Ki 67


Gene Symbol: Ki 67
Description: marker of proliferation Ki-67
Alias: KIA, MIB-, MIB-1, PPP1R105, proliferation marker protein Ki-67, antigen Ki67, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67, proliferation-related Ki-67 antigen, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 105
Species: human
Products:     Ki 67

Top Publications

  1. Scholzen T, Endl E, Wohlenberg C, van der Sar S, Cowell I, Gerdes J, et al. The Ki-67 protein interacts with members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family: a potential role in the regulation of higher-order chromatin structure. J Pathol. 2002;196:135-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data presented in this study suggest a role for pKi-67 in the control of higher-order chromatin structure. ..
  2. Kim S, Kim B, Choi C, Choi J, Kim I, Lee Y, et al. Ki-67 expression is predictive of prognosis in patients with stage I/II extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:1382-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, we analyzed Ki-67 expression and proposed a new prognostic model including Ki-67 expression for stage I/II extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma...
  3. Determann O, Hoster E, Ott G, Wolfram Bernd H, Loddenkemper C, Leo Hansmann M, et al. Ki-67 predicts outcome in advanced-stage mantle cell lymphoma patients treated with anti-CD20 immunochemotherapy: results from randomized trials of the European MCL Network and the German Low Grade Lymphoma Study Group. Blood. 2008;111:2385-7 pubmed
    ..013). Thus, the Ki-67 index remains an important prognostic marker in the era of anti-CD20 therapy. The Euro-pean MCL study is registered at as #NCT00016887. ..
  4. Matsubara N, Mukai H, Itoh K, Nagai S. Prognostic impact of Ki-67 overexpression in subgroups categorized according to St. Gallen with early stage breast cancer. Oncology. 2011;81:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Ki-67 overexpression indicates an unfavorable prognostic impact for DFS and OS. However, this impact is restricted only to those patients classified at intermediate risk. ..
  5. Malhotra S, Lapointe J, Salari K, Higgins J, Ferrari M, Montgomery K, et al. A tri-marker proliferation index predicts biochemical recurrence after surgery for prostate cancer. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20293 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the potential value of a multi-gene signature-based diagnostic, and define a tri-marker proliferation index with possible utility for improved prognostication and treatment stratification in prostate cancer. ..
  6. Tang L, Gonen M, Hedvat C, Modlin I, Klimstra D. Objective quantification of the Ki67 proliferative index in neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system: a comparison of digital image analysis with manual methods. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:1761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, determination of therapeutic strategies should be guided by an amalgamation of clinicopathologic characteristics, including but not limited to the Ki67 index. ..
  7. Matsubara N, Mukai H, Fujii S, Wada N. Different prognostic significance of Ki-67 change between pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy in various subtypes of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Pre-treatment Ki-67 and post-treatment Ki-67 were not independent prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis. ..
  8. Hasselblom S, Ridell B, Sigurdardottir M, Hansson U, Nilsson Ehle H, Andersson P. Low rather than high Ki-67 protein expression is an adverse prognostic factor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:1501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that low rather than high Ki-67 protein expression is of prognostic importance in DLBCL. ..
  9. Milde Langosch K, Karn T, Muller V, Witzel I, Rody A, Schmidt M, et al. Validity of the proliferation markers Ki67, TOP2A, and RacGAP1 in molecular subgroups of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data point to subtype-specific differences in the relevance of proliferation-associated genes, and RacGAP1 might be a strong prognostic and predictive marker in the luminal subgroup. ..

More Information


  1. Jhavar S, Bartlett J, Kovacs G, Corbishley C, Dearnaley D, Eeles R, et al. Biopsy tissue microarray study of Ki-67 expression in untreated, localized prostate cancer managed by active surveillance. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009;12:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ki-67 LI merits further study as a possible biomarker of early prostate cancer behaviour. ..
  2. Wiesner F, Magener A, Fasching P, Wesse J, Bani M, Rauh C, et al. Ki-67 as a prognostic molecular marker in routine clinical use in breast cancer patients. Breast. 2009;18:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation of quality assurance for grading and of Ki-67 as a prognostic and predictive factor is warranted. ..
