KCNN2

Summary

Gene Symbol: KCNN2
Description: potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 2
Alias: KCa2.2, SK2, SKCA2, SKCa 2, hSK2, small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 2, apamin-sensitive small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel, potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 2, potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 2, small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 2
Species: human
Products:     KCNN2

Top Publications

  1. Rimini R, Rimland J, Terstappen G. Quantitative expression analysis of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, SK1, SK2 and SK3, in human brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000;85:218-20 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we report the first quantitative analysis of SK1, SK2 and SK3 expression in human brain using TaqMan RT-PCR on a range of human brain and peripheral tissue samples...
  2. Xu Y, Tuteja D, Zhang Z, Xu D, Zhang Y, Rodriguez J, et al. Molecular identification and functional roles of a Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in human and mouse hearts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49085-94 pubmed
    ..We confirmed the presence of a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel subtype (SK2) in human and mouse cardiac myocytes using Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain ..
  3. Lu L, Zhang Q, Timofeyev V, Zhang Z, Young J, Shin H, et al. Molecular coupling of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel to L-type Ca2+ channels via alpha-actinin2. Circ Res. 2007;100:112-20 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that a small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK2 channel), present in a variety of cells, where they integrate changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)(..
  4. Li N, Timofeyev V, Tuteja D, Xu D, Lu L, Zhang Q, et al. Ablation of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (SK2 channel) results in action potential prolongation in atrial myocytes and atrial fibrillation. J Physiol. 2009;587:1087-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported the functional existence of SK2 channels in human and mouse cardiac myocytes...
  5. Deng Y, Han X, Tang S, Xiao W, Tan Z, Zhou C, et al. Magnolol and honokiol regulate the calcium-activated potassium channels signaling pathway in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;755:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..further, upregulated the CaM, BKα1 and BKβ3 mRNA levels but downregulated the IP3 receptors 1, PKC, SK1, SK2, SK3, SK4 and BKβ4 mRNA expressions...
  6. Cao Y, Liang L, Cheng B, Dong Y, Wei J, Tian X, et al. Pretreatment with NaCl Promotes the Seed Germination of White Clover by Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones, Metabolic Regulation, and Dehydrin-Encoded Genes Expression under Water Stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, NaCl-upregulated dehydrin-encoded genes SK2 expression could be another important mechanism of drought tolerance during seeds germination of white clover ..
  7. Kushwah N, Jain V, Dheer A, Kumar R, Prasad D, Khan N. Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment: Elucidating the Role of Small Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels. Neuroscience. 2018;388:418-429 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, SK2 channel expression showed gradual increase from 3 days till 14 days...
  8. Yu L, Wang S, Zhou X, Wang Z, Huang B, Liao K, et al. Chronic Intermittent Low-Level Stimulation of Tragus Reduces Cardiac Autonomic Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia Inducibility in a Post-Infarction Canine Model. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2016;2:330-339 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (NGF) protein was down-regulated, whereas the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type2 (SK2) protein was up-regulated in the LSG by chronic LL-TS...
  9. Authement M, Langlois L, Shepard R, Browne C, Lucki I, Kassis H, et al. A role for corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in the lateral habenula and its modulation by early-life stress. Sci Signal. 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..of maternal care exhibited increased intrinsic excitability, reduced GABAergic transmission, decreased abundance of SK2 channel protein, and increased activity of PKA, without any substantial changes in Crh or Crhr1 ..

More Information

Publications139 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ibrahim S, Dakik H, Vandier C, Chautard R, Paintaud G, Mazurier F, et al. Expression Profiling of Calcium Channels and Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Colorectal Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2019;11: pubmed publisher
    ..In proximal tumors, STIM2 and KCNN2 were upregulated while ORAI2 and TRPM6 were downregulated...
  2. Iosub R, Avitabile D, Grant L, Tsaneva Atanasova K, Kennedy H. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells. Biophys J. 2015;108:1003-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate...
  3. Cheng B, Li Z, Liang L, Cao Y, Zeng W, Zhang X, et al. The γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Alleviates Salt Stress Damage during Seeds Germination of White Clover Associated with Na⁺/K⁺ Transportation, Dehydrins Accumulation, and Stress-Related Genes Expression in White Clover. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..exogenous GABA significantly induced the accumulation of dehydrins and expression of genes encoding dehydrins (SK2, Y2K, Y2SK, and dehydrin b) in seedlings under salt stress...
