Gene Symbol: JNK2
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
Alias: JNK-55, JNK2, JNK2A, JNK2ALPHA, JNK2B, JNK2BETA, PRKM9, SAPK, SAPK1a, p54a, p54aSAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase 9, Jun kinase, MAP kinase 9, MAPK 9, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2, c-Jun kinase 2, stress-activated protein kinase 1a, stress-activated protein kinase JNK2
Species: human
Products:     JNK2

Top Publications

  1. Whitmarsh A, Cavanagh J, Tournier C, Yasuda J, Davis R. A mammalian scaffold complex that selectively mediates MAP kinase activation. Science. 1998;281:1671-4 pubmed
    ..This scaffold protein selectively enhanced JNK activation by the MLK signaling pathway. These data establish that a mammalian scaffold protein can mediate activation of a MAP kinase signaling pathway. ..
  2. Potapova O, Gorospe M, Dougherty R, Dean N, Gaarde W, Holbrook N. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 expression suppresses growth and induces apoptosis of human tumor cells in a p53-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1713-22 pubmed
    ..To investigate the growth-regulatory functions of JNK1 and JNK2, we used specific antisense oligonucleotides (AS) to inhibit their expression...
  3. Fleming Y, Armstrong C, Morrice N, Paterson A, Goedert M, Cohen P. Synergistic activation of stress-activated protein kinase 1/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK1/JNK) isoforms by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK7. Biochem J. 2000;352 Pt 1:145-54 pubmed
    ..MKK7 a striking preference for the threonine residue (Thr-183) in three SAPK1/JNK1 isoforms tested (JNK1 alpha 1, JNK2 alpha 2 and JNK3 alpha 1)...
  4. Ho D, Bardwell A, Grewal S, Iverson C, Bardwell L. Interacting JNK-docking sites in MKK7 promote binding and activation of JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13169-79 pubmed
    ..Moreover, peptide versions of any of the three D-sites of MKK7 inhibited the ability of JNK1 and JNK2 to phosphorylate their transcription factor substrates c-Jun and ATF2, suggesting that D-site-containing substrates ..
  5. Gupta S, Barrett T, Whitmarsh A, Cavanagh J, Sluss H, Derijard B, et al. Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. EMBO J. 1996;15:2760-70 pubmed
    ..These protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 genes...
  6. Koyano S, Ito M, Takamatsu N, Shiba T, Yamamoto K, Yoshioka K. A novel Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-binding protein that enhances the activation of JNK by MEK kinase 1 and TGF-beta-activated kinase 1. FEBS Lett. 1999;457:385-8 pubmed
    ..a novel Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-binding protein, termed JNKBP1, and examined its binding affinity for JNK1, JNK2, JNK3, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in COS-7 cells...
  7. Yasuda J, Whitmarsh A, Cavanagh J, Sharma M, Davis R. The JIP group of mitogen-activated protein kinase scaffold proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7245-54 pubmed
    ..The JIP proteins function by aggregating components of a MAP kinase module (including MLK, MKK7, and JNK) and facilitate signal transmission by the protein kinase cascade. ..
  8. Ito M, Yoshioka K, Akechi M, Yamashita S, Takamatsu N, Sugiyama K, et al. JSAP1, a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7539-48 pubmed
    ..Of the mammalian MAPKs tested (JNK1, JNK2, JNK3, ERK2, and p38alpha), JSAP1 preferentially coprecipitated with the JNKs in cotransfected COS-7 cells...
  9. Katz S, Heinrich R, Aronheim A. The AP-1 repressor, JDP2, is a bona fide substrate for the c-Jun N-terminal kinase. FEBS Lett. 2001;506:196-200 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that JDP2 is a bona fide substrate for the c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The precise role of JDP2 phosphorylation on its function is not yet known. ..

