR2DL4 (CD158d) genotype influences expression and function in NK cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:1768-74 pubmed
    The expression and function of the NK cell receptor KIR2DL4 are controversial. Two common alleles of the transmembrane domain of KIR2DL4 exist...
  8. Faridi R, Das V, Tripthi G, Talwar S, Parveen F, Agrawal S. Influence of activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors on predisposition to recurrent miscarriages. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:1758-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the balance between inhibitory and activating receptor-mediated signals present in natural killer cells is inclined toward a more activating state that may contribute to pregnancy loss. ..
  9. Nowak I, Majorczyk E, Płoski R, Senitzer D, Sun J, Kusnierczyk P. Lack of KIR2DL4 gene in a fertile Caucasian woman. Tissue Antigens. 2011;78:115-9 pubmed publisher
    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR2DL4) gene is present in virtually all humans. It encodes a receptor present on uterine and decidual natural killer (NK) cells and some peripheral blood NK cells...
  10. Brusilovsky M, Cordoba M, Rosental B, Hershkovitz O, Andrake M, Pecherskaya A, et al. Genome-wide siRNA screen reveals a new cellular partner of NK cell receptor KIR2DL4: heparan sulfate directly modulates KIR2DL4-mediated responses. J Immunol. 2013;191:5256-67 pubmed publisher
    b>KIR2DL4 (CD158d) is a distinct member of the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family in human NK cells that can induce cytokine production and cytolytic activity in resting NK cells...
  11. Ranshing S, Bavdekar A, Vaidya U, Behera M, Walimbe A, Gopalkrishna V. Clinical and genetic characteristics of unusual G12P[11] rotavirus strains recovered from neonates: A study from Pune, Western India. Infect Genet Evol. 2019;70:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..34%-94.53% (nucleotide) and 93.57%-94.64% (amino acid) identity with vaccine strain 116E, G9P[11]...
  12. PALIHAWADANA P, Kang G, Navaratnasingam J, Galagoda G, Abeynayake J, Gunasekera M, et al. Rotavirus infection among hospitalized children under five years of age with acute watery diarrhea in Sri Lanka. Vaccine. 2018;36:7846-7850 pubmed publisher
    ..1%; 123/408) with G2P [8], G9P[8] and G3P[8] also detected. Rotavirus is a common cause of pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in Sri Lanka...
  13. Kiseleva V, Faizuloev E, Meskina E, Marova A, Oksanich A, Samartseva T, et al. Molecular-Genetic Characterization of Human Rotavirus A Strains Circulating in Moscow, Russia (2009-2014). Virol Sin. 2018;33:304-313 pubmed publisher
    ..The predominant RVA genotype was G4P[8], detected in 38.7% of RVA-positive cases, whereas genotypes G1P[8], G9P[8], G3P[8], and G2P[4] were found in 11.8%, 6.6%, 4.2%, and 3.3% of cases, respectively...
  14. Ouermi D, Soubeiga D, Nadembega W, Sawadogo P, Zohoncon T, Obiri Yeboah D, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Children under Five in Africa (2006-2016): A Systematic Review. Pak J Biol Sci. 2017;20:59-69 pubmed publisher
    ..60%) and P[4] (11.58%) and the G1P[8] combination (22.64%) was the most encountered followed by G2P[4] (8.29%), G9P[8] (6.95%) and G2P[6] (5.00%). North Africa presented the highest prevalence of the P[8] genotype (65.70%)...
  15. Boula A, Waku Kouomou D, Njiki Kinkela M, Esona M, Kemajou G, Mekontso D, et al. Molecular surveillance of rotavirus strains circulating in Yaoundé, Cameroon, September 2007-December 2012. Infect Genet Evol. 2014;28:470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Among EIA positive samples 898 were genotyped. Genotype prevalence varied each year. Genotype G9P[8] was the dominant type during 2007 (32%) and 2008 (24%), genotype G3P[6] predominated in 2010 (36%) and 2011 (25%)..
  16. Theingi Win Myat -, Hlaing Myat Thu -, Ye Myint Kyaw -, Khin Mar Aye -, Mo Mo Win -, Htin Lin -, et al. Sentinel surveillance for rotavirus in children <5 years of age admitted for Diarrheal illness to Yangon Children's Hospital, Myanmar, 2009-2014. Vaccine. 2018;36:7832-7835 pubmed publisher
    ..throughout 2009-2012 which was replaced in 2012-2013 by G2P[4] and changed again to G1P[8] in 2013-2014 and G9P[8] in late 2014...