  3. Cheang M, Chia S, Voduc D, Gao D, Leung S, Snider J, et al. Ki67 index, HER2 status, and prognosis of patients with luminal B breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:736-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of ER, progesterone receptor, and HER2 proteins and the Ki67 index appear to distinguish luminal A from luminal B breast cancer subtypes. ..
  4. Karnes R, Cheville J, Ida C, Sebo T, Nair A, Tang H, et al. The ability of biomarkers to predict systemic progression in men with high-risk prostate cancer treated surgically is dependent on ERG status. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8994-9002 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, although patient numbers are small, the response to adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy is associated with ERG status, showing more significant treatment effect in ERG(+) patients. ..
  5. Tawfik K, Kimler B, Davis M, Fan F, Tawfik O. Ki-67 expression in axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer is prognostically significant. Hum Pathol. 2013;44:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of subgroups of patients in whom Ki-67 expression in lymph nodes differs from expression in primary tumor may assist in the selection of therapeutic options. ..
  6. Woo T, Okudela K, Yazawa T, Wada N, Ogawa N, Ishiwa N, et al. Prognostic value of KRAS mutations and Ki-67 expression in stage I lung adenocarcinomas. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..5% vs. 37.2% for stage II NSCLC, p=0.577). The combined use of KRAS status and Ki-67 expression level could be an excellent prognostic marker to predict the post-operative recurrence of stage I ADC. ..
  7. Khor L, Bae K, Paulus R, Al Saleem T, Hammond M, Grignon D, et al. MDM2 and Ki-67 predict for distant metastasis and mortality in men treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation for prostate cancer: RTOG 92-02. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSION Combined MDM2 and Ki-67 expression levels were independently related to distant metastasis and mortality and, if validated, could be considered for risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in clinical trials. ..
  8. Tollefson M, Karnes R, Kwon E, Lohse C, Rangel L, Mynderse L, et al. Prostate cancer Ki-67 (MIB-1) expression, perineural invasion, and gleason score as biopsy-based predictors of prostate cancer mortality: the Mayo model. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of cellular proliferation and other biopsy-based features in the prediction of prostate cancer mortality...
  9. Romero Q, Bendahl P, Klintman M, Loman N, Ingvar C, Rydén L, et al. Ki67 proliferation in core biopsies versus surgical samples - a model for neo-adjuvant breast cancer studies. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:341 pubmed publisher
    ..0001, paired t-test). A significant difference between core biopsy and surgical sample proliferation values was observed despite no intervening therapy. Future neo-adjuvant breast cancer studies may have to take this into consideration. ..
  10. Inwald E, Klinkhammer Schalke M, Hofstadter F, Zeman F, Koller M, Gerstenhauer M, et al. Ki-67 is a prognostic parameter in breast cancer patients: results of a large population-based cohort of a cancer registry. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;139:539-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work should focus on standardization of Ki-67 assessment and specification of its role in treatment decisions. ..
  11. Denkert C, Loibl S, Müller B, Eidtmann H, Schmitt W, Eiermann W, et al. Ki67 levels as predictive and prognostic parameters in pretherapeutic breast cancer core biopsies: a translational investigation in the neoadjuvant GeparTrio trial. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:2786-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The experience with Ki67 could provide important information regarding the development and implementation of other quantitative biomarkers. ..
  12. Klintman M, Bendahl P, Grabau D, Lövgren K, Malmström P, Fernö M. The prognostic value of Ki67 is dependent on estrogen receptor status and histological grade in premenopausal patients with node-negative breast cancer. Mod Pathol. 2010;23:251-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, Ki67, as an easily assessed and reproducible proliferation factor, may be an alternative or complement to histological grade as a prognostic tool and for selection of adjuvant treatment. ..
  13. Walts A, Ines D, Marchevsky A. Limited role of Ki-67 proliferative index in predicting overall short-term survival in patients with typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:1258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings do not provide best evidence for the routine use of Ki-67 index to prognosticate overall short-term survival in patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors...
