Gene Symbol: ITGB6
Description: integrin subunit beta 6
Alias: AI1H, integrin beta-6, integrin, beta 6
Species: human
Products:     ITGB6

Top Publications

  1. Annes J, Rifkin D, Munger J. The integrin alphaVbeta6 binds and activates latent TGFbeta3. FEBS Lett. 2002;511:65-8 pubmed
    ..In particular, the extent to which activation mechanisms differ among the three TGFbeta isoforms is relatively unexplored. We show here that alphaVbeta6 binds and activates latent TGFbeta3. ..
  2. Li X, Yang Y, Hu Y, Dang D, Regezi J, Schmidt B, et al. Alphavbeta6-Fyn signaling promotes oral cancer progression. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41646-53 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that integrin beta6 signaling activates Fyn and thus promotes oral cancer progression. ..
  3. Allen M, Thomas G, Clark S, Dawoud M, Vallath S, Payne S, et al. Altered microenvironment promotes progression of preinvasive breast cancer: myoepithelial expression of ?v?6 integrin in DCIS identifies high-risk patients and predicts recurrence. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:344-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that expression of ?v?6 may be used to stratify patients with DCIS. ..
  4. Chesnokova L, Nishimura S, Hutt Fletcher L. Fusion of epithelial cells by Epstein-Barr virus proteins is triggered by binding of viral glycoproteins gHgL to integrins alphavbeta6 or alphavbeta8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20464-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the direct interaction between EBV gHgL and integrins alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 can provide the trigger for fusion of EBV with an epithelial cell. ..
  5. Wixler V, Geerts D, Laplantine E, Westhoff D, Smyth N, Aumailley M, et al. The LIM-only protein DRAL/FHL2 binds to the cytoplasmic domain of several alpha and beta integrin chains and is recruited to adhesion complexes. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33669-78 pubmed
    ..These results, together with the fact that full-length DRAL/FHL2 is found in cell adhesion complexes, suggest that it is an adaptor/docking protein involved in integrin signaling pathways. ..
  6. Arihiro K, Kaneko M, Fujii S, Inai K, Yokosaki Y. Significance of alpha 9 beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 integrin expression in breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer. 2000;7:19-26 pubmed
    ..The findings of Western blot analysis may indicate that the transportation system of glycoproteins such as integrins to the cell membrane of carcinoma cells is disturbed, although these integrins can be produced. ..
  7. Ahmed N, Niu J, Dorahy D, Gu X, Andrews S, Meldrum C, et al. Direct integrin alphavbeta6-ERK binding: implications for tumour growth. Oncogene. 2002;21:1370-80 pubmed
    ..The physical interaction between integrin alphavbeta6 and ERK2 defines a novel paradigm of integrin-mediated signalling and provides a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. ..
  8. Yap L, Jenei V, Robinson C, Moutasim K, Benn T, Threadgold S, et al. Upregulation of Eps8 in oral squamous cell carcinoma promotes cell migration and invasion through integrin-dependent Rac1 activation. Oncogene. 2009;28:2524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Eps8 and Rac1 are part of an integrated signaling pathway modulating integrin-dependent tumour cell motility and identify Eps8 as a possible therapeutic target. ..
  9. Sheppard D, Rozzo C, Starr L, Quaranta V, Erle D, Pytela R. Complete amino acid sequence of a novel integrin beta subunit (beta 6) identified in epithelial cells using the polymerase chain reaction. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:11502-7 pubmed
    ..Because this protein is clearly distinct from the two other recently described integrins beta 4 and beta 5, we propose to designate it beta 6. ..

More Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Xu M, Yin H, Cai Y, Huang W, Ji Q, Liu F, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid induces integrin β6 expression in human oral squamous cell carcinomas cells via LPAR1 coupling to Gαi and downstream SMAD3 and ETS-1 activation. Cell Signal. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    Integrin β6 (ITGB6), an epithelial-specific integrin, is upregulated in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and is associated with progression and metastasis of OSCC...