  17. Bulut Y, Yenisehirli G, Durmaz R. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus Strains in Under Five Children. Indian J Pediatr. 2018;85:364-368 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common G and P combination in present study was G9P[8] (n = 24, 28.9%)...
  18. Rodriguez R, Suarez Alvarez B, Lavín J, Mosén Ansorena D, Baragaño Raneros A, Márquez Kisinousky L, et al. Epigenetic Networks Regulate the Transcriptional Program in Memory and Terminally Differentiated CD8+ T Cells. J Immunol. 2017;198:937-949 pubmed publisher
    ..g., kir2dl3, kir2dl4, kir2dl1, kir3dl1, kir2ds5)...
  19. Islamuddin M, Khan W, Gupta S, Tiku V, Khan N, Akdag A, et al. Surveillance and genetic characterization of rotavirus strains circulating in four states of North Indian children. Infect Genet Evol. 2018;62:253-261 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common types of strains were G1P[8] (27.73% of strains), G12P[6] (13.28%), G9P[4] (7.23%) and G1P[6] (6.75%)...
  20. Thongprachum A, Khamrin P, Maneekarn N, Hayakawa S, Ushijima H. Epidemiology of gastroenteritis viruses in Japan: Prevalence, seasonality, and outbreak. J Med Virol. 2016;88:551-70 pubmed publisher
    ..countries, the main rotavirus strains circulating in pediatric patients in Japan are G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], and G9P[8]. Norovirus GII...
  21. Liu S, Zheng A, Ding L. Association between KIR gene polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) susceptibility: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e9439 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, no association between the other KIRs genes (KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL4, KIR2DL5, KIR2DS2, KIR2DS3, KIR2DS4, KIR2DS5, KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3, and KIR3DS1) and T1DM susceptibility was ..
  22. Jain S, Thakur N, Vashistt J, Grover N, Krishnan T, Changotra H. Predominance of unusual rotavirus G1P[6] strain in North India: An evidence from hospitalized children and adult diarrheal patients. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;46:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..0%) and P[6] (66.7%) genotypes. The most common G and P combination was G1P[6] (62.8%) followed by G1P[8] (16.5%), G9P[6] (7.4%) and G12P[6] (5.0%). Molecular analysis reveals the belonging of P[6] strains in Lineage 1a...
  23. Abebe A, Getahun M, Mapaseka S, Beyene B, Assefa E, Teshome B, et al. Impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction and genotypic characteristics of rotavirus strains in children less than 5 years of age with gastroenteritis in Ethiopia: 2011-2016. Vaccine. 2018;36:7043-7047 pubmed publisher
    ..The most prevalent circulating strains were G12P[8] in 2011 (36%) and in 2012 (27%), G2P[4] (35%) in 2013, G9P[8] (19%) in 2014, G3P[6] and G2P[4] (19% each) in 2015, and G3P[8] (29%) in 2016...
  24. Dhital S, Sherchand J, Pokhrel B, Parajuli K, Shah N, Mishra S, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Rotavirus causing diarrhea among children less than five years of age visiting national level children hospitals, Nepal. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17:101 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of seven G/P type combinations were identified the most common being G12P [6] (35.8%), G1P [8] (15.1%), G9P [8] (15.1%)...
  25. Numazaki K, Ichikawa M. Clinical and virological characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis and prevalence of strains in Tochigi, Japan. In Vivo. 2014;28:1141-7 pubmed
    ..The genotypes were determined as G1P [8] in 5 samples, G3P [8] in 5 samples, G9P [8] in 3 samples, and G6P [9] in 2 samples. We were able to analyze the phylogenetic trees of these genotypes...
  26. Zhang S, Yin J, Yang J, Tian L, Li D, Zhang Q, et al. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotavirus in acute diarrhea patients in pre-vaccination era in southwest China. J Med Virol. 2017;89:71-78 pubmed publisher
    ..7%), G1 (8.9%), and G1G3 (3.8%); P[8] was the overwhelming prevalence P genotype, followed by P[4] (4.7%); G9P[8] (54.9%) was most common G and P Combination, followed by G3P[8] (17.6%) and G1[8] (8.6%)...