  14. Kashiwagi S, Yashiro M, Takashima T, Aomatsu N, Ikeda K, Ogawa Y, et al. Advantages of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with triple-negative breast cancer at Stage II: usefulness of prognostic markers E-cadherin and Ki67. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R122 pubmed publisher
    ..Adjuvant therapy is beneficial for Stage II TNBC patients. The combination of E-cadherin and Ki67 status might be a useful prognostic marker indicating the need for adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage II TNBC patients. ..
  15. Jones R, Salter J, A Hern R, Nerurkar A, Parton M, Reis Filho J, et al. The prognostic significance of Ki67 before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;116:53-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-chemotherapy Ki67 is a strong predictor of outcome for patients not achieving a pathological complete response. ..
  16. Keam B, Im S, Lee K, Han S, Oh D, Kim J, et al. Ki-67 can be used for further classification of triple negative breast cancer into two subtypes with different response and prognosis. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R22 pubmed publisher
    ..High proliferation index Ki-67 can be used for further classification of TNBC into two subtypes with different responses and prognosis. ..
  17. Delpech Y, Wu Y, Hess K, Hsu L, Ayers M, Natowicz R, et al. Ki67 expression in the primary tumor predicts for clinical benefit and time to progression on first-line endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;135:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Low Ki67 expression in the primary tumor is associated with higher clinical benefit and longer time to progression on first-line endocrine therapy and longer survival after metastatic recurrence. ..
  18. Klimowicz A, Bose P, Nakoneshny S, Dean M, Huang L, Chandarana S, et al. Basal Ki67 expression measured by digital image analysis is optimal for prognostication in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:2166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that rigorous comparisons of measurement approaches should be applied in a tumour-type and treatment-specific manner to enhance the clinical application of Ki67 assessment. ..
  19. Rosa F, Caldeira J, Felipes J, Bertonha F, Quevedo F, Domingues M, et al. Evaluation of estrogen receptor alpha and beta and progesterone receptor expression and correlation with clinicopathologic factors and proliferative marker Ki-67 in breast cancers. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:720-30 pubmed publisher
    ..0208). In ER-alpha-negative tumors, we detected a correlation between ER-beta protein expression and high levels of Ki-67. These data suggest that ER-beta could be a prognostic marker in human breast cancer. ..
  20. Jalava P, Kuopio T, Juntti Patinen L, Kotkansalo T, Kronqvist P, Collan Y. Ki67 immunohistochemistry: a valuable marker in prognostication but with a risk of misclassification: proliferation subgroups formed based on Ki67 immunoreactivity and standardized mitotic index. Histopathology. 2006;48:674-82 pubmed
    ..Bcl-2 negativity and p53 positivity correlated with proliferation. We have found a 'wrong positive' Ki67 group with favourable prognosis. SMI cannot be replaced by Ki67 because of the danger of misclassification of some patients. ..
  21. Rahmanzadeh R, Huttmann G, Gerdes J, Scholzen T. Chromophore-assisted light inactivation of pKi-67 leads to inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis. Cell Prolif. 2007;40:422-30 pubmed
    ..Our data presented here argue for a crucial role of pKi-67 in RNA polymerase I-dependent nucleolar rRNA synthesis. ..
  22. Schluter C, Duchrow M, Wohlenberg C, Becker M, Key G, Flad H, et al. The cell proliferation-associated antigen of antibody Ki-67: a very large, ubiquitous nuclear protein with numerous repeated elements, representing a new kind of cell cycle-maintaining proteins. J Cell Biol. 1993;123:513-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the Ki-67 antigen defines a new category of cell cycle-associated nuclear nonhistone proteins. ..
  23. Bullwinkel J, Baron Luhr B, Lüdemann A, Wohlenberg C, Gerdes J, Scholzen T. Ki-67 protein is associated with ribosomal RNA transcription in quiescent and proliferating cells. J Cell Physiol. 2006;206:624-35 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest a role for pKi-67 in the early steps of rRNA synthesis. ..