  2. Hu W, Pei W, Zhu L, Nie J, Pei H, Zhang J, et al. Microarray Profiling of TGF-β1-Induced Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Patterns in Human Lung Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;50:2071-2085 pubmed publisher
    ..lnc-THEMIS-2 and lnc-ITGB6-4, predicted to be regulated by STAT3 and E2F1 respectively, were found to rescue the decrease of cell viability ..
  3. Maltsev O, Marelli U, Kapp T, Di Leva F, Di Maro S, Nieberler M, et al. Stable Peptides Instead of Stapled Peptides: Highly Potent αvβ6-Selective Integrin Ligands. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016;55:1535-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the utility of the ligand for use in biomedical studies was also demonstrated here. ..
  4. Nixon A, Duque A, Yelle N, McLaughlin M, Davoudi S, Pedley N, et al. A rapid in vitro methodology for simultaneous target discovery and antibody generation against functional cell subpopulations. Sci Rep. 2019;9:842 pubmed publisher
    ..targeting these CICs and identify their protein targets as integrin α7 (ITGA7), HLA-A1 and integrin β6 (ITGB6)...
  5. Jiang W, Jenkins D, Yuan Q, Leung E, Choo K, Watson J, et al. The gene organization of the human beta 7 subunit, the common beta subunit of the leukocyte integrins HML-1 and LPAM-1. Int Immunol. 1992;4:1031-40 pubmed
  6. Wu W, Hutcheon A, Sriram S, Tran J, Zieske J. Initiation of fibrosis in the integrin Αvβ6 knockout mice. Exp Eye Res. 2019;180:23-28 pubmed publisher
    ..A full-thickness corneal incision was made in C57BL/6 J wild type (WT) and C57BL/6-Itgb6 KO (β6-/-) mice. The mice were observed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-incision...
  7. Grgurevic L, Erjavec I, Grgurevic I, Dumic Cule I, Brkljacic J, Verbanac D, et al. Systemic inhibition of BMP1-3 decreases progression of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Growth Factors. 2017;35:201-215 pubmed publisher
    ..antibodies dose-dependently lowered the amount of collagen type I, downregulated the expression of Tgfb1, Itgb6, Col1a1, and Acta2 and upregulated the expression of Ctgf, Itgb1, and Dcn...
  8. Byström S, Eklund M, Hong M, Fredolini C, Eriksson M, Czene K, et al. Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density. Breast Cancer Res. 2018;20:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, ABCC11, TNFRSF10D, F11R and ERRF were positively associated with AD, and SHC1, CFLAR, ACOX2, ITGB6, RASSF1, FANCD2 and IRX5 were negatively associated with AD...
  9. Popov Y, Patsenker E, Stickel F, Zaks J, Bhaskar K, Niedobitek G, et al. Integrin alphavbeta6 is a marker of the progression of biliary and portal liver fibrosis and a novel target for antifibrotic therapies. J Hepatol. 2008;48:453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..2) In vivo a single dose of a small molecule alphavbeta6 inhibitor induced antifibrogenic and profibrolytic genes and activities, suggesting alphavbeta6 is a unique target for treatment of liver fibrosis. ..
  10. Tiezzi F, Parker Gaddis K, Cole J, Clay J, Maltecca C. A genome-wide association study for clinical mastitis in first parity US Holstein cows using single-step approach and genomic matrix re-weighting procedure. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0114919 pubmed publisher
    ..immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4), or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2)...
  11. Safikhani Z, Smirnov P, Thu K, Silvester J, El Hachem N, Quevedo R, et al. Gene isoforms as expression-based biomarkers predictive of drug response in vitro. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1126 pubmed publisher
    ..We further analyze two independent breast cancer datasets and find that specific isoforms of IGF2BP2, NECTIN4, ITGB6, and KLHDC9 are significantly associated with AZD6244, lapatinib, erlotinib, and paclitaxel, respectively...