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zama T, Aoki R, Kamimoto T, Inoue K, Ikeda Y, Hagiwara M. A novel dual specificity phosphatase SKRP1 interacts with the MAPK kinase MKK7 and inactivates the JNK MAPK pathway. Implication for the precise regulation of the particular MAPK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23909-18 pubmed
    ..We report the identification and characterization of a novel MKP termed SKRP1 (SAPK pathway-regulating phosphatase 1)...
  2. Wasserman T, Katsenelson K, Daniliuc S, Hasin T, Choder M, Aronheim A. A novel c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-binding protein WDR62 is recruited to stress granules and mediates a nonclassical JNK activation. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..JNK inhibition results in reduced number and size of SG and reduced size of PB. Collectively, we propose that JNK and WDR62 may regulate the dynamic interplay between polysomes SG and PB, thereby mediating mRNA fate after stress. ..
  3. Davis R. Signal transduction by the JNK group of MAP kinases. Cell. 2000;103:239-52 pubmed
  4. Sukhumavasi W, Egan C, Denkers E. Mouse neutrophils require JNK2 MAPK for Toxoplasma gondii-induced IL-12p40 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. J Immunol. 2007;179:3570-7 pubmed
    The MAPK family member JNK/stress-activated MAPK (SAPK) is involved in extracellular stress and proinflammatory cytokine responses, including production of cytokines such as IL-12...
  5. Shaw D, Wang S, Villaseñor A, Tsing S, Walter D, Browner M, et al. The crystal structure of JNK2 reveals conformational flexibility in the MAP kinase insert and indicates its involvement in the regulation of catalytic activity. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:885-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We have determined the crystal structure of human JNK2 complexed with an indazole inhibitor by applying a high-throughput protein engineering and surface-site mutagenesis ..
  6. Okada M, Shibuya K, Sato A, Seino S, Watanabe E, Suzuki S, et al. Specific role of JNK in the maintenance of the tumor-initiating capacity of A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also give rise to an intriguing possibility that therapies targeting JNK could contribute to prevention of relapse and/or metastasis of NSCLC through elimination of tumor-initiating cells. ..
  7. Fuchs S, Adler V, Buschmann T, Yin Z, Wu X, Jones S, et al. JNK targets p53 ubiquitination and degradation in nonstressed cells. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2658-63 pubmed
    ..JNK-p53 and Mdm2-p53 complexes were preferentially found in G0/G1 and S/G2M phases of the cell cycle, respectively. Altogether, these data indicate that JNK is an Mdm2-independent regulator of p53 stability in nonstressed cells. ..
  8. Kelkar N, Gupta S, Dickens M, Davis R. Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the neuronal protein JIP3. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1030-43 pubmed
    ..JIP3 is a member of a novel class of putative MAPK scaffold proteins that may regulate signal transduction by the JNK pathway. ..
  9. Matsuura H, Nishitoh H, Takeda K, Matsuzawa A, Amagasa T, Ito M, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent scaffolding role of JSAP1/JIP3 in the ASK1-JNK signaling pathway. A new mode of regulation of the MAP kinase cascade. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40703-9 pubmed
    ..We thus conclude that JSAP1 functions not only as a simple scaffold, but it dynamically participates in signal transduction by forming a phosphorylation-dependent signaling complex in the ASK1-JNK signaling module. ..
  10. Katz S, Aronheim A. Differential targeting of the stress mitogen-activated protein kinases to the c-Jun dimerization protein 2. Biochem J. 2002;368:939-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, although the novel JNK-docking domain was found to be necessary for p38 phosphorylation of JDP2 on Thr-148, it was not sufficient to confer JDP2 phosphorylation by the p38 kinase. ..
  11. Mingo Sion A, Marietta P, Koller E, Wolf D, Van Den Berg C. Inhibition of JNK reduces G2/M transit independent of p53, leading to endoreduplication, decreased proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:596-604 pubmed
    ..Lastly, inhibition of JNK using both SP and antisense oligonucleotides targeted to JNK1 and JNK2 reduced proliferation of all three breast cancer cell lines...