  24. MacCallum D, Hall P. Biochemical characterization of pKi67 with the identification of a mitotic-specific form associated with hyperphosphorylation and altered DNA binding. Exp Cell Res. 1999;252:186-98 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that pKi67 localization is regulated by the action of cell cycle-specific kinase(s) and phosphatase(s). The data presented here provide a starting point for the analysis of pKi67 function and regulation. ..
  25. Takagi M, Sueishi M, Saiwaki T, Kametaka A, Yoneda Y. A novel nucleolar protein, NIFK, interacts with the forkhead associated domain of Ki-67 antigen in mitosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25386-91 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a new clue to our understanding of the cellular function of pKi-67. ..
  26. Kametaka A, Takagi M, Hayakawa T, Haraguchi T, Hiraoka Y, Yoneda Y. Interaction of the chromatin compaction-inducing domain (LR domain) of Ki-67 antigen with HP1 proteins. Genes Cells. 2002;7:1231-42 pubmed
    ..Marsupial chmadrin and human pKi-67 induce chromatin compaction across species, possibly via the interaction of its LR domain with HP1. ..
  27. Couture C, Raybaud Diogène H, Tetu B, Bairati I, Murry D, Allard J, et al. p53 and Ki-67 as markers of radioresistance in head and neck carcinoma. Cancer. 2002;94:713-22 pubmed
    ..Prospective studies are now needed to confirm these results and to define better the role of these markers in the management of patients with head and neck carcinoma. ..
  28. Gerdes J, Li L, Schlueter C, Duchrow M, Wohlenberg C, Gerlach C, et al. Immunobiochemical and molecular biologic characterization of the cell proliferation-associated nuclear antigen that is defined by monoclonal antibody Ki-67. Am J Pathol. 1991;138:867-73 pubmed
    ..This cDNA fragment could be bacterially expressed, and in subsequent immunoblot analysis Ki-67 reacted exclusively with those fusion proteins that were derived from bacteria containing the insert in the right reading frame. ..
  29. Gurgel C, Ramos E, Azevedo R, Sarmento V, da Silva Carvalho A, dos Santos J. Expression of Ki-67, p53 and p63 proteins in keratocyst odontogenic tumours: an immunohistochemical study. J Mol Histol. 2008;39:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67, p53 and p63 in Keratocyst Odontogenic Tumours (KOTs) in order to contribute to the biological profile of this tumor...
  30. Landberg G, Roos G. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 antigen expression in human haematopoietic cells during growth stimulation and differentiation. Cell Prolif. 1993;26:427-37 pubmed
    ..The Ki-67 antigen was also studied during different stages of G1 and was found to be expressed at high levels in early G1 cells compared with other parts of G1. ..
  31. Liu L, Xu W, Wu X, Zhao P, Lv Y, Chen L. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase II and Ki-67 proteins in prognosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:2473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..CA II and Ki-67 are significant prognostic factors for GISTs. CA II associated with neovascular endothelia could serve as a potential target for cancer therapy. ..
  32. Li B, Zhao X, Dai S, Cheng W. Associations between mammography and ultrasound imaging features and molecular characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:3555-9 pubmed
    ..A worse prognosis was associated with spiculated margin and intensive posterior echoes with spotty flow imaging. ..
  33. Liu S, Staats P, Goicochea L, Alexiev B, Shah N, Dixon R, et al. Automated quantification of Ki-67 proliferative index of excised neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Diagn Pathol. 2014;9:174 pubmed publisher
    ..LCNEC is biologically different from AC and TC, with a much more aggressive course, and a high Ki-67 index. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: ..
  34. Zhang Y, Dai J, McNamara K, Bai B, Shi M, Chan M, et al. Prognostic significance of proline, glutamic acid, leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) in triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective study on 129 cases. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:699 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that PELP1/Ki-67 double high expression in tumors is an independent prognostic factor for predicting a poor outcome for patients with TNBC. ..