  12. Zhao P, Mao B, Cai X, Jiang J, Liu Z, Lin J, et al. 2q24 deletion in a 9-month old girl with anal atresia, hearing impairment, and hypotonia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;109:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) array detected a 5.2?Mb deletion on 2q24.2q24.3, including 19 genes (ITGB6; TBR1; SLC4A10; KCNH7 SCN3A; SCN2A et al.)...
  13. Barbitoff Y, Serebryakova E, Nasykhova Y, Predeus A, Polev D, Shuvalova A, et al. Identification of Novel Candidate Markers of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Russia by Exome Sequencing with a Limited Sample Size. Genes (Basel). 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..042), rs2233984 in C6orf15 (p = 0.030), rs61737764 in ITGB6 (p = 0.035), rs17801742 in COL2A1 (p = 8...
  14. Ishikawa A, Okuno S. Fine mapping and candidate gene search of quantitative trait loci for growth and obesity using mouse intersubspecific subcongenic intercrosses and exome sequencing. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113233 pubmed publisher
    ..12 and that Ly75 and Itgb6 are putative candidate genes for Pbwg1.5...
  15. Tabata T, Kawakatsu H, Maidji E, Sakai T, Sakai K, Fang Hoover J, et al. Induction of an epithelial integrin alphavbeta6 in human cytomegalovirus-infected endothelial cells leads to activation of transforming growth factor-beta1 and increased collagen production. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:1127-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that activation of TGF-beta1 by integrin alphavbeta6 contributes to pathological changes and may impair endothelial cell functions in tissues that are chronically infected with CMV. ..
  16. Frank J, Seo H, Burghardt R, Bayless K, Johnson G. ITGAV (alpha v integrins) bind SPP1 (osteopontin) to support trophoblast cell adhesion. Reproduction. 2017;153:695-706 pubmed publisher osteopontin (OPN)) and examined the temporal/spatial expression of ITGAV, beta 3 (b3, ITGB3) and beta 6 (b6, ITGB6) integrin subunits, and SPP1, at the uterine-placental interface of pigs...
  17. Jolly L, Stavrou A, Vanderstoken G, Meliopoulos V, Habgood A, Tatler A, et al. Influenza promotes collagen deposition via αvβ6 integrin-mediated transforming growth factor β activation. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:35246-63 pubmed publisher
  18. Hausner S, Abbey C, Bold R, Gagnon M, Marik J, Marshall J, et al. Targeted in vivo imaging of integrin alphavbeta6 with an improved radiotracer and its relevance in a pancreatic tumor model. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5843-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that these tumors express alpha(v)beta(6) suggests that this probe has significant potential for the in vivo detection of this malignancy, thus having important implications for patient care and therapy. ..
  19. Taye M, Yoon J, Dessie T, Cho S, Oh S, Lee H, et al. Deciphering signature of selection affecting beef quality traits in Angus cattle. Genes Genomics. 2018;40:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..g., PIK3CD, DNAJC28, DNAJC3, GHRL, PLAG1), coat color (e.g., MC1-R) and genetic disorders (e.g., ITGB6, PLAG1) were found to be under positive selection in Angus cattle...
  20. Bowen J, Hunt J. The role of integrins in reproduction. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000;223:331-43 pubmed
  21. Li Z, Lin P, Gao C, Peng C, Liu S, Gao H, et al. Integrin β6 acts as an unfavorable prognostic indicator and promotes cellular malignant behaviors via ERK-ETS1 pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Tumour Biol. 2016;37:5117-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that integrin β6 plays important roles in the progression of pancreatic carcinoma and contributes to reduced survival times, and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of PDAC. ..
  22. Li Y, Zhou C, Gao Y. Interaction between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and fibroblasts through TGF-β1 mediated by podoplanin. Exp Cell Res. 2018;369:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..increased fibroblast invasion via matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-14, and αv/β6 integrin receptor (ITGA5/ITGB6) signaling...