  4. Bragança B, Oliveira Monteiro N, Ferreirinha F, Lima P, Faria M, Fontes Sousa A, et al. Ion Fluxes through KCa2 (SK) and Cav1 (L-type) Channels Contribute to Chronoselectivity of Adenosine A1 Receptor-Mediated Actions in Spontaneously Beating Rat Atria. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:45 pubmed publisher
    ..1/3.4 channels modulating atrial chronotropy, A1 receptors may additionally restrain KCa2/SK activation thereby compensating atrial inotropic depression by increasing the time available for Ca(2+) influx through Cav1 (L-type) channels. ..
  5. Tani K, Tabuchi K, Hara A. Hair Cell Loss Induced by Sphingosine and a Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor in the Rat Cochlea. Neurotox Res. 2016;29:35-46 pubmed
    ..Both Sk1 and Sk2 were expressed in the normal cochlea. CDDP activated Sk...
  6. Howarth F, Qureshi M, Jayaprakash P, Parekh K, Oz M, Dobrzynski H, et al. The Pattern of mRNA Expression Is Changed in Sinoatrial Node from Goto-Kakizaki Type 2 Diabetic Rat Heart. J Diabetes Res. 2018;2018:8454078 pubmed publisher
    ..1), Kcnk1 (TWIK1), Kcnk5 (K2P5.1), Kcnk6 (TWIK2), and Kcnn2 (SK2) whilst others were upregulated in GK-SAN: Ryr2 (RYR2) and Nppb (BNP)...
  7. Kim S, Kim B, Kim J, Roh K, Suh M, Jung J, et al. Electrogenic transport and K(+) ion channel expression by the human endolymphatic sac epithelium. Sci Rep. 2015;5:18110 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified K(+) channels involved in the electrogenic transport were KCNN2, KCNJ14, KCNK2, and KCNK6, and the K(+) transports via those channels are thought to play an important role in the ..
  8. Nojima H, Freeman C, Schuster R, Japtok L, Kleuser B, Edwards M, et al. Hepatocyte exosomes mediate liver repair and regeneration via sphingosine-1-phosphate. J Hepatol. 2016;64:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hepatocyte exosomes directly fuse with target hepatocytes and transfer neutral ceramidase and sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) causing increased synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) within target hepatocytes...
  9. Ewin S, Morgan J, Niere F, McMullen N, Barth S, Almonte A, et al. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Selectively Increases Synaptic Excitability in the Ventral Domain of the Rat Hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2019;398:144-157 pubmed publisher
    ..synaptoneurosomal fractions revealed that the expression of two proteins that regulate synaptic strength, GluA2 and SK2, were dysregulated in the vHC, but not the dHC, following CIE...
  10. Berthe W, Sevrain C, Chantôme A, Bouchet A, Gueguinou M, Fourbon Y, et al. New Disaccharide-Based Ether Lipids as SK3 Ion Channel Inhibitors. ChemMedChem. 2016;11:1531-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 2, which decreases the activity of SK3 channel (but not SK2 channel), is a new drug candidate to reduce cancer cell migration and to prevent bone metastasis.
  11. Chen J, Zhang C, Yang W, Cao Z, Li W, Chen Z, et al. SjAPI-2 is the first member of a new neurotoxin family with Ascaris-type fold and KCNQ1 inhibitory activity. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;79:504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, SKCa2, SKCa3, and IKCa channels...
  12. Pitman M, Powell J, Coolen C, Moretti P, Zebol J, Pham D, et al. A selective ATP-competitive sphingosine kinase inhibitor demonstrates anti-cancer properties. Oncotarget. 2015;6:7065-83 pubmed
    ..MP-A08 is a highly selective ATP competitive SK inhibitor that targets both SK1 and SK2. MP-A08 blocks pro-proliferative signalling pathways, induces mitochondrial-associated apoptosis in a SK-dependent ..
  13. Saeki T, Kimura T, Hashidume K, Murayama T, Yamamura H, Ohya S, et al. Conversion of Ca2+ oscillation into propagative electrical signals by Ca2+-activated ion channels and connexin as a reconstituted Ca2+ clock model for the pacemaker activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019;510:242-247 pubmed publisher
    ..e. small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (SK2) or Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (TMEM16A), and connexin43 being heterologously co-expressed...
  14. Tatsuki F, Sunagawa G, Shi S, Susaki E, Yukinaga H, Perrin D, et al. Involvement of Ca(2+)-Dependent Hyperpolarization in Sleep Duration in Mammals. Neuron. 2016;90:70-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that impaired Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (Kcnn2 and Kcnn3), voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (Cacna1g and Cacna1h), or Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases (Camk2a ..
  15. Park E, Lee T, Oh Y, Lee J, Shrestha J, Hong S, et al. Synthesis of dansyl labeled sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor. Chem Phys Lipids. 2018;215:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..3 nM and 130-fold selectivity for SK1 over SK2. Since the development of PF-543, animal studies demonstrated its valuable role in multiple sclerosis, myocardial ..