  35. Wirtz R, Sihto H, Isola J, Heikkila P, Kellokumpu Lehtinen P, Auvinen P, et al. Biological subtyping of early breast cancer: a study comparing RT-qPCR with immunohistochemistry. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016;157:437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings based on MKI67 mRNA content suggest that patients with luminal B cancer benefit more from docetaxel-FEC than from vinorelbine-FEC. ..
  36. Meulener M, Ayli E, Elenitsas R, Seykora J. Decreased Srcasm expression in hyperproliferative cutaneous lesions. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased Srcasm protein levels are detected in keratinocytes undergoing differentiation. Decreased Srcasm levels may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanism in cutaneous lesions, exhibiting keratinocyte hyperproliferation. ..
  37. Zhang S, Zeng N, Alowayed N, Singh Y, Cheng A, Lang F, et al. Downregulation of endometrial mesenchymal marker SUSD2 causes cell senescence and cell death in endometrial carcinoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183681 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that SUSD2 counteracts senescence and cell death and is thus a potential chemotherapeutic target in human endometrial cancer. ..
  38. Kaya B, Nayki U, Nayki C, Uluğ P, Oner G, Gultekin E, et al. Proliferation of trophoblasts and Ki67 expression in preeclampsia. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;291:1041-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the opinion that trophoblasts undergo regeneration hyperplasia as a result of injuries arising on the villous surface in preeclampsia. Proliferation of trophoblasts may contribute the development of preeclampsia. ..
  39. Moschovi M, Koultouki E, Stefanaki K, Sfakianos G, Tourkantoni N, Prodromou N, et al. Prognostic significance of angiogenesis in relation to Ki-67, p-53, p-27, and bcl-2 expression in embryonal tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2011;47:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In AT/RTs, high density of new vessels (>25 HRF) was observed in 3 patients and Ki-67 index over 25% was found in 4 patients. Increased Ki-67, bcl-2 and density of new vessels are of prognostic value for the disease outcome in MB. ..
  40. Kanthiya K, Khunnarong J, Tangjitgamol S, Puripat N, Tanvanich S. Expression of the p16 and Ki67 in Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:3201-6 pubmed
    ..The two markers had high sensitivity and specificity in determining >CIN2. ..
  41. Laible M, Schlombs K, Kaiser K, Veltrup E, Herlein S, Lakis S, et al. Technical validation of an RT-qPCR in vitro diagnostic test system for the determination of breast cancer molecular subtypes by quantification of ERBB2, ESR1, PGR and MKI67 mRNA levels from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor specimens. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:398 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, MammaTyper may serve as a technical improvement to current standards for decentralized FFPE-based routine assessment of the commonly used breast cancer biomarkers and for molecular subtyping of breast cancer specimens. ..
  42. Tökés A, Szász A, Geszti F, Lukács L, Kenessey I, Turányi E, et al. Expression of proliferation markers Ki67, cyclin A, geminin and aurora-kinase A in primary breast carcinomas and corresponding distant metastases. J Clin Pathol. 2015;68:274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Ki67 could possibly identify a group of MBCs that develop early DMs. ..
  43. Tokarz P, Piastowska Ciesielska A, Kaarniranta K, Blasiak J. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Modulates DNA Damage Response and the Expression of the VEGF-A and MKI67 Genes in ARPE-19 Cells Subjected to Oxidative Stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ATRA can modulate some properties of these cells, including neovascularization, which is associated with the exudative form of AMD. Therefore, ATRA can be important in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of AMD. ..
  44. Tretiakova M, Wei W, Boyer H, Newcomb L, Hawley S, Auman H, et al. Prognostic value of Ki67 in localized prostate carcinoma: a multi-institutional study of >1000 prostatectomies. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2016;19:264-70 pubmed publisher
    ..03, P=0.03). In localized PC treated by radical prostatectomy, higher Ki67 PI assessed using a clinical grade automated algorithm is strongly associated with a higher GS, stage, SVI and ECE and greater probability of recurrence. ..