  12. Ford J, Ahmed S, Allison S, Jiang M, Milner J. JNK2-dependent regulation of SIRT1 protein stability. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:3091-7 pubmed
    ..RNAi-mediated depletion of JNK2 reduced the half-life of SIRT1 protein from >9 h to <2 h and this correlated with lack of SIRT1 protein ..
  13. Gancz D, Donin N, Fishelson Z. Involvement of the c-jun N-terminal kinases JNK1 and JNK2 in complement-mediated cell death. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Necrotic-type cell death regulation by JNK1 and JNK2 was selectively studied in mouse fibroblasts and human K562, HeLa and 293T cells...
  14. Zhang J, Zhang L, Sun X, Yang Y, Kong L, Lu C, et al. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment Ameliorate Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via Central Cholinergic System Regulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;359:374-382 pubmed
    ..reduced reactive oxygen species formation, adenosine triphosphate and cytochrome C loss, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) phosphorylation, and cytokines...
  15. Chen P, Cheng C, Shih C, Ho K, Lin C, Lee C, et al. The Inhibition of microRNA-128 on IGF-1-Activating mTOR Signaling Involves in Temozolomide-Induced Glioma Cell Apoptotic Death. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167096 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that miR-128-inhibited mTOR signaling is involved in TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings may provide a better understanding of cytotoxic mechanisms of TMZ involved in glioblastoma development. ..
  16. Bauer T, Trump S, Ishaque N, Thürmann L, Gu L, Bauer M, et al. Environment-induced epigenetic reprogramming in genomic regulatory elements in smoking mothers and their children. Mol Syst Biol. 2016;12:861 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that epigenetic deregulation of a commuting enhancer targeting c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is linked to impaired lung function in early childhood.
  17. Camardo A, Seshadri D, Broekelmann T, Mecham R, Ramamurthi A. Multifunctional, JNK-inhibiting nanotherapeutics for augmented elastic matrix regenerative repair in aortic aneurysms. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2018;8:964-984 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that JNK inhibition is a useful metric to assess pro-elastic matrix regenerative effects and point to the combinatorial regenerative benefits provided by DOX and cationic-functionalized NPs. ..
  18. Nisticò R, Florenzano F, Mango D, Ferraina C, Grilli M, Di Prisco S, et al. Presynaptic c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 regulates NMDA receptor-dependent glutamate release. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9035 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, using knockout mice for single JNK isoforms, we proved that JNK2 is the essential isoform in mediating this presynaptic event...
  19. Zhang Q, Zhao L, Tian X, Yan C, Li Y, Liu Y, et al. The novel intracellular protein CREG inhibits hepatic steatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. Hepatology. 2017;66:834-854 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional experiments demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) but not JNK2 is largely responsible for the protective effect of CREG on the aforementioned pathologies...
  20. Zhang J, MacArtney T, Peggie M, Cohen P. Interleukin-1 and TRAF6-dependent activation of TAK1 in the absence of TAB2 and TAB3. Biochem J. 2017;474:2235-2248 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1β signaling was transient in TAB2/3 DKO cells, and the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), JNK2 and p38γ was greatly reduced at all times...
  21. Lim E, Lim J, Kim E, Kim Y, Shin J, Seok P, et al. Xylobiose, an Alternative Sweetener, Ameliorates Diabetes-Related Metabolic Changes by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice. Nutrients. 2016;8: pubmed
    ..protein (MCP)-1, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2)...
  22. Li L, Leung D, Goleva E. Activated p38 MAPK in Peripheral Blood Monocytes of Steroid Resistant Asthmatics. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0141909 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylated mitogen activated kinases (MAPK) (extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and jun kinase (JNK)) were analyzed in whole blood samples using flow cytometry...
  23. Ruess D, Probst M, Marjanovic G, Wittel U, Hopt U, Keck T, et al. HDACi Valproic Acid (VPA) and Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) Delay but Fail to Protect against Warm Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161233 pubmed publisher
    ..HDACi treatment efficiency, impact on MAPK/SAPK-activation and Hippo-YAP signaling was determined by Western blot...