  27. Schmitt J, Eckardt S, Schlegel P, SIREN A, Bruttel V, McLaughlin K, et al. Human Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells Express HLA-G and Show Unique Resistance to NK Cell-Mediated Killing. Mol Med. 2015;21:185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockage of HLA-G receptors ILT2 and KIR2DL4 on natural killer cell leukemia (NKL) cells increased cytolysis of PG NSCs...
  28. Yeom J, Park J, Kim Y, Kim R, Choi D, Chung J, et al. Neonatal seizures and white matter injury: Role of rotavirus infection and probiotics. Brain Dev. 2019;41:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..53.8%, p = 0.004) and seizure onset on days 4-6 of life (66.7% vs. 15.0%; p = 0.02). G9P[8] was the most common genotype in this subgroup but was also commonly detected in neonates without seizures...
  29. Satter S, Aliabadi N, Gastañaduy P, Haque W, Mamun A, Flora M, et al. An update from hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Bangladesh, July 2012 to June 2017. Vaccine. 2018;36:7811-7815 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common strains were G1P[8] (43%), G12P[8] (15%) and G9P[8] (9%); 11% of children had mixed infection...
  30. Yandle Z, Coughlan S, Drew R, O Flaherty N, O Gorman J, De Gascun C. Circulating rotavirus genotypes in the Irish paediatric population prior to the introduction of the vaccination programme. Ir J Med Sci. 2017;186:1003-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed G1P[8] to be the predominant genotype (57%), followed by G9P[8] (34%), G4P[8] (6%), G2P[4] (2%), and G12P[8] (1%)...
  31. Mun S, Cho H, Lee H, Park S, Park P, Yoon M, et al. High incidence of group A rotaviruses G4P[6] strains among children in Gyeonggi province of South Korea, from 2009 to 2012. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;44:351-355 pubmed publisher
    ..The G4P[6] strains predominated (29.7%), followed by G1P[8] (19.4%), G2P[4] (15.6%), G3P[8] (13.3%) and G9P[8] (6.5%) strain. Especially 96.2% of the genotype G4P[6] strains were isolated from children<1year of age...
  32. Moure U, Banga Mingo V, Gody J, Mwenda J, Fandema J, Waku Kouomou D, et al. Emergence of G12 and G9 rotavirus genotypes in the Central African Republic, January 2014 to February 2016. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11:5 pubmed publisher
    ..During this period the most common rotavirus strains were G1P[8] (37%), G12P[6] (27%) and G9P[8] (18%).
  33. Esona M, Buteau J, Lucien M, Joseph G, Leshem E, BONCY J, et al. Rotavirus group A genotypes detected through diarrheal disease surveillance in Haiti, 2012. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:54-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The predominant genotypes were G1P[8] (29% prevalence) and G9P[8] (21%). The observed genotype prevalence was similar to that reported previously for other Caribbean countries.
  34. Santos V, Nóbrega F, Soares M, Moreira R, Cuevas L, Gurgel R. Rotavirus Genotypes Circulating in Brazil Before and After the National Rotavirus Vaccine Program: A Review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Rotavirus caused 22.4% and 11.6% of cases before and after vaccine introduction. G1P[8] and G9P[8], and G2P[4] and heterotypic-strains were most common before and after vaccine introduction...
  35. Rizzo R, Lo Monte G, Bortolotti D, Graziano A, Gentili V, Di Luca D, et al. Impact of soluble HLA-G levels and endometrial NK cells in uterine flushing samples from primary and secondary unexplained infertile women. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:5510-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower CD56+KIR2DL4+ (e)NK cell percentages were detected in primary infertile women compared with secondary infertile women...
  36. Lewis J, Roy S, Esona M, Mijatovic Rustempasic S, Hardy C, Wang Y, et al. Full Genome Sequence of a Reassortant Human G9P[4] Rotavirus Strain. Genome Announc. 2014;2: pubmed publisher
    This is a report of the complete genomic sequence of a reassortant rotavirus group A G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E6-H2 strain designated RVA/Human-wt/USA/ LB1562/2010/G9P[4].
  37. Shao L, Fischer D, Kandasamy S, Rauf A, Langel S, Wentworth D, et al. Comparative In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Porcine Rotavirus G9P[13] and Human Rotavirus Wa G1P[8]. J Virol. 2016;90:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we comparatively assessed the pathogenesis of porcine RV (PRV) G9P[13] and evaluated the short-term cross-protection between this strain and human RV (HRV) Wa G1P[8] in gnotobiotic ..
