JNK

Summary

Gene Symbol: JNK
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8
Alias: JNK, JNK-46, JNK1, JNK1A2, JNK21B1/2, PRKM8, SAPK1, SAPK1c, mitogen-activated protein kinase 8, JUN N-terminal kinase, MAP kinase 8, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform JNK1 alpha1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 isoform JNK1 beta2, stress-activated protein kinase 1, stress-activated protein kinase 1c
Species: human
Products:     JNK

Top Publications

  1. Fan M, Goodwin M, Vu T, Brantley Finley C, Gaarde W, Chambers T. Vinblastine-induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL is mediated by JNK and occurs in parallel with inactivation of the Raf-1/MEK/ERK cascade. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:29980-5 pubmed
    ..Two major endogenous forms of JNK, p46(JNK1) and p54(JNK2), were present in KB-3 cells, and both isoforms were activated by vinblastine as determined by Mono Q ..
  2. Chang Q, Zhang Y, Beezhold K, Bhatia D, Zhao H, Chen J, et al. Sustained JNK1 activation is associated with altered histone H3 methylations in human liver cancer. J Hepatol. 2009;50:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced JNK1 activation was noted in 17 out of 31 HCC samples (55%) relative to the corresponding ANC tissues, whereas JNK2 ..
  3. Wang J, Kuiatse I, Lee A, Pan J, Giuliano A, Cui X. Sustained c-Jun-NH2-kinase activity promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and survival of breast cancer cells by regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:266-77 pubmed publisher
    The c-Jun NH(2)-terminus kinase (JNK) mediates stress-induced apoptosis and the cytotoxic effect of anticancer therapies...
  4. Okada M, Shibuya K, Sato A, Seino S, Watanabe E, Suzuki S, et al. Specific role of JNK in the maintenance of the tumor-initiating capacity of A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:1957-64 pubmed publisher
    Deregulation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is now increasingly reported in a variety of human malignancies...
  5. Zhang Y, Wu Y, Cheng Y, Zhao Z, Tashiro S, Onodera S, et al. Fas-mediated autophagy requires JNK activation in HeLa cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:1205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the CH11-induced autophagy was blocked by JNK inhibitor (SP600125), but it was not affected by caspase 8 inhibitor (Z-IETD); whereas the CH11-induced apoptosis ..
  6. Yao H, Allen J, Zhu X, Callen S, Buch S. Cocaine and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 mediate neurotoxicity through overlapping signaling pathways. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling pathways including c-jun N-teminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)..
  7. Chang Y, Wu X. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 in transforming growth factor beta(1)-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor and scar formation in the cornea. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:727-36 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence analysis showed that TGF-beta(1) stimulated the activation of JNK1/2 and induced cell migration, effects that were inhibited by SP600125...
  8. Gancz D, Donin N, Fishelson Z. Involvement of the c-jun N-terminal kinases JNK1 and JNK2 in complement-mediated cell death. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Necrotic-type cell death regulation by JNK1 and JNK2 was selectively studied in mouse fibroblasts and human K562, HeLa and 293T cells...
  9. Bogoyevitch M, Ngoei K, Zhao T, Yeap Y, Ng D. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling: recent advances and challenges. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:463-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss recent advances in the discovery and development of ATP-competitive and ATP-noncompetitive JNK inhibitors...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Manganaro L, Lusic M, Gutierrez M, Cereseto A, Del Sal G, Giacca M. Concerted action of cellular JNK and Pin1 restricts HIV-1 genome integration to activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Nat Med. 2010;16:329-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that cellular c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), an enzyme that is not expressed in resting CD4+ T cells, regulates permissiveness to HIV-1 infection, and we ..
  2. Park J, Lee J, Park S, Lee D, Kim S, Kim H, et al. A critical step for JNK activation: isomerization by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has a key role in the JNK1 activation process by modulating a phospho-Thr-Pro motif in the phosphorylation loop...
  3. Kwak D, Choi S, Jeong H, Jang J, Lee Y, Jeon H, et al. Osmotic stress regulates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 via c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-mediated Raptor protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:18398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Raptor is phosphorylated by JNK upon osmotic stress...