  16. Mancini G, Panzica M, Fino D, Cappello S, Yakimov M, Luciano A. Feasibility of treating emulsified oily and salty wastewaters through coagulation and bio-regenerated GAC filtration. J Environ Manage. 2017;203:817-824 pubmed publisher
    ..1-0.3 kg/m3 of treated effluent. Moreover, biological regeneration through Alcalinovorax borkumensis SK2 was proved to be a cost-effective procedure since the reuse of spent GAC through such regeneration process for ..
  17. Nam Y, Orfali R, Liu T, Yu K, Cui M, Wulff H, et al. Structural insights into the potency of SK channel positive modulators. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17178 pubmed publisher
    ..their binding site calculated from the crystal structures, and the potency of these compounds in potentiating the SK2 channel current determined by electrophysiological recordings...
  18. Lizarraga S, Morrow E. Uncovering a Role for SK2 in Angelman Syndrome. Cell Rep. 2015;12:359-60 pubmed publisher
    Angelman syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in UBE3A. Sun et al. (2015) report SK2 as a UBE3A substrate and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that might underlie impaired neuronal function in ..
  19. Laurenzana A, Cencetti F, Serratì S, Bruno G, Japtok L, Bianchini F, et al. Endothelial sphingosine kinase/SPNS2 axis is critical for vessel-like formation by human mesoangioblasts. J Mol Med (Berl). 2015;93:1145-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the S1P biosynthetic pathway brought about by sphingosine kinases (SK) SK1 and SK2 as well as spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) transporter in H-MVEC is crucial for MAB migration measured by Boyden ..
  20. Li H, Tan Y, Liu S, Li L. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Oppositely Charged Hydrogels with Super Strong Interface Bonding. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018;10:11164-11174 pubmed publisher
    ..A good cell viability of >96% is obtained for the 3D-bioprinted Kca-GelMA construct. This novel strategy has a great potential for 3D bioprinting of layered constructs with a strong interface bonding. ..
  21. Greig F, Nather K, Ballantyne M, Kazi Z, Alganga H, Ewart M, et al. Requirement for sphingosine kinase 1 in mediating phase 1 of the hypotensive response to anandamide in the anaesthetised mouse. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019;842:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in control C57BL/6 mice and in mice pretreated with selective inhibitors of SK1 (BML-258, also known as SK1-I) or SK2 ((R)-FTY720 methylether (ROMe), a dual SK1/2 inhibitor (SKi) or an S1P1 receptor antagonist (W146)...
  22. Bajorat R, Porath K, Kühn J, Goßla E, Goerss D, Sellmann T, et al. Oral administration of the casein kinase 2 inhibitor TBB leads to persistent KCa2.2 channel up-regulation in the epileptic CA1 area and cortex, but lacks anti-seizure efficacy in the pilocarpine epilepsy model. Epilepsy Res. 2018;147:42-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our findings indicate that oral administration of TBB leads to persistent up-regulation of KCa2.2 in the epileptic CA1 subfield and in the neocortex, but lacks anti-seizure efficacy in the pilocarpine epilepsy model. ..
  23. Sun J, Zhu G, Liu Y, Standley S, Ji A, Tunuguntla R, et al. UBE3A Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning and Memory by Controlling SK2 Channel Endocytosis. Cell Rep. 2015;12:449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..While there is a wealth of information on SK2 gating, kinetics, and Ca(2+) sensitivity, little is known regarding the regulation of SK2 subcellular localization...
  24. Honrath B, Krabbendam I, Culmsee C, Dolga A. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in the plasma membrane, mitochondria and the ER: Pharmacology and implications in neuronal diseases. Neurochem Int. 2017;109:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..the opening of these channels through binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin that is constitutively bound to the SK2 C-terminus...
  25. Qi X, Diness J, Brundel B, Zhou X, Naud P, Wu C, et al. Role of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in atrial electrophysiology and fibrillation in the dog. Circulation. 2014;129:430-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SK2 expression was more abundant at both mRNA and protein levels for PV versus LA in control dogs, in both control and ..
  26. Ogundele O, Ebenezer P, Lee C, Francis J. Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKII? expression in neural changes associated with a prolonged exposure therapy. Neuroscience. 2017;353:147-165 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we highlighted some of the possible links between IGF1/IGF-1R/CaMKII?, the expression of DAMP proteins, Microglia activation, and its implication on synaptic plasticity during stress and PET. ..
  27. Konieczna M, Olzog M, Naether D, Chrzanowski Ł, Heipieper H. Membrane Fatty Acid Composition and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Marine Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 Grown on Diesel, Biodiesel and Rapeseed Oil as Carbon Sources. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    ..Such fast adaptation may increase resilience of A. borkumensis and allow them to strive and maintain populations in more complex hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities. ..