  38. Middleton D, Meenagh A, Sleator C, Gourraud P, Ayna T, Tozkir H, et al. No association of KIR genes with Behcet's disease. Tissue Antigens. 2007;70:435-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, no association was identified between presence or absence of any of the 14 KIR genes studied and BD. In addition, we did not find any associations of KIR with various manifestations of the disease nor with gender or age of onset. ..
  39. Dian Z, Fan M, Wang B, Feng Y, Ji H, Dong S, et al. The prevalence and genotype distribution of rotavirus A infection among children with acute gastroenteritis in Kunming, China. Arch Virol. 2017;162:281-285 pubmed publisher
    ..4 % (4,712/5,394). The most prevalent genotype was G9P[8] (85/107, 79...
  40. Talledo M, Lopez G, Huyghe J, Verdonck K, Gonzalez E, Clark D, et al. Role of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene content and human leukocyte antigen-C group in susceptibility to human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in Peru. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:804-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study did not reveal significant associations between KIR genes and HLA-Cw groups and HAM/TSP or PVL. However, because our study was powered to detect only larger effects, additional studies using larger cohorts are needed. ..
  41. Kim J, Kim H, Hyun J, Kim H, Song W, Lee K, et al. Analysis of rotavirus genotypes in Korea during 2013: an increase in the G2P[4] genotype after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. Vaccine. 2014;32:6396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) was the second most prevalent G/P genotype and was mostly detected in neonates. Other genotypes, G1P[8], G9P[8], G1P[6], and G3P[6], were also detected...
  42. Leite M, Carmona R, Carraro E, Watanabe A, Granato C. Rotavirus genotypes as etiological agents of diarrhoea in general populations of two geographic regions of Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2017;59:e45 pubmed publisher
    ..4%), G2P[6](5.2%), G1P[6](5.2%) in the Northeast, and G2P[4]/G2P[NT](78.8%), G2P[6](8.2%), G9P[8](4.7%) in the Southeast...
  43. Nowak I, Malinowski A, Tchorzewski H, Barcz E, Wilczynski J, Grybos M, et al. Frequencies of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes influence susceptibility to spontaneous abortion. J Appl Genet. 2009;50:391-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the results suggest for the first time that sporadic and recurrent spontaneous abortions as well as miscarriage in the presence or absence of autoantibodies may have different KIR genotypic backgrounds...
  44. Aly M, Al Khairy A, Al Johani S, Balkhy H. Unusual rotavirus genotypes among children with acute diarrhea in Saudi Arabia. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:192 pubmed publisher
    ..6%) were P [4]; 1/151 (0.66%) was P [6]. The dominant strains included G1P [8] 70/113 (61.9%); G9P [8] 19/113 (16.8%); G12P [8] 7/113 (6.2%) and G3P [8] 5/113 (4...
  45. Liu X, Meng L, Li J, Liu X, Bai Y, Yu D, et al. Etiological epidemiology of viral diarrhea on the basis of sentinel surveillance in children younger than 5 years in Gansu, northwest China, 2009-2013. J Med Virol. 2015;87:2048-53 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Rotavirus A was the most proportion in rotavirus, G3P[8] and G9P[8] were the most common combination...
  46. Samdan A, Ganbold S, Guntev O, Orosoo S, Javzandorj N, Gongor A, et al. Hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, April 2009 through March 2016. Vaccine. 2018;36:7883-7887 pubmed publisher
    ..No deaths were recorded due to rotavirus diarrhea. The most common genotype was G3P [8] (47.7%) followed by G9P [6] (14.4%), G2P [4] (12%), and G9P [8] (7.1%)...
  47. Simwaka J, Mpabalwani E, Seheri M, Peenze I, Monze M, Matapo B, et al. Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in children under five years of age who presented with acute gastroenteritis before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, 2008-2015. Vaccine. 2018;36:7243-7247 pubmed publisher
    ..most common G and P genotype combinations before vaccine introduction were G1P[8] (49%) in 2008; G12P[6] (24%) and G9P[8] (22%) in 2009; mixed rotavirus infections (32%) and G9P[8] (20%) in 2010, and G1P[6] (46%), G9P[6] (16%) and ..