  23. Azimian Zavareh V, Hossein G, Ebrahimi M, Dehghani Ghobadi Z. Wnt11 alters integrin and cadherin expression by ovarian cancer spheroids and inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis. Exp Cell Res. 2018;369:90-104 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Wnt11 significantly and negatively correlated with ITGB2, ITGB6, and EpCAM and positively with CDH-1 in high-grade SOC specimens...
  24. Liang B, Shahbaz M, Wang Y, Gao H, Fang R, Niu Z, et al. Integrinβ6-targeted immunoliposomes mediate tumor-specific drug delivery and enhance therapeutic efficacy in colon carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21:1183-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrinβ6 (ITGB6) is expressed in malignant colonic epithelia, but not in normal epithelia, and is associated with the progression, ..
  25. Weinacker A, Chen A, Agrez M, Cone R, Nishimura S, Wayner E, et al. Role of the integrin alpha v beta 6 in cell attachment to fibronectin. Heterologous expression of intact and secreted forms of the receptor. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:6940-8 pubmed
    ..In such cells, fibronectin binding ability could be blocked by an antibody to alpha v integrins. These results constitute the first direct evidence that alpha v beta 6 mediates cell attachment to fibronectin. ..
  26. Cabanski M, Fields B, Boue S, Boukharov N, Deleon H, Dror N, et al. Transcriptional profiling and targeted proteomics reveals common molecular changes associated with cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema development in five susceptible mouse strains. Inflamm Res. 2015;64:471-86 pubmed publisher
    ..1, STAT1, C/EBP, FOXM1, YY1, and N-COR, and reduced protein abundance of ITGB6 and CFTR...
  27. Gianni T, Massaro R, Campadelli Fiume G. Dissociation of HSV gL from gH by αvβ6- or αvβ8-integrin promotes gH activation and virus entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E3901-10 pubmed publisher
  28. Su Y, Lin W, Chang Y, Wei K, Liang C, Chen S, et al. Polarized cell migration induces cancer type-specific CD133/integrin/Src/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling required for maintenance of cancer stem cell properties. Oncotarget. 2015;6:38029-45 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cell lines could be triggered by CD133, and β-catenin also bound to the proximal promoter regions of ITGB6 and ITGB8 in cell lines from gastric and breast cancers...
  29. Huo Y, Xie X, Jiang B. Identification of functional pathways associated with the conditional ablation of serum response factor in Dstncorn1 mice. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:139-145 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling pathway displayed the highest alteration score, and was enriched with integrin and integrin ??6 (ITGB6)...
  30. Ostergaard K, Salter D, Petersen J, Bendtzen K, Hvolris J, Andersen C. Expression of alpha and beta subunits of the integrin superfamily in articular cartilage from macroscopically normal and osteoarthritic human femoral heads. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57:303-8 pubmed
    ..The alpha v subunit is expressed by more chondrocytes in the superficial zone in comparison with cells in the deeper zones. None of the subunits display topographical variation in expression. ..
  31. Fouchier F, Penel C, Pierre Montero M, Bremond P, Champion S. Integrin alphavbeta6 mediates HT29-D4 cell adhesion to MMP-processed fibrinogen in the presence of Mn2+. Eur J Cell Biol. 2007;86:143-60 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that Mn(2+) and activators of the ERK pathway cooperated in HT29-D4 cell adhesion to Fb. Such a process may be involved in bone metastasis of some cancer cells. ..
  32. Wang J, Leng X, Wang G, Wan X, Cao H. The construction of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma model in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13419 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, three potential biomarker genes were hypomethylated in the tumorigenesis of ICC: ehf, epha4 and itgb6. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive analysis of molecular mechanisms accompanying the progressive nras ..
  33. Saini G, Porte J, Weinreb P, Violette S, Wallace W, McKeever T, et al. αvβ6 integrin may be a potential prognostic biomarker in interstitial lung disease. Eur Respir J. 2015;46:486-94 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no association with the other markers measured.Our data suggest high levels of αvβ6 integrin may identify a specific endotype of progressive fibrotic lung disease. ..