  28. Ma T, Zhou L, Wang Y, Qin S, Zhang Y, Hu B, et al. A selective M1 and M3 receptor antagonist, penehyclidine hydrochloride, prevents postischemic LTP: involvement of NMDA receptors. Synapse. 2013;67:865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings further showed that the inhibition of SK2 channels occluded the prevention of PHC on NMDAR activation...
  29. Liu C, Hua N, Fu X, Pan Y, Li B, Li X. Metformin regulates atrial SK2 and SK3 expression through inhibiting the PKC/ERK signaling pathway in type 2 diabetic rats. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018;18:236 pubmed publisher
    ..metformin regulates the mRNA and protein levels of type 2 small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK2) and type 3 small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK3) in atrial tissue as well as the ion ..
  30. Wang K, Kelley M, Wu W, Adelman J, Maylie J. Apamin Boosting of Synaptic Potentials in CaV2.3 R-Type Ca2+ Channel Null Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139332 pubmed publisher
    b>SK2- and KV4.2-containing K+ channels modulate evoked synaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
  31. Kim G, Luján R, Schwenk J, Kelley M, Aguado C, Watanabe M, et al. Membrane palmitoylated protein 2 is a synaptic scaffold protein required for synaptic SK2-containing channel function. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    Mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons express apamin-sensitive SK2-containing channels in the post-synaptic membrane, positioned close to NMDA-type (N-methyl-D-aspartate) glutamate receptors...
  32. Mourre C, Manrique C, Camon J, Aidi Knani S, Deltheil T, Turle Lorenzo N, et al. Changes in SK channel expression in the basal ganglia after partial nigrostriatal dopamine lesions in rats: Functional consequences. Neuropharmacology. 2017;113:519-532 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ hybridization of SK2 and SK3 mRNA and binding of iodinated apamin (SK2/SK3 blocker) were performed at 1, 8 or 21 days postsurgery in ..
  33. Yang D, Wang T, Ni Y, Song B, Ning F, Hu P, et al. Apamin-Sensitive K+ Current Upregulation in Volume-Overload Heart Failure is Associated with the Decreased Interaction of CK2 with SK2. J Membr Biol. 2015;248:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In HF rat left ventricle, SK3 was increased by 100 % (P < 0.05), and SK2 was not significantly changed. PP2A protein was increased by 94.7 % in HF rats (P < 0...
  34. Neubauer H, Tea M, Zebol J, Gliddon B, Stefanidis C, Moretti P, et al. Cytoplasmic dynein regulates the subcellular localization of sphingosine kinase 2 to elicit tumor-suppressive functions in glioblastoma. Oncogene. 2019;38:1151-1165 pubmed publisher
    While the two mammalian sphingosine kinases, SK1 and SK2, both catalyze the generation of pro-survival sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), their roles vary dependent on their different subcellular localization...
  35. Adams D, Pyne S, Pyne N. Sphingosine Kinases: Emerging Structure-Function Insights. Trends Biochem Sci. 2016;41:395-409 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) catalyse the conversion of sphingosine into sphingosine 1-phosphate and control fundamental cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and immune function...
  36. Neubauer H, Pitson S. Validation of commercially available sphingosine kinase 2 antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. F1000Res. 2016;5:2825 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) is a ubiquitously expressed lipid kinase that has important, albeit complex and poorly understood, roles in regulating cell survival and cell death...
  37. Fu X, Pan Y, Cao Q, Li B, Wang S, Du H, et al. Metformin restores electrophysiology of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the atrium of GK diabetic rats. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018;18:63 pubmed publisher
    ..In the atrial myocytes from control, GK and metformin-treated GK rats, the expression of KCa2.2 (SK2 channel) was down-regulated and the expression of KCa2...
  38. Fan X, Yu Y, Lan H, Ou X, Yang L, Li T, et al. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII) Increases Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Current in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation. Med Sci Monit. 2018;24:3011-3023 pubmed publisher
    ..to SR, the apamin-sensitive SK current (IKAS) was significantly increased, but the mRNA and protein levels of SK1, SK2, and SK3 were significantly decreased...
  39. Padula A, Griffin W, Lopez M, Nimitvilai S, Cannady R, McGuier N, et al. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40:1928-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice ..
  40. Bui L, Hoffmann P, Turnidge J, Zilm P, Kidd S. Prolonged growth of a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain selects for a stable small-colony-variant cell type. Infect Immun. 2015;83:470-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We focused our analysis on one strain, WCH-SK2. For bacterial survival in the host, the combination of low nutrients and the prolonged time frame forms a stress ..