  48. Kimoto Y, Horiuchi T, Tsukamoto H, Kiyohara C, Mitoma H, Uchino A, et al. Association of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL5 with systemic lupus erythematosus and accompanying infections. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:1346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a further role of KIRs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and infection. ..
  49. Andersson M, Lindh M. Rotavirus genotype shifts among Swedish children and adults-Application of a real-time PCR genotyping. J Clin Virol. 2017;96:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..G1P[8] was the most common genotype representing 34.9%, followed by G2P[4] (28.3%), G9P[8] (11.5%), G3P[8] (8.1%), and G4P[8] (7...
  50. Abu Amero K, Kondkar A, Al Otaibi A, Alorainy I, Khan A, Hellani A, et al. Partial duplication of chromosome 19 associated with syndromic duane retraction syndrome. Ophthalmic Genet. 2015;36:14-20 pubmed publisher
    ..DRS and brain neuroimaging abnormalities may imply a central and peripheral oligodendrocyte abnormality related in some fashion to an immunomodulatory disturbance. ..
  51. Roy S, Esona M, Kirkness E, Akopov A, McAllen J, Wikswo M, et al. Comparative genomic analysis of genogroup 1 (Wa-like) rotaviruses circulating in the USA, 2006-2009. Infect Genet Evol. 2014;28:513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The strains included 16 G1P[8], 10 G3P[8], and 7 G9P[8]...
  52. Zhu F, Jiang K, Lu Q, Zhang W, Zhang H, Fu Q, et al. [Polymorphism of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors gene family in Zhejiang Han population]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2005;13:1109-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, there are distinctive frequencies of KIR gene content, haplotype as well as genotype in Zhejiang Han population. ..
  53. Flores A, Marcos C, Paladino N, Capucchio M, Theiler G, Arruvito L, et al. KIR genes polymorphism in Argentinean Caucasoid and Amerindian populations. Tissue Antigens. 2007;69:568-76 pubmed
    ..b>KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 were always present, whereas the frequencies of KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, KIR2DS4, KIR3DL1 ..
  54. Dou L, Zheng D, Wang C, Liu J, Sun J, Jin H, et al. The diversity of KIR gene in Chinese Northern Han population and the impact of donor KIR and patient HLA genotypes on outcome following HLA-identical sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancy in Chinese p. Int J Hematol. 2008;87:422-433 pubmed publisher
    ..KIR and KIR2DL1 mismatch is associated with lower aGVHD in Chinese after HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. ..
  55. Li G, Weyand C, Goronzy J. Epigenetic mechanisms of age-dependent KIR2DL4 expression in T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined epigenetic mechanisms that determine the competency of T cells to transcribe KIR2DL4. Compared with Jurkat cells and CD4(+)CD28(+) T cells from young individuals, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) ..
  56. Mandal P, Mullick S, Nayak M, Mukherjee A, Ganguly N, Niyogi P, et al. Complete genotyping of unusual species A rotavirus G12P[11] and G10P[14] isolates and evidence of frequent in vivo reassortment among the rotaviruses detected in children with diarrhea in Kolkata, India, during 2014. Arch Virol. 2016;161:2773-85 pubmed publisher
    ..G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[6/8] and G12P[6/8] are the predominantly isolated genotypes throughout the world including India...
  57. Molinari B, Possatti F, Lorenzetti E, Alfieri A, Alfieri A. Unusual outbreak of post-weaning porcine diarrhea caused by single and mixed infections of rotavirus groups A, B, C, and H. Vet Microbiol. 2016;193:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of three RVA strains allowed the characterization of two distinct G/P genotypes represented by G5P[13] and G9P[23], different from G5P[7] found in vaccines...
  58. Zhang G, Deng Z. [Allelic diversity of KIR2DL4 gene and identification of five novel alleles among southern Han Chinese population]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2017;34:270-274 pubmed publisher
    To study the polymorphisms of the KIR2DL4 gene in a southern Han Chinese population. Genomic DNA isolated from 306 unrelated individuals was amplified by using KIR2DL4-specific PCR primers...
  59. Gómez Lozano N, Estefanía E, Williams F, Halfpenny I, Middleton D, Solís R, et al. The silent KIR3DP1 gene (CD158c) is transcribed and might encode a secreted receptor in a minority of humans, in whom the KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL1/KIR3DS1 genes are duplicated. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:16-24 pubmed
    ..allele of KIR3DP1, officially designed KIR3DP1*004, that associates tightly with gene duplications of KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL1/KIR3DS1...