  24. Simplicio J, do Vale G, Gonzaga N, Leite L, Hipólito U, Pereira C, et al. Reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidase play a role on ethanol-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rat resistance arteries. J Physiol Biochem. 2017;73:5-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethanol increased the expression of Nox2 and the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK, but reduced eNOS expression in the rat MAB. Apocynin prevented these responses...
  25. Wu Y, Honegger A, Batyuk A, Mittl P, Plückthun A. Structural Basis for the Selective Inhibition of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1 Determined by Rigid DARPin-DARPin Fusions. J Mol Biol. 2018;430:2128-2138 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the high similarity between JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3, it is very difficult to generate small-molecule inhibitors with this discriminatory power...
  26. Janknecht R, Hunter T. Convergence of MAP kinase pathways on the ternary complex factor Sap-1a. EMBO J. 1997;16:1620-7 pubmed
    ..However, signaling from p38 MAP kinase to Sap-1a or from Sap-1a to the basal transcription machinery does not occur in all cell types nor at promoters other than the c-fos SRE, which may ensure the specificity of signaling. ..
  27. Rato S, Maia S, Brito P, Resende L, Pereira C, Moita C, et al. Novel HIV-1 knockdown targets identified by an enriched kinases/phosphatases shRNA library using a long-term iterative screen in Jurkat T-cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9276 pubmed publisher
    ..This study brings new insights for the complex interplay of HIV-1/host cell and opens new possibilities for antiviral strategies. ..
  28. Christensen D, Ejlerskov P, Rasmussen I, Vilhardt F. Reciprocal signals between microglia and neurons regulate α-synuclein secretion by exophagy through a neuronal cJUN-N-terminal kinase-signaling axis. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological inhibition or genetic (shRNA) knockdown of JNK2 or JNK3 decreases α-SNC secretion in differentiated PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells, respectively...
  29. Auladell C, de Lemos L, Verdaguer E, Ettcheto M, Busquets O, Lazarowski A, et al. Role of JNK isoforms in the kainic acid experimental model of epilepsy and neurodegeneration. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017;22:795-814 pubmed
    ..Among the three isoforms of JNK (JNK1, JNK2, JNK3), JNK3 is widely localized in the majority of areas of the hippocampus, whereas JNK1 levels are located ..
  30. Zhang L, Fang Y, Xu X, Jin D. Moscatilin induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells via reactive oxygen species and the JNK/SAPK pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:1195-1203 pubmed publisher
    ..cleaved?caspase 3, poly (ADP?ribose) polymerase, p?c?Jun N?terminal kinase (JNK)/stress?activated protein kinases (SAPK) and JNK/SAPK in response to moscatilin...
  31. Enomoto A, Suzuki N, Morita A, Ito M, Liu C, Matsumoto Y, et al. Caspase-mediated cleavage of JNK during stress-induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:837-42 pubmed
    ..The JNKs are encoded by three separate genes (jnk1, jnk2, and jnk3), which are spliced alternatively to create 10 JNK isoforms that are either p46 or p54 in size...
  32. Topisirovic I, Gutierrez G, Chen M, Appella E, Borden K, Ronai Z. Control of p53 multimerization by Ubc13 is JNK-regulated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12676-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a layer in the regulation of p53 multimerization that requires the concerted action of JNK and Ubc13 on polysome-bound p53. ..
  33. Vasilevskaya I, Selvakumaran M, Hierro L, Goldstein S, Winkler J, O Dwyer P. Inhibition of JNK Sensitizes Hypoxic Colon Cancer Cells to DNA-Damaging Agents. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21:4143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, stable introduction of a dominant negative JNK1, but not JNK2, construct into HT29 cells rendered them more sensitive to oxaliplatin under hypoxia, suggesting differing input of ..