  41. Jung E, Park B, Ahsan M, Kim J, Yun H, Choi K, et al. Production of ?-hydroxy palmitic acid using CYP153A35 and comparison of cytochrome P450 electron transfer system in vivo. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:10375-10384 pubmed
    ..Among them, CYP153As from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (CYP153A33), Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 (CYP153A13), and Gordonia alkanivorans (CYP153A35) were selected, and their specific activities and product yields ..
  42. Oliveira M, Skinner F, Arshadmansab M, Garcia I, Mello C, Knaus H, et al. Altered expression and function of small-conductance (SK) Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats. Brain Res. 2010;1348:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting analysis showed a significant reduction in the expression of SK1 and SK2 channels at 10days following status epilepticus (SE), but levels recovered at 1month and at more than 2months after ..
  43. Johnson S, Kuhn S, Franz C, Ingham N, Furness D, Knipper M, et al. Presynaptic maturation in auditory hair cells requires a critical period of sensory-independent spiking activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a mouse model in which the potassium channel SK2 is normally overexpressed, but can be modulated in vivo using doxycycline...
  44. Beyer S, Schwalm S, Pfeilschifter J, Huwiler A. Renal Mesangial Cells Isolated from Sphingosine Kinase 2 Transgenic Mice Show Reduced Proliferation and are More Sensitive to Stress-Induced Apoptosis. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;47:2522-2533 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated whether renal mesangial cells isolated from transgenic mice overexpressing the human Sphk2 gene (hSK2-tg) showed an altered cell response towards growth-inducing and apoptotic stimuli...
  45. Nam Y, Baskoylu S, Gazgalis D, Orfali R, Cui M, Hart A, et al. A V-to-F substitution in SK2 channels causes Ca2+ hypersensitivity and improves locomotion in a C. elegans ALS model. Sci Rep. 2018;8:10749 pubmed publisher
    ..V407F) in the intrinsically disordered fragment caused a ~6 fold increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of SK2-a channels...
  46. Matturro B, Frascadore E, Cappello S, Genovese M, Rossetti S. In situ detection of alkB2 gene involved in Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2(T) hydrocarbon biodegradation. Mar Pollut Bull. 2016;110:378-382 pubmed publisher
    ..in order to monitor alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB system) of the marine bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2(T) commonly reported as the predominant microorganism responsible for the biodegradation of n-alkanes which are the ..
  47. Neubauer H, Pham D, Zebol J, Moretti P, Peterson A, Leclercq T, et al. An oncogenic role for sphingosine kinase 2. Oncotarget. 2016;7:64886-64899 pubmed publisher
    While both human sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) catalyze the generation of the pleiotropic signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate, these enzymes appear to be functionally distinct...
  48. García Negredo G, Soto D, Llorente J, Morató X, Galenkamp K, Gómez Soler M, et al. Coassembly and coupling of SK2 channels and mGlu5 receptors. J Neurosci. 2014;34:14793-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mGlu5 receptors and SK2 channels coassemble in heterologous coexpression systems and in rat brain...
  49. Yu H, Sun C, Argraves K. Periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is attenuated in sphingosine kinase 1-deficient mice. J Periodontal Res. 2016;51:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..actinomycetemcomitans. The mRNA levels of SK1, SK2 and intracellular sphingolipid levels were quantified...
  50. Chandrahas V, Glinton K, Liang Z, Donahue D, Ploplis V, Castellino F. Direct Host Plasminogen Binding to Bacterial Surface M-protein in Pattern D Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes Is Required for Activation by Its Natural Coinherited SK2b Protein. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:18833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..domain sequences from different GAS strains suggest that SKs can be arranged into two clusters, SK1 and SK2, with a subdivision of SK2 into SK2a and SK2b...
  51. Hamšíková Z, Silaghi C, Rudolf I, Venclíková K, Mahríková L, Slovak M, et al. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:3897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries...
  52. Bruno M, Rizzo I, Romero Guevara R, Bernacchioni C, Cencetti F, Donati C, et al. Sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling axis mediates fibroblast growth factor 2-induced proliferation and survival of murine auditory neuroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:814-824 pubmed publisher
    ..S1P is intracellularly produced by sphingosine kinase (SK) 1 and SK2 and exerts many of its action consequently to its ligation to S1P specific receptors (S1PR), S1P1-5...
  53. Qin J, Kilkus J, Dawson G. The cross roles of sphingosine kinase 1/2 and ceramide glucosyltransferase in cell growth and death. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;500:597-602 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine-1-phosphate is synthesized by two sphingosine kinases, cytosolic SK1 and nuclear SK2 but SK2 expression was much higher than SK1in mouse skin fibroblasts...