  4. Takahashi R, Hirata Y, Sakitani K, Nakata W, Kinoshita H, Hayakawa Y, et al. Therapeutic effect of c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition on pancreatic cancer. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:337-44 pubmed publisher
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, and it is reportedly involved in the development of several cancers. However, the role of JNK in pancreatic cancer has not been elucidated...
  5. Xia M, Ling W, Zhu H, Ma J, Wang Q, Hou M, et al. Anthocyanin attenuates CD40-mediated endothelial cell activation and apoptosis by inhibiting CD40-induced MAPK activation. Atherosclerosis. 2009;202:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Anthocyanins also decreased activation of JNK and p38 induced by CD40...
  6. Bock B, Tagscherer K, Fassl A, Kramer A, Oehme I, Zentgraf H, et al. The PEA-15 protein regulates autophagy via activation of JNK. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21644-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that PEA-15 is not only pivotal in the activation of the ERK pathway but also modulates JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) signaling...
  7. Li D, Wang L, Deng R, Tang J, Shen Y, Guo J, et al. The pivotal role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-mediated Beclin 1 expression during anticancer agents-induced autophagy in cancer cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:886-98 pubmed publisher
    ..could be blocked by SP600125 (a specific inhibitor of JNK) or a small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against JNK1/2 or c-Jun...
  8. Nadeau P, Charette S, Landry J. REDOX reaction at ASK1-Cys250 is essential for activation of JNK and induction of apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3628-37 pubmed publisher
    ASK1 cysteine oxidation allows JNK activation upon oxidative stress. Trx1 negatively regulates this pathway by reducing the oxidized cysteines of ASK1...
  9. Ju S, Goh A, Kwon D, Youn G, Kwon H, Bae Y, et al. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat induces human beta-defensin-2 production via NF-kappaB/AP-1 dependent pathways in human B cells. Mol Cells. 2012;33:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment of B cells with a JNK inhibitor suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced hBD-2 expression...
  10. Kluwe J, Pradere J, Gwak G, Mencin A, De Minicis S, Osterreicher C, et al. Modulation of hepatic fibrosis by c-Jun-N-terminal kinase inhibition. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:347-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibrogenesis was investigated in mice given the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and in JNK1- and JNK2-deficient mice following BDL or CCl(4) administration...
  11. Chandrasekaran S, Tan T, Hall J, Cook J. Stress-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinases control the stability and activity of the Cdt1 DNA replication licensing factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..is a substrate of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These MAP kinases phosphorylate Cdt1 both during unperturbed G(2) phase and during an acute stress response...
  12. Cui J, Wang Q, Wang J, Lv M, Zhu N, Li Y, et al. Basal c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase activity is essential for survival and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:3214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..arrest and apoptosis and increased sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis, whereas weak ectopic expression of MKK7-JNK1 fusion protein, which shows constitutive JNK activity, in T-ALL cells resulted in accelerated cell cycle ..
  13. Miotto B, Struhl K. JNK1 phosphorylation of Cdt1 inhibits recruitment of HBO1 histone acetylase and blocks replication licensing in response to stress. Mol Cell. 2011;44:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..HBO1 histone acetylase is a coactivator both for AP-1 transcription factors responding to stress-activated JNK kinases and also for the Cdt1 licensing factor that ensures that DNA is replicated exactly once per cell cycle...
  14. Lee M, Koria P, Qu J, Andreadis S. JNK phosphorylates beta-catenin and regulates adherens junctions. FASEB J. 2009;23:3874-83 pubmed publisher
    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important player in inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. More recently, JNK was found to regulate cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin...
  15. Hui L, Zatloukal K, Scheuch H, Stepniak E, Wagner E. Proliferation of human HCC cells and chemically induced mouse liver cancers requires JNK1-dependent p21 downregulation. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3943-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that activation of JNK1 but not JNK2 was increased in human primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs)...
  16. Lei K, Davis R. JNK phosphorylation of Bim-related members of the Bcl2 family induces Bax-dependent apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2432-7 pubmed
    The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated when cells are exposed to environmental stress, including UV radiation...
  17. Kutz H, Reisbach G, Schultheiss U, Kieser A. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway is critical for cell transformation by the latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus. Virology. 2008;371:246-56 pubmed
    ..Expression of a novel dominant-negative JNK1 allele caused a block of proliferation in LMP1-transformed Rat1 fibroblasts...