  34. Xu M, Chen X, Yin H, Yin L, Liu F, Fu Y, et al. Cloning and characterization of the human integrin β6 gene promoter. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121439 pubmed publisher
    The integrin β6 (ITGB6) gene, which encodes the limiting subunit of the integrin αvβ6 heterodimer, plays an important role in wound healing and carcinogenesis...
  35. Duperret E, Dahal A, Ridky T. Focal-adhesion-independent integrin-αv regulation of FAK and c-Myc is necessary for 3D skin formation and tumor invasion. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:3997-4013 pubmed publisher
    ..depend only on the binding partners of integrin-αv--integrin β5 and integrin β6 (also known as ITGB5 and ITGB6, respectively)...
  36. Li W, Liu Z, Zhao C, Zhai L. Binding of MMP-9-degraded fibronectin to β6 integrin promotes invasion via the FAK-Src-related Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt/Smad-1/5/8 pathways in breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2015;34:1345-52 pubmed publisher
  37. Hezel A, Deshpande V, Zimmerman S, Contino G, Alagesan B, O Dell M, et al. TGF-? and ?v?6 integrin act in a common pathway to suppress pancreatic cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2012;72:4840-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our findings indicate that ?v?6 and TGF-? act in a common tumor suppressor pathway whose pharmacologic inactivation promotes pancreatic cancer progression. ..
  38. Tatler A, Goodwin A, Gbolahan O, Saini G, Porte J, John A, et al. Amplification of TGF? Induced ITGB6 Gene Transcription May Promote Pulmonary Fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158047 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirm that stimulation with exogenous TGF?1 increases expression of the integrin ?6 subunit gene (ITGB6) and ?v?6 integrin cell surface expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner...
  39. Morris D, Huang X, Kaminski N, Wang Y, Shapiro S, Dolganov G, et al. Loss of integrin alpha(v)beta6-mediated TGF-beta activation causes Mmp12-dependent emphysema. Nature. 2003;422:169-73 pubmed
    ..Through a global analysis of pulmonary gene expression in the lungs of mice lacking this integrin (Itgb6 null mice) we have identified a marked induction of macrophage metalloelastase (Mmp12)--a metalloproteinase that ..
  40. Wilker E, Mittleman M, Litonjua A, Poon A, Baccarelli A, Suh H, et al. Postural changes in blood pressure associated with interactions between candidate genes for chronic respiratory diseases and exposure to particulate matter. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:935-40 pubmed publisher
    ..5). PM(2.5) influences blood pressure and autonomic function. This effect is modified by genes and drugs that also act along this pathway. ..
  41. Moutasim K, Mellows T, Mellone M, Lopez M, Tod J, Kiely P, et al. Suppression of Hedgehog signalling promotes pro-tumourigenic integrin expression and function. J Pathol. 2014;233:196-208 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have potential clinical significance, given the reported recurrence of BCC variants and secondary malignancies in patients treated by Hh targeting. ..
  42. Trevillian P, Paul H, Millar E, Hibberd A, Agrez M. alpha(v)beta(6) Integrin expression in diseased and transplanted kidneys. Kidney Int. 2004;66:1423-33 pubmed
    ..beta(6) integrin is not normally expressed in adult native or transplanted kidneys but is commonly up-regulated in the distal tubule in disease. Our descriptive study suggests that it is a molecule worthy of further study. ..
  43. Wagstaff J, Vallath S, Marshall J, Williamson R, Howard M. Two-dimensional heteronuclear saturation transfer difference NMR reveals detailed integrin ?v?6 protein-peptide interactions. Chem Commun (Camb). 2010;46:7533-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This method, resulting in dramatically reduced overlap, was applied to the interaction of the integrin ?v?6 with a known peptide ligand and highlights novel contact points between the substrate and target protein. ..
  44. Hutt Fletcher L, Chesnokova L. Integrins as triggers of Epstein-Barr virus fusion and epithelial cell infection. Virulence. 2010;1:395-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It reveals yet another way in which an integrin can be used by a pathogen to invade a cell. ..