  34. Parker L, Trewin A, Levinger I, Shaw C, Stepto N. The effect of exercise-intensity on skeletal muscle stress kinase and insulin protein signaling. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171613 pubmed publisher
    Stress and mitogen activated protein kinase (SAPK) signaling play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the physiological adaptation to exercise...
  35. Khan M, Farahvash A, Douda D, Licht J, Grasemann H, Sweezey N, et al. JNK Activation Turns on LPS- and Gram-Negative Bacteria-Induced NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Suicidal NETosis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3409 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that stress-activated protein kinase or c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (SAPK/JNK) is a molecular switch that turns on NETosis in response to increasing concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (..
  36. Mammone T, Chidlow G, Casson R, Wood J. Expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the optic nerve head in a rat model of ocular hypertension. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2018;88:270-291 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs: p42/44 MAPK, SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK) are activated in various retinal disease models and likely contribute to the mechanisms of RGC death...
  37. Zhong S, Zhang Y, Jansen C, Goto H, Inagaki M, Dong Z. MAP kinases mediate UVB-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 28. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12932-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study, ERK1, ERK2, or p38 kinase strongly phosphorylated H3 at serine 28 in vitro. JNK1 or JNK2 was able also to phosphorylate H3 at serine 28 in vitro but to a lesser degree...
  38. Barbarulo A, Iansante V, Chaidos A, Naresh K, Rahemtulla A, Franzoso G, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family member 14 (PARP14) is a novel effector of the JNK2-dependent pro-survival signal in multiple myeloma. Oncogene. 2013;32:4231-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the role of JNK in MM, we evaluated the specific functions of the two major JNK proteins, JNK1 and JNK2. We show here that JNK2 is constitutively activated in a panel of MM cell lines and primary tumors...
  39. Ismail H, Yamamoto K, Vincent T, Nagase H, Troeberg L, Saklatvala J. Interleukin-1 Acts via the JNK-2 Signaling Pathway to Induce Aggrecan Degradation by Human Chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:1826-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling axis TRAF-6/TAK-1/MKK-4/JNK-2 mediates IL-1-induced aggrecanolysis. The level of aggrecanase is controlled by its endocytosis, which may be reduced upon IL-1 stimulation because of LRP-1 shedding. ..
  40. Chen Y, Lin C, Liu Y, Jiang Y. HMGB1 promotes HCC progression partly by downregulating p21 via ERK/c-Myc pathway and upregulating MMP-2. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:4399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..investigation revealed that knockdown HMGB1 significantly reduced the activation of MAPKs, including ERK1/2, p38, SAPK/JNK, as well as MAPKKs (MEK1/2, SEK1) and its substrates (c-Jun, c-Myc); downregulated NF-κB/p65 expression and ..
  41. Santofimia Castaño P, Izquierdo Alvarez A, de la Casa Resino I, Martínez Ruiz A, Pérez López M, Portilla J, et al. Ebselen alters cellular oxidative status and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat hippocampal astrocytes. Toxicology. 2016;357-358:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, ebselen also induced an increase in the phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK...
  42. Hu Z, Wang Y, Wang Y, Zang B, Hui H, You Z, et al. Epigenetic activation of SIN1 promotes NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis by affecting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:645-651 pubmed publisher
    Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) interacting protein 1 (SIN1) is an essential component of mTORC2...
  43. Cheng D, Zhu B, Li S, Yuan T, Yang Q, Fan C. Down-regulation of RPS9 Inhibits Osteosarcoma Cell Growth through Inactivation of MAPK Signaling Pathway. J Cancer. 2017;8:2720-2728 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data demonstrated that knockdown of RPS9 repressed the protein levels of phospho-SAPK/JNK and phospho-p38...
  44. Wang F, Ma J, Wang K, Mi C, Lee J, Jin X. Blockade of TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway and anti-cancer therapeutic response of dihydrotanshinone I. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;28:764-72 pubmed publisher
    ..signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK/SAPK)...