  18. Amagasaki K, Kaneto H, Heldin C, Lennartsson J. c-Jun N-terminal kinase is necessary for platelet-derived growth factor-mediated chemotaxis in primary fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22173-9 pubmed
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. It has become clear that JNK does not only have a role in induction of stress responses but also in processes such as cell movement...
  19. Gallagher E, Gao M, Liu Y, Karin M. Activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch through a phosphorylation-induced conformational change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1717-22 pubmed
    ..After T cell receptor engagement, Itch undergoes JNK1-mediated phosphorylation that greatly enhances its enzymatic activity...
  20. Min W, Lin Y, Tang S, Yu L, Zhang H, Wan T, et al. AIP1 recruits phosphatase PP2A to ASK1 in tumor necrosis factor-induced ASK1-JNK activation. Circ Res. 2008;102:840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..dephosphorylation of ASK1 at pSer967 and subsequently 14-3-3 release from ASK1, leading to enhanced ASK1-JNK signaling. However, the phosphatase(s) responsible for ASK1 dephosphorylation at pSer967 has not been identified...
  21. Shimada K, Nakamura M, Ishida E, Higuchi T, Tanaka M, Ota I, et al. c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase activation and decreased expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 play important roles in invasion and angiogenesis of urothelial carcinomas. Am J Pathol. 2007;171:1003-12 pubmed
    We here examined whether c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK) might be involved in the progression of urothelial carcinomas...
  22. Girardin S, Yaniv M. A direct interaction between JNK1 and CrkII is critical for Rac1-induced JNK activation. EMBO J. 2001;20:3437-46 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that CrkII interacts directly with c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1)...
  23. Fuchs S, Adler V, Buschmann T, Yin Z, Wu X, Jones S, et al. JNK targets p53 ubiquitination and degradation in nonstressed cells. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2658-63 pubmed
    In this study we elucidated the role of nonactive JNK in regulating p53 stability. The amount of p53-JNK complex was inversely correlated with p53 level...
  24. Derijard B, Hibi M, Wu I, Barrett T, Su B, Deng T, et al. JNK1: a protein kinase stimulated by UV light and Ha-Ras that binds and phosphorylates the c-Jun activation domain. Cell. 1994;76:1025-37 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of JNK1, a distant relative of the MAP kinase group that is activated by dual phosphorylation at Thr and Tyr during the UV ..
  25. Lee K, Song K. Basal c-Jun N-terminal kinases promote mitotic progression through histone H3 phosphorylation. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:216-21 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of JNKs by specific pharmacologic inhibitors, expression of dominant-negative JNK1 and 2 mutants, or RNAi of JNK1 and 2 prevented phosphorylation of histone H3 at S10 in vivo...
  26. Gururajan M, Chui R, Karuppannan A, Ke J, Jennings C, Bondada S. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is required for survival and proliferation of B-lymphoma cells. Blood. 2005;106:1382-91 pubmed
    ..and cell lines were found to constitutively express high levels of the activated form of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. Proliferation of murine B lymphomas CH31, CH12...
  27. Park H, Kim M, Huh S, Park J, Chung J, Kang S, et al. Akt (protein kinase B) negatively regulates SEK1 by means of protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2573-8 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory action of insulin on SEK1 or JNK1 activation was prevented by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002...
  28. Ito M, Yoshioka K, Akechi M, Yamashita S, Takamatsu N, Sugiyama K, et al. JSAP1, a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7539-48 pubmed
    ..Of the mammalian MAPKs tested (JNK1, JNK2, JNK3, ERK2, and p38alpha), JSAP1 preferentially coprecipitated with the JNKs in cotransfected COS-7 cells...
  29. Yamamoto K, Ichijo H, Korsmeyer S. BCL-2 is phosphorylated and inactivated by an ASK1/Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathway normally activated at G(2)/M. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:8469-78 pubmed
    ..We noted that ASK1 and JNK1 were normally activated at G(2)/M phase, and JNK was capable of phosphorylating BCL-2...
  30. Dong C, Yang D, Wysk M, Whitmarsh A, Davis R, Flavell R. Defective T cell differentiation in the absence of Jnk1. Science. 1998;282:2092-5 pubmed
    ..JNK activity observed in wild-type activated TH cells was severely reduced in TH cells from Jnk1-/- mice...