  54. McNaughton M, Pitman M, Pitson S, Pyne N, Pyne S. Proteasomal degradation of sphingosine kinase 1 and inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors, SKi or ABC294640, induces growth arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:16663-75 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinases (two isoforms termed SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate...
  55. Yu X, Zhang F, Shi J. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane caused cognitive deficits by dysregulating SK2 channels and GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors in juvenile rat hippocampus. Neuropharmacology. 2018;141:66-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to understand whether small conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channel type2 (SK2) and subunit composition of AMPA receptors are altered and contribute to sevoflurane-induced metaplasticity...
  56. Yi F, Ling T, Lu T, Wang X, Li J, Claycomb W, et al. Down-regulation of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in diabetic mouse atria. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:7016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the expression of SK2 and SK3 isoforms was down-regulated by 85 and 92%, respectively, whereas that of SK1 was not changed...
  57. Hancock J, Weatherall K, Choisy S, James A, Hancox J, Marrion N. Selective activation of heteromeric SK channels contributes to action potential repolarization in mouse atrial myocytes. Heart Rhythm. 2015;12:1003-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Block by apamin displayed a sensitivity indicating that this current was carried by homomeric SK2 channels. Action potential duration was significantly prolonged by UCL1684, but not by apamin...
  58. Tang Y, Yang W, Wang Y, Gong Y, Jiang L, Lin L. Estrogen regulates the expression of small-conductance Ca-activated K+ channels in colonic smooth muscle cells. Digestion. 2015;91:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In a further experiment, muscle strips were preincubated with apamin before exposure to E2. The levels of the SK2 and SK3 protein expression in the colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were detected...
  59. Bougault C, El Jamal A, Briolay A, Mebarek S, Boutet M, Garraud T, et al. Involvement of sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathway in spondyloarthritis. Bone. 2017;103:150-158 pubmed publisher
    ..1±4.2?M, n=21) compared to healthy donors (1.6±0.9?M, n=12). In vitro, gene expression of SK1 and SK2 as well as their activity were increased during differentiation of primary murine chondrocytes and osteoblasts into ..
  60. Hsu J, Gore Panter S, Tchou G, Castel L, Lovano B, Moravec C, et al. Genetic Control of Left Atrial Gene Expression Yields Insights into the Genetic Susceptibility for Atrial Fibrillation. Circ Genom Precis Med. 2018;11:e002107 pubmed publisher
    ..trait loci, at PRRX1 (chromosome 1q24), SNRNP27 (1q24), CEP68 (2p14), FKBP7 (2q31), KCNN2 (5q22), FAM13B (5q31), CAV1 (7q31), ASAH1 (8p22), MYOZ1 (10q22), C11ORF45 (..
  61. Haugaard M, Hesselkilde E, Pehrson S, Carstensen H, Flethøj M, Præstegaard K, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels by NS8593 reveals atrial antiarrhythmic potential in horses. Heart Rhythm. 2015;12:825-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Subcellular distribution of SK isoform 2 (SK2) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy...
  62. Mizukami K, Yokoshiki H, Mitsuyama H, Watanabe M, Tenma T, Takada S, et al. Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current is upregulated via the phosphorylation of CaMKII in cardiac hypertrophy from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H1066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis of SK channel protein isoforms demonstrated that SK2 was significantly increased in SHRs compared with WKY rats (SK2/GAPDH: 0.66 ± 0.07 vs. 0.40 ± 0...
  63. Müller S, Guli X, Hey J, Einsle A, Pfanz D, Sudmann V, et al. Acute epileptiform activity induced by gabazine involves proteasomal rather than lysosomal degradation of KCa2.2 channels. Neurobiol Dis. 2018;112:79-84 pubmed publisher
    Voltage-independent, Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa2.2, previously named SK2) are typically activated during a train of action potentials, and hence, are powerful regulators of cellular excitability by ..
  64. Badarau E, Dilly S, Wouters J, Seutin V, Liégeois J. Chemical modifications of the N-methyl-laudanosine scaffold point to new directions for SK channels exploration. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014;24:5616-5620 pubmed publisher
    An asparagine or a histidine are present in a similar position in the outer pore region of SK2 and SK3 channels, respectively...
  65. Lu L, Sirish P, Zhang Z, Woltz R, Li N, Timofeyev V, et al. Regulation of gene transcription by voltage-gated L-type calcium channel, Cav1.3. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:4663-76 pubmed publisher
    ..3 channel and a small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (SK2), which we have documented to be highly expressed in human and mouse atrial myocytes...