  45. Hu H, Liu H, Zhang J, Hu K, Lin Y. Clinical significance of Smac and Ki-67 expression in pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59:2640-3 pubmed
    ..05). The higher expression of Smac and Ki-67 appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. Combined detection of these proteins may improve the prognostic evaluation of this disease. ..
  46. Li H, Zhou G, Fu X, Zhang L. Antigen expression of human eccrine sweat glands. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..EGF receptor (EGFR) was expressed in the ducts. Human eccrine sweat glands express CK7, CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19, CEA, EMA, Ki67, p63, EGF and EGFR. In skin, CEA can be used as a specific immunological marker of sweat glands. ..
  47. Desmeules P, Hovington H, Nguilé Makao M, Léger C, Caron A, Lacombe L, et al. Comparison of digital image analysis and visual scoring of KI-67 in prostate cancer prognosis after prostatectomy. Diagn Pathol. 2015;10:67 pubmed publisher
    ..The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: ..
  48. Xue D, Zuo K, Li X, Zhang T, Chen H, Cheng Y, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of livin, caspase-3, and ki-67 in the progression of human ampullary carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013;21:525-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that livin may be a valuable prognostic factor for human ampullary carcinoma. ..
  49. Hoevenaars B, van der Avoort I, de Wilde P, Massuger L, Melchers W, De Hullu J, et al. A panel of p16(INK4A), MIB1 and p53 proteins can distinguish between the 2 pathways leading to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2767-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both pathways leading to vulvar SCC have their own immunohistochemical profile, which can be used to distinguish the 2 types of VIN, but cannot explain differences in malignant potential. ..
  50. Demiralay E, Altaca G, Demirhan B. Morphological evaluation of parathyroid adenomas and immunohistochemical analysis of PCNA and Ki-67 proliferation markers. Turk Patoloji Derg. 2011;27:215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The chief cell was identified as the predominant cell type. It can be concluded that parathyroid adenomas come into existence as a result of neoplastic proliferation of chief cells, especially vacuolated chief cells. ..
  51. Kosmas K, Stamoulas M, Marouga A, Kavantzas N, Patsouris E, Athanassiadou P. Expression of Ki-67 as proliferation biomarker in imprint smears of endometrial carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2013;41:212-7 pubmed publisher
    ..High Ki-67 expression correlates with morphologic features of aggressiveness and the expression pattern of Ki-67 correspond to the expected cyclic/atrophic pattern in normal endometrium. ..
  52. Iemelynova A, Grygorenko V, Cheremuha S, Romanenko A. Correlation between histological type and immunohistochemical profile of prostate cancer and gleason scale gradation. Exp Oncol. 2009;31:246-9 pubmed
    ..Obtained results showed the direct correlation between patients' Gleason scale, and the expression level of p53, p16INK4a, Bcl-2 proteins and, particularly, Ki67 marker of proliferating cells in PC tumor cells. ..
  53. Wentzensen N, Schwartz L, Zuna R, Smith K, Mathews C, Gold M, et al. Performance of p16/Ki-67 immunostaining to detect cervical cancer precursors in a colposcopy referral population. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:4154-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to evaluate p16/Ki-67 as triage marker in HPV-based screening strategies. ..
  54. Szentkúti G, Dános K, Brauswetter D, Kiszner G, Krenács T, Csákó L, et al. Correlations between prognosis and regional biomarker profiles in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Pathol Oncol Res. 2015;21:643-50 pubmed publisher
  55. Apostolou G, Apostolou N, Biteli M, Kavantzas N, Patsouris E, Athanassiadou P. Utility of Ki-67, p53, Bcl-2, and Cox-2 biomarkers for low-grade endometrial cancer and disordered proliferative/benign hyperplastic endometrium by imprint cytology. Diagn Cytopathol. 2014;42:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunocytochemistry appeared to be useful also for the correlation between LG-ENEC and FIGO stage. ..
  56. Madsen H, Borges T, Knox A, Michaelis K, Xu M, Lillehei K, et al. Giant pituitary adenomas: pathologic-radiographic correlations and lack of role for p53 and MIB-1 labeling. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:1204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray profiling validates the IHC impression that MIB-1 and p53 IHC do not correlate with aggressive features in the most common type of giant adenoma. ..