  31. Putcha G, Le S, Frank S, Besirli C, Clark K, Chu B, et al. JNK-mediated BIM phosphorylation potentiates BAX-dependent apoptosis. Neuron. 2003;38:899-914 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of the JNK pathway attenuated BIM(EL) expression, prevented BIM(EL) phosphorylation, and abrogated TFD-induced apoptosis...
  32. Ham Y, Choi J, Chun K, Joo S, Lee S. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activity is differentially regulated by specific mechanisms during apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50330-7 pubmed
    We show here that JNK1 activity is rapidly up-regulated and prolonged by specific mechanisms during apoptosis induced by paclitaxel- or ginsenoside-Rh2 in SK-HEP-1 cells...
  33. Davis R. Signal transduction by the JNK group of MAP kinases. Cell. 2000;103:239-52 pubmed
  34. Xia Y, Wu Z, Su B, Murray B, Karin M. JNKK1 organizes a MAP kinase module through specific and sequential interactions with upstream and downstream components mediated by its amino-terminal extension. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3369-81 pubmed
    ..We investigated the basis for specific activation of the JNK subgroup of MAPKs...
  35. Hayashi K, Pu H, Andras I, Eum S, Yamauchi A, Hennig B, et al. HIV-TAT protein upregulates expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 in the blood-brain barrier. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006;26:1052-65 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Tat exposure can lead to alterations of the BBB functions and decrease HAART efficacy in the CNS through overexpression of drug efflux transporters. ..
  36. Kim M, Murakami A, Kawabata K, Ohigashi H. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes pro-matrix metalloproteinase-7 production via activation of the JNK1/2 pathway in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1553-62 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological blockade of MAPK activities suggested that pro-MMP-7 expression was induced via JNK1/2 activation, but not in the case of ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK...
  37. Wu X, Sun S. Retroviral oncoprotein Tax deregulates NF-kappaB by activating Tak1 and mediating the physical association of Tak1-IKK. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:510-5 pubmed
    ..These findings show a pathological mechanism of IKK activation by Tax and provide an example for how IKK is persistently activated in cancer cells. ..
  38. Fleming Y, Armstrong C, Morrice N, Paterson A, Goedert M, Cohen P. Synergistic activation of stress-activated protein kinase 1/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK1/JNK) isoforms by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK7. Biochem J. 2000;352 Pt 1:145-54 pubmed
    Stress-activated protein kinase 1 (SAPK1), also called c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), becomes activated in vivo in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or cellular stresses...
  39. Jensen L, Whitehead A. Pellino2 activates the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. FEBS Lett. 2003;545:199-202 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a role for the Pellino proteins in the IL1/Toll signaling cascades as scaffold proteins that may regulate signaling branch-points. ..
  40. Ho D, Bardwell A, Grewal S, Iverson C, Bardwell L. Interacting JNK-docking sites in MKK7 promote binding and activation of JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:13169-79 pubmed
    ..one of the three docking sites (D1, D2, and D3) disrupted the ability of the N-terminal domain of MKK7beta to bind JNK1 by about 50-70%...
  41. Adhikary G, Sun Y, Pearlman E. C-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) is an essential mediator of Toll-like receptor 2-induced corneal inflammation. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:991-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if JNK is also important in TLR2-induced corneal inflammation in vivo, we examined JNK1(-/-) mice and pharmacological inhibitors in a murine model of TLR2-induced corneal inflammation which is ..
  42. Matsuura H, Nishitoh H, Takeda K, Matsuzawa A, Amagasa T, Ito M, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent scaffolding role of JSAP1/JIP3 in the ASK1-JNK signaling pathway. A new mode of regulation of the MAP kinase cascade. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40703-9 pubmed
    JSAP1 (also termed JIP3) is a scaffold protein that interacts with specific components of the JNK signaling pathway...
  43. Holmberg C, Katz S, Lerdrup M, Herdegen T, Jaattela M, Aronheim A, et al. A novel specific role for I kappa B kinase complex-associated protein in cytosolic stress signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31918-28 pubmed
    ..protein (IKAP) in the regulation of activation of the mammalian stress response via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling pathway. We cloned IKAP as a JNK-associating protein using the Ras recruitment yeast two-hybrid system...