  66. Grasselli G, He Q, Wan V, Adelman J, Ohtsuki G, Hansel C. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Spike Pauses in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells. Cell Rep. 2016;14:2546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2(-/-) mice) and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while ..
  67. Skibsbye L, Poulet C, Diness J, Bentzen B, Yuan L, Kappert U, et al. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contribute to action potential repolarization in human atria. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;103:156-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed higher transcript levels of SK2 and SK3 than that of the SK1 subtype in human atrial tissue...
  68. Aidi Knani S, Pezard L, Mpari B, Ben Hamida J, Sabatier J, Mourre C, et al. Correspondences between the binding characteristics of a non-natural peptide, Lei-Dab7, and the distribution of SK subunits in the rat central nervous system. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;752:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated a modified Leiurotoxin 1 (Lei-Dab7) that inhibits SK2 channels with a high selectivity...
  69. Wedemeyer C, Vattino L, Moglie M, Ballestero J, Maison S, Di Guilmi M, et al. A Gain-of-Function Mutation in the α9 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alters Medial Olivocochlear Efferent Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity. J Neurosci. 2018;38:3939-3954 pubmed publisher
    ..9α10 ionotropic cholinergic nicotinic receptor (nAChR), functionally coupled to calcium activated SK2 potassium channels...
  70. Zhou X, Zhou L, Wang S, Yu L, Wang Z, Huang B, et al. The Use of Noninvasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation to Inhibit Sympathetically Induced Sinus Node Acceleration: A Potential Therapeutic Approach for Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2016;27:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..At the end, SK2, c-fos, and NGF protein expression in RSG were examined in both groups...
  71. Pyne S, Adams D, Pyne N. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingosine kinases in health and disease: Recent advances. Prog Lipid Res. 2016;62:93-106 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinases (isoforms SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of a bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)...
  72. Gomis Pèrez C, Alaimo A, Fernandez Orth J, Alberdi A, Aivar Mateo P, Bernardo Seisdedos G, et al. An unconventional calmodulin-anchoring site within the AB module of Kv7.2 channels. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:3155-63 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence is reminiscent of the TW helix within the CaM C-lobe anchoring site of SK2 K(+) channels (also known as KCNN2)...
  73. Pyne N, McNaughton M, Boomkamp S, Macritchie N, Evangelisti C, Martelli A, et al. Role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors, sphingosine kinases and sphingosine in cancer and inflammation. Adv Biol Regul. 2016;60:151-159 pubmed publisher
    Sphingosine kinase (there are two isoforms, SK1 and SK2) catalyses the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid that can be released from cells to activate a family of G protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P1-5...
  74. Britten C, Garrett Mayer E, Chin S, Shirai K, Ogretmen B, Bentz T, et al. A Phase I Study of ABC294640, a First-in-Class Sphingosine Kinase-2 Inhibitor, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:4642-4650 pubmed publisher
    b>Purpose: Sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) regulate tumor growth by generating the mitogenic and proinflammatory lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)...
  75. Zhang M, Meng X, Zhang J, Cui M, Logothetis D. Molecular overlap in the regulation of SK channels by small molecules and phosphoinositides. Sci Adv. 2015;1:e1500008 pubmed
    ..PIP2) directly interacts with the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ 2-a (SK2-a) channel/calmodulin complex, serving as a critical element in the regulation of channel activity...
  76. Reher T, Wang Z, Hsueh C, Chang P, Pan Z, Kumar M, et al. Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current in Normal Rabbit Cardiac Purkinje Cells. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypotheses that subtype 2 SK (SK2) channel proteins and apamin-sensitive SK currents are abundantly present in PCs...
  77. Pyne N, Adams D, Pyne S. Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Autoimmune/Inflammatory Disease and the Development of Sphingosine Kinase 2 Inhibitors. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017;38:581-591 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this Opinion is to present a case for targeting sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) in autoimmune/inflammatory disease...
  78. Cho L, Alexandrou A, Torella R, Knafels J, Hobbs J, Taylor T, et al. An Intracellular Allosteric Modulator Binding Pocket in SK2 Ion Channels Is Shared by Multiple Chemotypes. Structure. 2018;26:533-544.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize a binding pocket situated at the intracellular interface of SK2 and calmodulin, which we show to be shared by multiple small-molecule chemotypes...
  79. Panneer Selvam S, De Palma R, Oaks J, Oleinik N, Peterson Y, Stahelin R, et al. Binding of the sphingolipid S1P to hTERT stabilizes telomerase at the nuclear periphery by allosterically mimicking protein phosphorylation. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra58 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the lysophospholipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), generated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2), bound hTERT at the nuclear periphery in human and mouse fibroblasts...