  60. Gonzalez A, McErlean C, Meenagh A, Shovlin T, Middleton D. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor allele discrimination by high-resolution melting. Hum Immunol. 2009;70:858-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here how we have used HRM to introduce upgrades in our KIR allele level typing system for the KIR2DS4, KIR2DL4, and KIR3DL2 genes...
  61. John E, Christiansen F, Mueller I, Schofield L, Senitzer D, Siba P, et al. Distinct distribution of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Mugil and Ilaita areas of Papua New Guinea. Tissue Antigens. 2012;79:263-71 pubmed publisher
    The frequency of the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and transmembrane alleles of KIR2DL4 were studied in coastal (Mugil community) and inland (Ilaita community) communities in Papua New Guinea...
  62. Sashina T, Morozova O, Epifanova N, Novikova N. Predominance of new G9P[8] rotaviruses closely related to Turkish strains in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia). Arch Virol. 2017;162:2387-2392 pubmed publisher
    Genotype G9P[8] rotaviruses are rare in the territory of Russia. They were found in Nizhny Novgorod only in 2011-2012 for the first time, when their proportion was 25.9%...
  63. Nayak M, De P, Manna B, Dutta S, Bhadra U, Chawla Sarkar M. Species A rotaviruses isolated from hospitalized patients over 5 years of age in Kolkata, India, in 2012/13. Arch Virol. 2018;163:745-750 pubmed publisher
    ..G2P[4] strains (n = 16 [36.36%]) were the most prevalent, followed by G9P[4] strains (n = 13 [29.54%]), while P[4]-(n = 30 [68.18%]) was most prevalent among the P genotypes...
  64. Gómez Lozano N, de Pablo R, Puente S, Vilches C. Recognition of HLA-G by the NK cell receptor KIR2DL4 is not essential for human reproduction. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:639-44 pubmed
    ..The human NK cell receptor KIR2DL4 has been implicated in the maternal tolerance to the embryo due to its recognition of HLA-G, a non-classical MHC ..
  65. Gedil M, Steiner N, Hurley C. Genomic characterization of KIR2DL4 in families and unrelated individuals reveals extensive diversity in exon and intron sequences including a common frameshift variation occurring in several alleles. Tissue Antigens. 2005;65:402-18 pubmed
    The KIR2DL4 gene including a portion of exon 1 through exon 9 was sequenced from two families and eight cell lines from the International Histocompatibility Workshop (IHWS). Two known alleles and eight variants were detected...
  66. Shastry A, Sedimbi S, Rajalingam R, Nikitina Zake L, Rumba I, Wigzell H, et al. Combination of KIR 2DL2 and HLA-C1 (Asn 80) confers susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in Latvians. Int J Immunogenet. 2008;35:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that a combination KIR2DL2- HLA-C1 plays a critical role in susceptibility or protection in Latvians against type 1 diabetes. ..
  67. Basu D, Liu Y, Wu A, Yarlagadda S, Gorelik G, Kaplan M, et al. Stimulatory and inhibitory killer Ig-like receptor molecules are expressed and functional on lupus T cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:3481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Abs to the stimulatory molecule KIR2DL4 triggered IFN-gamma release by lupus T cells, and production was proportional to disease activity...
  68. Rajagopalan S, Moyle M, Joosten I, Long E. DNA-PKcs controls an endosomal signaling pathway for a proinflammatory response by natural killer cells. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra14 pubmed publisher
    ..CD158d, which is also known as the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) 2DL4 (KIR2DL4), is an endosome-resident receptor in natural killer (NK) cells that stimulates the release of a unique set of ..
  69. Dereci S, Çopur Çiçek A, Savaş Acar S, Bakkaloğlu Z, Özkasap S, Kanber K, et al. Prevalence and genotype distribution of rotaviruses in children with gastroenteritis in Rize province. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2015;15:35-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent GP genotype combinations were found to be G9P(8) in 21 strains (34.4%), G2P(4) in 14 strains (23.0%), and G1P(8) in 12 strains (19.7%)...