  45. Singh R, Alex R, Singh U, Kumar S, Sengar G, Raja T, et al. A Synonymous Mutation at Bovine Alpha Vitronectin Domain of Integrin Host Receptor (ITGAV) Gene Effect the Susceptibility of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Crossbred Cattle. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1057:41-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier studies reported that, SNPs at beta 6 subunit (ITGB6) were associated with the occurrence of the diseases in cattle...
  46. Cone R, Weinacker A, Chen A, Sheppard D. Effects of beta subunit cytoplasmic domain deletions on the recruitment of the integrin alpha v beta 6 to focal contacts. Cell Adhes Commun. 1994;2:101-13 pubmed
    ..However, the unique 11 amino acid carboxy terminus of beta 6 is not required for this recruitment, and may actually play a negative regulatory role. ..
  47. Jones A, Lambert D, Speight P, Whawell S. ADAM 10 is over expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma and contributes to invasive behaviour through a functional association with ?v?6 integrin. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:3529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This may result from ADAM 10-induced up-regulation of MMPs. We conclude ADAM 10 may influence OSCC invasion by functionally interacting with ?v?6 integrin which we have previously shown is over expressed in OSCC. ..
  48. Ansar M, Jan A, Santos Cortez R, Wang X, Suliman M, Acharya A, et al. Expansion of the spectrum of ITGB6-related disorders to adolescent alopecia, dentogingival abnormalities and intellectual disability. Eur J Hum Genet. 2016;24:1223-7 pubmed publisher
    ..898G>A (p.(Glu300Lys)) in ITGB6, which co-segregates with the phenotype within the family and is predicted to be deleterious...
  49. Desai K, Aiyappa R, Prabhu J, Nair M, Lawrence P, Korlimarla A, et al. HR+HER2- breast cancers with growth factor receptor-mediated EMT have a poor prognosis and lapatinib downregulates EMT in MCF-7 cells. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317695028 pubmed publisher
  50. Krissansen G, Yuan Q, Jenkins D, Jiang W, Rooke L, Spurr N, et al. Chromosomal locations of the genes coding for the integrin beta 6 and beta 7 subunits. Immunogenetics. 1992;35:58-61 pubmed
  51. Stanescu H, Arcos Burgos M, Medlar A, Bockenhauer D, Kottgen A, Dragomirescu L, et al. Risk HLA-DQA1 and PLA(2)R1 alleles in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:616-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This allele may facilitate an autoimmune response against targets such as variants of PLA2R1. Our findings suggest a basis for understanding this disease and illuminate how adaptive immunity is regulated by HLA. ..
  52. Yu Y, Chen S, Lu G, Wu Y, Mo L, Liu Z, et al. Alphavbeta6 is required in maintaining the intestinal epithelial barrier function. Cell Biol Int. 2014;38:777-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of recombinant avb6 blocked increases in permeability of T84 monolayers to OVA induced by tumor necrosis factor-?. ..
  53. Yi M, Tang Y, Liu B, Li Q, Zhou X, Yu S, et al. Genetic variants in the ITGB6 gene is associated with the risk of radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients treated with thoracic radiation therapy. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:3469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that polymorphisms in αvβ6 integrin genes (ITGAV and ITGB6) might be associated with the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in lung cancer patients treated with thoracic ..
  54. Huang X, Chen A, Agrez M, Sheppard D. A point mutation in the integrin beta 6 subunit abolishes both alpha v beta 6 binding to fibronectin and receptor localization to focal contacts. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1995;13:245-51 pubmed
  55. Zhuang Z, Xu Z, Zhou Q, Xu X, Tian J, Liu Y, et al. Clinical significance of integrin ?6 as a tumor recurrence factor in follicular thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck. 2015;37:1439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Other clinical outcome parameters had no significant statistical differences. Integrin ?6 expression correlated significantly with MMP-9 expression, and may be a valuable recurrence indicator for follicular thyroid carcinomas. ..