  45. Gubern A, Joaquin M, Marqués M, Maseres P, Garcia Garcia J, Amat R, et al. The N-Terminal Phosphorylation of RB by p38 Bypasses Its Inactivation by CDKs and Prevents Proliferation in Cancer Cells. Mol Cell. 2016;64:25-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that, upon stress, the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) maximizes cell survival by downregulating E2F gene expression through the targeting of RB...
  46. Day A, Smith D, Ikeh M, Haider M, Herrero de Dios C, Brown A, et al. Blocking two-component signalling enhances Candida albicans virulence and reveals adaptive mechanisms that counteract sustained SAPK activation. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006131 pubmed publisher
    ..neoformans is lethal due to the sustained activation of the 'p38-related' Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). As two-component signalling proteins are not found in animals, Ypd1 is considered to be a prime antifungal target...
  47. Tanoue T, Yamamoto T, Maeda R, Nishida E. A Novel MAPK phosphatase MKP-7 acts preferentially on JNK/SAPK and p38 alpha and beta MAPKs. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26629-39 pubmed
    ..MKP-7 binds to and inactivates p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK, but not ERK...
  48. Hasko G, Deitch E, Németh Z, Kuhel D, Szabo C. Inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette transporters suppress interleukin-12 p40 production and major histocompatibility complex II up-regulation in macrophages. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:103-10 pubmed
    ..did not involve an interference with the activation of the p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases or c-Jun kinase. Glibenclamide also suppressed IFN-gamma-induced up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex II...
  49. Nitta R, Del Vecchio C, Chu A, Mitra S, Godwin A, Wong A. The role of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2-?-isoform in non-small cell lung carcinoma tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2011;30:234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..One isoform in particular, JNK2?, has been shown to be frequently activated in primary brain tumors, to enhance several tumorigenic phenotypes and ..
  50. Voelzmann A, Okenve Ramos P, Qu Y, Chojnowska Monga M, Del Caño Espinel M, Prokop A, et al. Tau and spectraplakins promote synapse formation and maintenance through Jun kinase and neuronal trafficking. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest novel explanations for intellectual disability in Tau deficient individuals, as well as early synapse loss in dementias including Alzheimer's disease. ..
  51. Shafi O. Inverse relationship between Alzheimer's disease and cancer, and other factors contributing to Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. BMC Neurol. 2016;16:236 pubmed
    ..responses, maintenance mechanisms, weakened anti-stress responses such as Vimentin, Carbonic anhydrases, HSPs, SAPK. In cancer, these responses are upregulated and maintained...
  52. Liu W, Deng J, Dong F, Huo T, Wang Y, Wang L. [Apoptosis induced by chrysotile from Sichuan Xinkang via ROS/JNK pathway in A549 cells]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;33:1217-1222 pubmed
    ..The protein expressions of p-JNK1, p-JNK2, and cleaved caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting...
  53. Webb M, Miller A, Howard T, Johnson B, Chumakov S, Fofanov Y, et al. Sequential gene regulatory events leading to glucocorticoid-evoked apoptosis of CEM human leukemic cells:interactions of MAPK, MYC and glucocorticoid pathways. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018;471:118-130 pubmed publisher
    ..clones were changed transcript levels from genes that decrease amounts or activity of anti-apoptotic ERK/MAPK1 and JNK2/MAPK9, or of genes that increase activity of pro-apoptotic p38/MAPK14...
  54. Phelan D, Price G, Liu Y, Dorow D. Activated JNK phosphorylates the c-terminal domain of MLK2 that is required for MLK2-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10801-10 pubmed
    ..Phosphopeptide mapping of MLK2 proteins revealed that activated JNK2 phosphorylates multiple sites mainly within the noncatalytic C-terminal region of MLK2 including the C-terminal 100 ..