  70. Kucuk C, Hu X, Gong Q, Jiang B, Cornish A, Gaulard P, et al. Diagnostic and Biological Significance of KIR Expression Profile Determined by RNA-Seq in Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..tended to be markedly reduced or absent in NKTCL, except for the KIR family member killer Ig-like receptor 2DL4 (KIR2DL4; alias CD158D), which was selectively overexpressed in the majority (59%) of cases...
  71. Morozova O, Sashina T, Epifanova N, Zverev V, Kashnikov A, Novikova N. Phylogenetic comparison of the VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4 genes of rotaviruses isolated from children in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 2015-2016, with cogent genes of the Rotarix and RotaTeq vaccine strains. Virus Genes. 2018;54:225-235 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, 1461 samples were examined. RVAs were detected in 30.4% of cases. Rotaviruses with genotype G9P[8] (40.5%) dominated in the 2015-16 epidemic season...
  72. Chan H, Kurago Z, Stewart C, Wilson M, Martin M, Mace B, et al. DNA methylation maintains allele-specific KIR gene expression in human natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 2003;197:245-55 pubmed
    ..variable numbers and combinations of highly homologous clonally restricted KIR genes, but uniformly express KIR2DL4. We show that NK clones express both 2DL4 alleles and either one or both alleles of the clonally restricted KIR ..
  73. Middleton D, Meenagh A, Gourraud P. KIR haplotype content at the allele level in 77 Northern Irish families. Immunogenetics. 2007;59:145-58 pubmed
    ..8%) of haplotypes were A and 127 (41.2%) were B. Three different haplotypes carried two copies of KIR2DL4, two different haplotypes were truncated with both KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL1/S1 missing, and three different haplotypes ..
  74. Ludajic K, Balavarca Y, Bickeboller H, Rosenmayr A, Fae I, Fischer G, et al. KIR genes and KIR ligands affect occurrence of acute GVHD after unrelated, 12/12 HLA matched, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009;44:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..24, 95% CI: 0.07-0.85, P=0.027). Thus, our single center study provides evidence for the modification of aGVHD risk by KIRs and their ligands. ..
  75. Zhang B, Liu Y, Jiao Y, Zhao Y, Li J. [Genotype and haplotype analysis of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors in ankylosing spondylitis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;89:91-5 pubmed
    ..There were not significant differences in the haplotypes A and B among the AS patients, OA patients, and healthy controls. KIR genotypes may be associated with the susceptibility to AS. ..
  76. Chen A, Guo X, Yan W, Xie S, Zhu N, Wang X, et al. [Polymorphism of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene and its correlation with leukemia]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2007;15:35-8 pubmed
    ..01). It is concluded that the polymorphism of KIR gene is associated with susceptibility of leukemia in Hans. There may be a negative correlation between pathogenesis of leukemia and KIR 3DL1, KIR 3DS1, KIR 2DL1, KIR 2DL5 genes. ..
  77. Shulse C, Steiner N, Hurley C. Allelic diversity in KIR2DL4 in a bone marrow transplant population: description of three novel alleles. Tissue Antigens. 2007;70:157-9 pubmed
    Genomic DNA sequencing was used to identify alleles of KIR2DL4 from 78 unrelated individuals involved in hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Eight known alleles were observed...
  78. Eguchi H, Maeda A, Lo P, Matsuura R, Esquivel E, Asada M, et al. HLA-G1, but Not HLA-G3, Suppresses Human Monocyte/Macrophage-mediated Swine Endothelial Cell Lysis. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:1285-7 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of inhibitory receptors that interact with HLA-G, immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT2), ILT4, and KIR2DL4 (CD158d) on in vitro-generated macrophages obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the phorbol 12-..
  79. Lorentzen A, Karlsen T, Olsson M, Smestad C, Mero I, Woldseth B, et al. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand HLA-Bw4 protects against multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:658-66 pubmed publisher
    ..KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL5, KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3) and activating (KIR2DS1, KIR2DS2, KIR2DS3, KIR2DL4, KIR2DS4, KIR2DS5, KIR3DS1) KIRs...
  80. Moradi S, Berry R, Pymm P, Hitchen C, Beckham S, Wilce M, et al. The structure of the atypical killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, KIR2DL4. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10460-71 pubmed publisher
    ..b>KIR2DL4 is distinct from other KIRs (except KIR2DL5) in that it does not contain a D1 domain and instead has a D0-D2 ..