  80. Wang S, Zhou X, Huang B, Wang Z, Zhou L, Chen M, et al. Spinal cord stimulation suppresses atrial fibrillation by inhibiting autonomic remodeling. Heart Rhythm. 2016;13:274-81 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (NGF) were significantly up-regulated and small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel type 2 (SK2) was significantly down-regulated in the RAP group...
  81. Bui L, Kidd S. A full genomic characterization of the development of a stable Small Colony Variant cell-type by a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain. Infect Genet Evol. 2015;36:345-355 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus strain (WCH-SK2) by growing the cells with limiting conditions for a prolonged timeframe...
  82. Hassanshahian M, Bayat Z, Cappello S, Smedile F, Yakimov M. Comparison the effects of bioaugmentation versus biostimulation on marine microbial community by PCR-DGGE: A mesocosm scale. J Environ Sci (China). 2016;43:136-146 pubmed publisher
    ..nutrients (Biostimulating Mesocosm, BM), (2) inorganic nutrients and an inoculum of Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 (Single Bioaugmentation Mesocosm, SBM), (3) inorganic nutrients and inoculums of A...
  83. Matschke L, Rinné S, Snutch T, Oertel W, Dolga A, Decher N. Calcium-activated SK potassium channels are key modulators of the pacemaker frequency in locus coeruleus neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2018;88:330-341 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we found a transcriptional expression of SK1, SK2 and SK3 channels, SK2 was the predominantly expressed subunit in mouse LC neurons...
  84. Adada M, Canals D, Jeong N, Kelkar A, Hernandez Corbacho M, Pulkoski Gross M, et al. Intracellular sphingosine kinase 2-derived sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced ezrin-radixin-moesin phosphorylation and cancer cell invasion. FASEB J. 2015;29:4654-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, knocking down SK2 decreased ERM activation 2.5-fold...
  85. Sun M, Liu H, Xu H, Wang H, Wang X. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons. Neurochem Res. 2016;41:1982-92 pubmed publisher
    ..applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BK?1 and BK?3...
  86. Ye F, Hu Y, Yu W, Xie Z, Hu J, Cao Z, et al. The Scorpion Toxin Analogue BmKTX-D33H as a Potential Kv1.3 Channel-Selective Immunomodulator for Autoimmune Diseases. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8:115 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data indicate that BmKTX-D33H is a Kv1.3 channel-specific blocker. Finally, the remarkable selectivity of BmKTX-D33H highlights the great potential of evolutionary-guided peptide drug design in future studies. ..
  87. Honrath B, Matschke L, Meyer T, Magerhans L, Perocchi F, Ganjam G, et al. SK2 channels regulate mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:761-773 pubmed publisher
    ..respiration and complex I activity upon pharmacological activation and overexpression of mitochondrial SK2 channels resulting in reduced mitochondrial ROS formation...
  88. Schrecengost R, Keller S, Schiewer M, Knudsen K, Smith C. Downregulation of Critical Oncogenes by the Selective SK2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Hinders Prostate Cancer Progression. Mol Cancer Res. 2015;13:1591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..hallmark processes of cancer, making the enzymes that synthesize S1P, that is, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), important molecular targets for cancer drug development...
  89. Reid S, Tritsch S, Kota K, Chiang C, Dong L, Kenny T, et al. Sphingosine kinase 2 is a chikungunya virus host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015;4:e61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we identify sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) as a CHIKV host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex (VRC) during infection...
  90. Uranbileg B, Ikeda H, Kurano M, Enooku K, Sato M, Saigusa D, et al. Increased mRNA Levels of Sphingosine Kinases and S1P Lyase and Reduced Levels of S1P Were Observed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Association with Poorer Differentiation and Earlier Recurrence. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149462 pubmed publisher
    ..of SKs in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation and microvascular invasion, whereas a higher level of SK2 mRNA was a risk factor for intra- and extra-hepatic recurrence...
  91. Fang L, Wang X, Xi M, Liu T, Yin D. Assessing the ligand selectivity of sphingosine kinases using molecular dynamics and MM-PBSA binding free energy calculations. Mol Biosyst. 2016;12:1174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Sphingosine kinases (SKs) including SK1 and SK2 phosphorylate sphingosine to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and control the critical balance...
  92. Meyer C, Pauwels M, Briset L, Godé C, Salis P, Bourceaux A, et al. Potential preadaptation to anthropogenic pollution: evidence from a common quantitative trait locus for zinc and cadmium tolerance in metallicolous and nonmetallicolous accessions of Arabidopsis halleri. New Phytol. 2016;212:934-943 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic architecture of tolerance was investigated in a nonmetallicolous population (SK2) by using first backcross progeny obtained from crosses between SK2 and Arabidopsis lyrata petraea, a ..