  44. Liu J, Lin A. Wiring the cell signaling circuitry by the NF-kappa B and JNK1 crosstalk and its applications in human diseases. Oncogene. 2007;26:3267-78 pubmed
    ..The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK1 are major players in the cell signaling circuitry, regulating numerous cellular events and being implicated in the ..
  45. Katagiri C, Nakanishi J, Kadoya K, Hibino T. Serpin squamous cell carcinoma antigen inhibits UV-induced apoptosis via suppression of c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:983-90 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that up-regulation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen-1 (SCCA1) suppresses c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) and thus blocks UV-induced keratinocyte apoptosis...
  46. Nihalani D, Wong H, Holzman L. Recruitment of JNK to JIP1 and JNK-dependent JIP1 phosphorylation regulates JNK module dynamics and activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28694-702 pubmed
    JIP1 is a scaffold protein that assembles and facilitates the activation of the mixed lineage kinase-dependent JNK module...
  47. Mingo Sion A, Marietta P, Koller E, Wolf D, Van Den Berg C. Inhibition of JNK reduces G2/M transit independent of p53, leading to endoreduplication, decreased proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:596-604 pubmed
    ..Lastly, inhibition of JNK using both SP and antisense oligonucleotides targeted to JNK1 and JNK2 reduced proliferation of all three breast cancer cell lines...
  48. Kadoya T, Khurana A, Tcherpakov M, Bromberg K, Didier C, Broday L, et al. JAMP, a Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1)-associated membrane protein, regulates duration of JNK activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:8619-30 pubmed publisher
    We report the identification and characterization of JAMP (JNK1 [Jun N-terminal kinase 1]-associated membrane protein), a predicted seven-transmembrane protein that is localized primarily within the plasma membrane and associates with ..
  49. Lee C, Onesime D, Reddy C, Dhanasekaran N, Reddy E. JLP: A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14189-94 pubmed
    ..leucine zipper protein), which acts as a scaffolding protein to bring together Max and c-Myc along with JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) and p38MAPK, as well as their upstream kinases MKK4 (MAPK kinase 4) and MEKK3 (MAPK ..
  50. Koyano S, Ito M, Takamatsu N, Shiba T, Yamamoto K, Yoshioka K. A novel Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-binding protein that enhances the activation of JNK by MEK kinase 1 and TGF-beta-activated kinase 1. FEBS Lett. 1999;457:385-8 pubmed
    ..a novel Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-binding protein, termed JNKBP1, and examined its binding affinity for JNK1, JNK2, JNK3, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in COS-7 cells...
  51. Deng Y, Ren X, Yang L, Lin Y, Wu X. A JNK-dependent pathway is required for TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. Cell. 2003;115:61-70 pubmed
    ..receptor signaling can simultaneously activate caspase 8, the transcription factor, NF-kappaB and the kinase, JNK. While activation of caspase 8 is required for TNFalpha-induced apoptosis, and induction of NF-kappaB inhibits cell ..
  52. Tournier C, Hess P, Yang D, Xu J, Turner T, Nimnual A, et al. Requirement of JNK for stress-induced activation of the cytochrome c-mediated death pathway. Science. 2000;288:870-4 pubmed
    The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated when cells are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, the functional consequence of JNK activation in UV-irradiated cells has not been established...
  53. Yu C, Minemoto Y, Zhang J, Liu J, Tang F, Bui T, et al. JNK suppresses apoptosis via phosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein BAD. Mol Cell. 2004;13:329-40 pubmed
    b>JNK has been suggested to be proapoptotic, antiapoptotic, or have no role in apoptosis depending on the cell type and stimulus used...
  54. Whitmarsh A, Cavanagh J, Tournier C, Yasuda J, Davis R. A mammalian scaffold complex that selectively mediates MAP kinase activation. Science. 1998;281:1671-4 pubmed
    The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases is activated by the exposure of cells to multiple forms of stress...
  55. Song J, Lee Y. Dissociation of Akt1 from its negative regulator JIP1 is mediated through the ASK1-MEK-JNK signal transduction pathway during metabolic oxidative stress: a negative feedback loop. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:61-72 pubmed
    ..metabolic oxidative stress-induced death domain-associated protein (Daxx) trafficking is mediated by the ASK1-SEK1-JNK1-HIPK1 signal transduction pathway...