  81. de Rougemont A, Kaplon J, Fremy C, Legrand Guillien M, Minoui Tran A, Payan C, et al. Clinical severity and molecular characteristics of circulating and emerging rotaviruses in young children attending hospital emergency departments in France. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22:737.e9-737.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping of 4708 RVA showed that G1P[8] strains (62.2%) were predominant. The incidence of G9P[8] (11.5%), G3P[8] (10.4%) and G2P[4] (6.6%) strains varied considerably, whereas G4P[8] (2...
  82. Wang Y, Zhang J, Liu P. Clinical and molecular epidemiologic trends reveal the important role of rotavirus in adult infectious gastroenteritis, in Shanghai, China. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;47:143-154 pubmed publisher
    ..b>G9P[8] was the predominant genotype (66.7%), followed by G2P[4] (14.6%) and G1P[8] (4.2%)...
  83. Becker S, Tonn T, Füssel T, Uhrberg M, Bogdanow M, Seifried E, et al. Assessment of killer cell immunoglobulinlike receptor expression and corresponding HLA class I phenotypes demonstrates heterogenous KIR expression independent of anticipated HLA class I ligands. Hum Immunol. 2003;64:183-93 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the surface expression of KIRs in individuals with different HLA class I genotypes indicates that other non-HLA class I encoded factors contribute to the shaping of the KIR repertoire. ..
  84. Williams F, Meenagh A, Sleator C, Middleton D. Investigation of killer cell immunoglobulinlike receptor gene diversity: I. KIR2DL4. Hum Immunol. 2004;65:31-8 pubmed
    ..oligonucleotide probes typing procedures identifying alleles of the killer immunoglobulin-like gene (KIR2DL4) have been established...
  85. Liu Y, Kuick R, Hanash S, Richardson B. DNA methylation inhibition increases T cell KIR expression through effects on both promoter methylation and transcription factors. Clin Immunol. 2009;130:213-24 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA methylation inhibition activated multiple KIR genes in normal T cells. KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL4 were selected for further study...
  86. Fu S, Yu L, Luo M, Xiao L, Wang Y, Xu J, et al. [Analysis of natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Chinese]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:109-13 pubmed
    ..This study provide clues for new approaches for improving the prognosis of kidney transplantation by enhancing or inhibiting the function of the natural killer cells instead of life-time usage of immunosuppressive agents. ..
  87. De Arias A, Haworth S, Belli L, Burra P, Pinzello G, Vangeli M, et al. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genotype and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor-human leukocyte antigen C ligand compatibility affect the severity of hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2009;15:390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..04). These preliminary results indicate that the KIR genotype and KIR-HLA-C ligand compatibility play roles in the recurrence and progression of hepatitis C disease in liver transplant recipients. ..
  88. Le Page M, Goodridge J, John E, Christiansen F, Witt C. Killer Ig-like receptor 2DL4 does not mediate NK cell IFN-? responses to soluble HLA-G preparations. J Immunol. 2014;192:732-40 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? production by freshly isolated NK cells in response to both soluble and solid-phase ligands, including anti-KIR2DL4 mAbs and rHLA-G...
  89. Zaal D, Nota B. ADOMA: A Command Line Tool to Modify ClustalW Multiple Alignment Output. Mol Inform. 2016;35:42-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The source code is freely available at https://sourceforge. net/projects/adoma/. ..
  90. Roberts C, Turino C, Madrigal J, Marsh S. Enrichment of individual KIR2DL4 sequences from genomic DNA using long-template PCR and allele-specific hybridization to magnetic bead-bound oligonucleotide probes. Tissue Antigens. 2007;69:597-601 pubmed
    ..DEASH) was used as a means to isolate individual alleles of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR2DL4) gene from heterozygous genomic DNA...
  91. Levinson R, Du Z, Luo L, Holland G, Rao N, Reed E, et al. KIR and HLA gene combinations in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:349-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The trends observed in this study are consistent with those reported for other autoimmune diseases...
  92. Tan C, Chong Y, Loganath A, Chan Y, Ravichandran J, Lee C, et al. Possible gene-gene interaction of KIR2DL4 with its cognate ligand HLA-G in modulating risk for preeclampsia. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:1135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We have now tested the KIR2DL4 receptor gene for association with PE, as well as for its interaction with HLA-G in modulating disease risk, in a ..