  55. Shen X, Guo Y, Qi J, Shi W, Wu X, Ni H, et al. Study on the Association Between miRNA-202 Expression and Drug Sensitivity in Multiple Myeloma Cells. Pathol Oncol Res. 2016;22:531-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also provided experimental evidence that JNK/SAPK signaling pathway was involved in the regulatory effect of miR-202 on drug resistance of MM cells...
  56. Morris M, Dawson C, Laverick L, Davis A, Dudman J, Raveenthiraraj S, et al. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 oncoprotein modulates cell adhesion via regulation of activin A/TGFβ and β1 integrin signalling. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19533 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor activating a variety of signalling pathways, including the three classic MAPKs (ERK-MAPK, p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK)...
  57. Babaev V, Yeung M, Erbay E, Ding L, Zhang Y, May J, et al. Jnk1 Deficiency in Hematopoietic Cells Suppresses Macrophage Apoptosis and Increases Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Null Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:1122-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages express 2 JNK isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, which may have different effects on cell survival and atherosclerosis...
  58. Lao X, Feng Q, He G, Ji M, Zhu D, Xu P, et al. Immature Colon Carcinoma Transcript-1 (ICT1) Expression Correlates with Unfavorable Prognosis and Survival in Patients with Colorectal Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23:3924-3933 pubmed
    ..We further revealed a novel mechanism in which ICT1 promoted CRC growth via the intracellular AMPK, SAPK/JNK, and PARP signaling pathways...
  59. Sun P, Sun X, Zhao W, Ren M, Zhang C, Wang Z, et al. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase-3 Suppresses Growth of Prostate Cancer Via the AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:2582-2592 pubmed publisher
    ..LMTK-3 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and promoted phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase and Jun kinase (JNK)...
  60. Ke H, Harris R, Coloff J, Jin J, Leshin B, Miliani de Marval P, et al. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 2 plays a dominant role in human epidermal neoplasia. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3080-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear how different JNK proteins contribute to human cancer. Here, we report that JNK2 is activated in more than 70% of human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples and that inhibition of JNK2 ..
  61. Ducret C, Maira S, Lutz Y, Wasylyk B. The ternary complex factor Net contains two distinct elements that mediate different responses to MAP kinase signalling cascades. Oncogene. 2000;19:5063-72 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, specific targeting of Net by MAP kinase pathways involves two different docking sites and phosphorylation of two different domains. These two elements, DC and JEX, mediate two distinct functional responses. ..
  62. Tamma S, Kalyanaraman V, Pahwa S, Dominguez P, Modesto R. The lectin jacalin induces phosphorylation of ERK and JNK in CD4+ T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;73:682-8 pubmed
    ..Jacalin may be used as a possible tool for the study of CD4-mediated signal transduction and HIV-impaired CD4(+) T cell activation. ..
  63. Tomlinson V, Gudmundsdottir K, Luong P, Leung K, Knebel A, Basu S. JNK phosphorylates Yes-associated protein (YAP) to regulate apoptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e29 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified JNK1 and JNK2 as robust YAP kinases, as well as mapped multiple sites of phosphorylation...
  64. Takahashi K, Ohta T. Membrane translocation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 induced by inflammatory cytokines in lung cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:587-593 pubmed publisher
    ..was inhibited by an extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk) inhibitor (PD98059) but not by inhibitors of c-Jun kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase...
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    ..to HA was able to induce adhesion and proliferation of mesothelioma cells (MES) via enhancement of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 phosphorylation; however, it did not activate the complement cascade...
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    ..the apoptotic effect of IL-1beta, whereas SB-203580, specific inhibitor of p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway, is ineffective...
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    ..Further, p53 participates in a feedback mechanism with JNK to regulate this apoptotic process and is oppositely regulated by JNK1 and JNK2.
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    ..Furthermore, aPKC inhibition efficiently suppresses HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages. aPKC may therefore be an intriguing therapeutic target for HIV-1 infection. ..
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    ..Detected mutations compromise recruitment of MAPKBP1 to the MSP and/or its interaction with JNK2 or WDR62...