  56. Gupta S, Barrett T, Whitmarsh A, Cavanagh J, Sluss H, Derijard B, et al. Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. EMBO J. 1996;15:2760-70 pubmed
    ..These protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 genes...
  57. Hibi M, Lin A, Smeal T, Minden A, Karin M. Identification of an oncoprotein- and UV-responsive protein kinase that binds and potentiates the c-Jun activation domain. Genes Dev. 1993;7:2135-48 pubmed
    ..This novel c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), whose major form is 46 kD, binds to a specific region within the c-Jun trans-activation domain and phosphorylates ..
  58. Robichaud G, Poulin L. HIV type 1 nef gene inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation through the action of MAPK and JNK in human glial cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000;16:1959-65 pubmed
    ..MAPK and JNK activities were further analyzed in order to elucidate signaling cascades subsequent to the upregulation of ..
  59. Han S, Kim S, Heasley L. Differential gene regulation by specific gain-of-function JNK1 proteins expressed in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47167-74 pubmed
    ..To examine the cellular responses mediated by different JNK isoforms, gain-of-function JNK1 polypeptides were generated by fusing the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MKK7, with p46JNK1alpha ..
  60. Negri S, Oberson A, Steinmann M, Sauser C, Nicod P, Waeber G, et al. cDNA cloning and mapping of a novel islet-brain/JNK-interacting protein. Genomics. 2000;64:324-30 pubmed
    IB1/JIP-1 is a scaffold protein that regulates the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, which is activated by environmental stresses and/or by treatment with proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta and TNF-alpha...
  61. Kelkar N, Gupta S, Dickens M, Davis R. Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the neuronal protein JIP3. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1030-43 pubmed
    The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is activated in response to the treatment of cells with inflammatory cytokines and by exposure to environmental stress...
  62. Chuang J, Wang Y, Yeh S, Liu Y, Chang W, Hung J. Phosphorylation by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 regulates the stability of transcription factor Sp1 during mitosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1139-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, blockade of the Sp1 phosphorylation via inhibition JNK1 activity in mitosis resulted in the ubiquitination and degradation of Sp1. JNK1 phosphorylated Sp1 at Thr278/739...
  63. Saeki K, Kobayashi N, Inazawa Y, Zhang H, Nishitoh H, Ichijo H, et al. Oxidation-triggered c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways for apoptosis in human leukaemic cells stimulated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): a distinct pathway from those of chemically induced and . Biochem J. 2002;368:705-20 pubmed
    ..Dominant negative ASK1, MKK6, MKK4 and JNK1 potently inhibited EGCG-induced cell death...
  64. Tournier C, Whitmarsh A, Cavanagh J, Barrett T, Davis R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7337-42 pubmed
    The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases is activated by phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr...
  65. Cavigelli M, Dolfi F, Claret F, Karin M. Induction of c-fos expression through JNK-mediated TCF/Elk-1 phosphorylation. EMBO J. 1995;14:5957-64 pubmed
    ..However, both of these stimuli strongly activate two other MAPKs, JNK1 and JNK2, and stimulate Elk-1 transcriptional activity and phosphorylation...
  66. Yang Y, Bost F, Charbono W, Dean N, McKay R, Rhim J, et al. C-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase mediates proliferation and tumor growth of human prostate carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:391-401 pubmed
    ..32). Treatment with characterized antisense oligonucleotides complementary to sequences common to either the JNK1 or JNK2 family of isoforms showed that, whereas antisense JNK1 inhibited growth by a maximum of 57%, antisense JNK2 ..
  67. Nishitoh H, Saitoh M, Mochida Y, Takeda K, Nakano H, Rothe M, et al. ASK1 is essential for JNK/SAPK activation by TRAF2. Mol Cell. 1998;2:389-95 pubmed
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced activation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, also known as SAPK; stress-activated protein kinase) requires TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)...
  68. Raingeaud J, Gupta S, Rogers J, Dickens M, Han J, Ulevitch R, et al. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:7420-6 pubmed
    ..activated by dual phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr (MAP kinases) can be grouped into two major classes: ERK and JNK. The ERK group regulates multiple targets in response to growth factors via a Ras-dependent mechanism...
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