  57. Zatonski T, Ciesielska U, Nowińska K, Ratajczak Wielgomas K, Kobierzycki C, Pula B, et al. Expression of Cell Cycle-Related Proteins p16, p27, p53 and Ki-67 in HPV-positive and -negative Samples of Papillomas of the Upper Respiratory Tract. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:3917-24 pubmed
    ..HPV infection of the upper respiratory tract may influence the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, that could indicate its possible role in the process of malignant transformation. ..
  58. Huang L, Jiang T, Yuan F, Li G, Cui Y, Liu E, et al. Correlation of chromosomes 1p and 19q status and expressions of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p53 and Ki-67 in diffuse gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III: a clinicopathological study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2009;35:367-79 pubmed publisher
  59. Miralpeix E, Solé Sedeño J, Mancebo G, Lloveras B, Bellosillo B, Carreras R, et al. Value of p16(INK4a) and Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Staining in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 Biopsies as Biomarkers for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 in Cone Results. Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol. 2016;38:1-8 pubmed
    ..68, 95% CI 1.07-6.72, respectively). Patients with HSIL in the previous cytology and Ki-67 cell expression over 50% in their CIN2 biopsies could be considered in need of treatment by cone for their higher risk of underlying CIN3 lesions. ..
  60. Xing F, Su H, Yang L. An integrated framework for automatic Ki-67 scoring in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2013;16:436-43 pubmed
    ..The automatic Ki-67 score is very accurate compared with pathologists' estimation. ..
  61. Sanvito L, Tomita A, Chihara N, Okamoto T, Lin Y, Ogawa M, et al. Increase of Ki-67+ natural killer cells in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-? and interferon-? combined with low-dose oral steroids. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;236:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study, although limited, shows that treatment with IFN-? affects NK cell cycle without altering NK cell apoptosis in MS patients. ..
  62. Stalinska L, Turant M, Tosik D, Sygut J, Kulig A, Kopczynski J, et al. Analysis of pRb, p16INK4A proteins and proliferating antigens: PCNA, Ki-67 and MCM5 expression in aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor). Histol Histopathol. 2009;24:299-308 pubmed publisher
    ..The noted levels of pRb and p16 expression in desmoid cells reflect their function in cell cycle regulation. Probably the unsettled cell cycle progression, especially in G1 phase, is not the cause of aggressive fibromatosis pathogenesis...
  63. Fujioka S, Shomori K, Nishihara K, Yamaga K, Nosaka K, Araki K, et al. Expression of minichromosome maintenance 7 (MCM7) in small lung adenocarcinomas (pT1): Prognostic implication. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MCM7 is an independent prognostic marker, being more reliable than MCM2 or Ki-67 in human pT1 ACs as well as in human stage I ACs. ..
  64. Zhao X, Liu X, Guo W, Li X. [Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in NSCLC and its relationship with VEGF and Ki67 expression]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2010;13:861-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of CAIX was also correlated with the objective response rate of radiotherapy, which provided new evidence about that hypoxia can increase NSCLC radiotherapy resistance. ..
  65. Swiderska Chadaj Z, Markiewicz T, Grala B, Lorent M. Content-based analysis of Ki-67 stained meningioma specimens for automatic hot-spot selection. Diagn Pathol. 2016;11:93 pubmed
    ..The presented results have confirmed that the automatic examination of Ki-67 in meningiomas could be introduced in the near future. ..
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    ..The present findings support the clinical relevance of these markers in bladder cancer. ..
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    ..Determination of Ki-67 expression in ureteroscopic biopsy specimens is potentially helpful in clinical decision making for patients with suspected upper urinary tract UC. ..
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    ..22; 95% CI: 1.47-7.03; P=0.003). None of the nine markers were predictive of invasive recurrence. Women with a HER2/neu/neu+/Ki67+ DCIS have a higher risk of developing DCIS local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery. ..
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