  56. Bi J, Koivisto L, Pang A, Li M, Jiang G, Aurora S, et al. Suppression of αvβ6 Integrin Expression by Polymicrobial Oral Biofilms in Gingival Epithelial Cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4411 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its expression is attenuated in human periodontal disease. Moreover, Itgb6 -/- mice display increased periodontal inflammation compared to wild-type mice...
  57. Fernández Ruiz E, Sanchez Madrid F. Regional localization of the human integrin beta 6 gene (ITGB6) to chromosome 2q24-q31. Genomics. 1994;21:638-40 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a proximal position of the integrin beta 6 locus (ITGB6) on this integrin gene cluster...
  58. Shi M, Zhu J, Wang R, Chen X, Mi L, Walz T, et al. Latent TGF-β structure and activation. Nature. 2011;474:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis. ..
  59. Guo H, Du G, Wang L, Wang D, Hu L, Huang Y. Integrin alpha v beta 6 contributes to maintaining corneal epithelial barrier function. Cell Biol Int. 2013;37:593-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the integrin avb6 plays an important role in the fusion of endosome/lysosome in corneal epithelial cells; inhibition of avb6 results in corneal epithelial barrier dysfunction. ..
  60. Berghoff A, Kovanda A, Melchardt T, Bartsch R, Hainfellner J, Sipos B, et al. αvβ3, αvβ5 and αvβ6 integrins in brain metastases of lung cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014;31:841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigations of their involvement in the brain metastatic cascade and their role as biomarkers are warranted. ..
  61. Eberlein C, Rooney C, Ross S, Farren M, Weir H, Barry S. E-Cadherin and EpCAM expression by NSCLC tumour cells associate with normal fibroblast activation through a pathway initiated by integrin ?v?6 and maintained through TGF? signalling. Oncogene. 2015;34:704-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion NSCLC cell lines, positive for E-Cadherin, EpCAM and ?v?6 expression, activate normal fibroblasts through av?6/TGF? signalling in vitro, and influence both gene expression and response to therapeutic agents. ..
  62. Mohammed J, Beura L, Bobr A, Astry B, Chicoine B, Kashem S, et al. Stromal cells control the epithelial residence of DCs and memory T cells by regulated activation of TGF-β. Nat Immunol. 2016;17:414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrated that regulated activation of TGF-β by stromal cells was able to directly control epithelial residence of cells of the immune system through a novel mechanism of intercellular communication. ..
  63. Sullivan B, Weinreb P, Violette S, Luyendyk J. The coagulation system contributes to alphaVbeta6 integrin expression and liver fibrosis induced by cholestasis. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2837-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that a TF-PAR-1 pathway contributes to liver fibrosis induced by chronic cholestasis by increasing expression of the ?V?6 integrin, an important regulator of transforming growth factor-?1 activation. ..
  64. Lian P, Liu Z, Yang G, Zhao R, Zhang Z, Chen Y, et al. Integrin ?v?6 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 correlate with survival in gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:3852-9 pubmed publisher
    ..632, P = 0.003 and RR = 1.813, P = 0.007). The expression of ?v?6 and MMP-9 are closely correlated, and the combinational pattern of ?v?6 and MMP-9 can serve as a more effective prognostic index for gastric cancer patients. ..
  65. Thomas G, Poomsawat S, Lewis M, Hart I, Speight P, Marshall J. alpha v beta 6 Integrin upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 and promotes migration of normal oral keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:898-904 pubmed
    ..It appears that alpha v beta 6 may function in normal human oral keratinocyte migration through matrix-metalloproteinase-9-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  66. Bosch B, Clotet Codina I, Blanco J, Pauls E, Coma G, Cedeño S, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in macrophages by an alpha-v integrin blocking antibody. Antiviral Res. 2006;69:173-80 pubmed
  67. Niu J, Dorahy D, Gu X, Scott R, Draganic B, Ahmed N, et al. Integrin expression in colon cancer cells is regulated by the cytoplasmic domain of the beta6 integrin subunit. Int J Cancer. 2002;99:529-37 pubmed
    ..Given the dominance of the beta6-ERK2 interaction over PKC-mediated expression of both beta5 and beta6 integrin subunits, targeting the beta6-ERK2 interaction may prove useful as an anticancer strategy in colon cancer. ..