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    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) signaling pathway contributes to inflammation and plays a key role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease...
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    ..Analysis by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the mRNA levels of the genes for CTGF, fibronectin and collagen Ialpha(1) in wound and corneal scar formation were reduced by SP600125 pre-treatment. ..
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    ..Microarray and pathway analysis provided evidence of lower fibrosis and lower SAPK/JNK pathway activation in obese adults with low FA Ra compared with those with high FA Ra...
  76. Bhargavan B, Kanmogne G. Toll-Like Receptor-3 Mediates HIV-1-Induced Interleukin-6 Expression in the Human Brain Endothelium via TAK1 and JNK Pathways: Implications for Viral Neuropathogenesis. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:5976-5992 pubmed publisher
    ..001), activated c-jun(serine-63) and SAPK/JNK(Thr183/Tyr185)...
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    ..These data indicate that mitochondria are influenced by proapoptotic signal transduction through the JNK pathway. ..
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    ..Insulin-stimulated Ser(307) phosphorylation was reduced 80% in cells lacking JNK1 and JNK2 or in cells expressing a mutant Irs1 protein lacking the JNK binding site...
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    ..Thus, JNKs regulate the proapoptotic activity of BIM(EL) during TFD, both transcriptionally and posttranslationally. ..
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    ..To investigate DNA damage responses mediated by the p38/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) axis of signaling, the optimal phosphorylation motifs of mammalian p38alpha SAPK and MAPKAP kinase-2 were ..
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    ..In HCT116 cells H-RAS V12 promotes hMDM2 expression after radiation exposure which correlates with reduced p53 expression and increased cell survival. ..
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    ..The JNK2-mediated phosphorylation of JIP1 results in the dissociation of Akt1 from JIP1 and subsequently restores Akt1 ..
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    ..The JNK isoforms phosphorylated by TNF-alpha and GM-CSF stimulation were found to be JNK1 and JNK2, respectively, on the basis of the molecular mass and the capture assay...
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    ..c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is highly expressed in the intestinal mucosa, and its activation plays an important role in proliferation and also ..
  85. Rentzsch I, Santos C, Huhle R, Ferreira J, Koch T, Schnabel C, et al. Variable stretch reduces the pro-inflammatory response of alveolar epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182369 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphorylation of the MAPKs ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK was determined by Western Blot analysis at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min of cyclic stretch...
  86. Chin A, Shu J, Shan Shi C, Yao Z, Kehrl J, Cheng G. TANK potentiates tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase activation through the germinal center kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6665-72 pubmed
    ..superfamily and can activate both the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinase) signal transduction pathways...
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    ..the JSAP1 isoforms contain this binding domain, we examined the binding affinity of the JSAP1 isoforms for JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3...
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    ..HIV-1 Env signaling through these pathways may contribute to dysregulation of uninfected macrophage functions, new target cell recruitment, or modulation of macrophage infection. ..
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    ..1). The liver expresses both JNK1 and JNK2. In this review we will focus on recent studies from many different laboratories in the past 5 years which have ..
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    ..Bacterially expressed MNK1 was phosphorylated and activated in vitro by ERK1 and p38 MAP kinases but not by JNK/SAPK. Further, MNK1 was activated upon stimulation of HeLa cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, fetal calf ..
  91. Battle T, Roberson M, Zhang T, Varvayanis S, Yen A. Retinoic acid-induced blr1 expression requires RARalpha, RXR, and MAPK activation and uses ERK2 but not JNK/SAPK to accelerate cell differentiation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2001;80:59-67 pubmed
    ..The present data also demonstrate that ectopic expression of blr1 increased JNK/SAPK activity, but JNK/ SAPK activation was not needed for accelerated RA-induced differentiation and growth arrest...
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    ..and known INK activator, caused the transcriptional activation domain of HSF1 to be targeted and phosphorylated by JNK2 in vivo...