  68. Enyu L, Na W, Chuanzong Z, Ben W, Xiaojuan W, Yan W, et al. The clinical significance and underlying correlation of pStat-3 and integrin ?v?6 expression in gallbladder cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8:19467-19477 pubmed publisher
    ..pStat-3 and integrin ?v?6 were indicators of tumor's progression and poor prognosis of patients with GBC. And the further study involving them may provide a helpful therapeutic target in prevention and treatment of GBC patients. ..
  69. Ljubimov A, Saghizadeh M, Pytela R, Sheppard D, Kenney M. Increased expression of tenascin-C-binding epithelial integrins in human bullous keratopathy corneas. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001;49:1341-50 pubmed
    ..The interaction of tenascin-C with these integrins may contribute to the fibrotic process that occurs in PBK/ABK corneas. ..
  70. Li Z, Biswas S, Liang B, Zou X, Shan L, Li Y, et al. Integrin β6 serves as an immunohistochemical marker for lymph node metastasis and promotes cell invasiveness in cholangiocarcinoma. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30081 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrin β6 may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy, and targeting β6 may be a novel strategy for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. ..
  71. Ridgway P, Ziprin P, Peck D, Darzi A. Hypoxia increases reepithelialization via an alphavbeta6-dependent pathway. Wound Repair Regen. 2005;13:158-64 pubmed
    ..05). Migration on fibronectin was attenuated by a specific gelatinase inhibitor. We conclude that integrin alphavbeta6-dependent MMP-2 and -9 up-regulation is an important feature of increased migration in hypoxic human keratinocytes. ..
  72. Li H, Zheng J, Fan H, Li H, Gao Z, Chen D. Expression of ?v?6 integrin and collagen fibre in oral squamous cell carcinoma: association with clinical outcomes and prognostic implications. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42:547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased ?v?6 integrin and MMP-3 expression and collagen fibre changes in human OSCCs are related to unfavourable clinical prognostic factors and decreased survival. ..
  73. Schittenhelm J, Klein A, Tatagiba M, Meyermann R, Fend F, Goodman S, et al. Comparing the expression of integrins ?v?3, ?v?5, ?v?6, ?v?8, fibronectin and fibrinogen in human brain metastases and their corresponding primary tumors. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:2719-32 pubmed
    ..We confirmed that integrin expression exhibits considerable heterogeneity according to tumor origin. ?v?5 is the most promising target for integrin targeted treatment in brain metastases. ..
  74. Weinacker A, Ferrando R, Elliott M, Hogg J, Balmes J, Sheppard D. Distribution of integrins alpha v beta 6 and alpha 9 beta 1 and their known ligands, fibronectin and tenascin, in human airways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1995;12:547-56 pubmed
    ..These findings are compatible with the existence of as-yet unidentified ligands for each of these integrins--for example, ligands involved in homotypic cell-cell interactions within the epithelium. ..
  75. Nagelreiter I, Parvardeh M, Narzt M, Beer L, Kremslehner C, Muresan X, et al. OLR1 scavenger receptor knockdown affects mitotic gene expression but is dispensable for oxidized phospholipid- mediated stress signaling in SZ 95 sebocytes. Mech Ageing Dev. 2018;172:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation induced by oxidized PAPC but interestingly, OLR1 knockdown affected expression of CNN2, HMRR, ITGB6 and KIF20A, all genes governing cell proliferation and motility...
  76. Gu X, Niu J, Dorahy D, Scott R, Agrez M. Integrin alpha(v)beta6-associated ERK2 mediates MMP-9 secretion in colon cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:348-51 pubmed
    ..Targetting either beta6 or its interaction with extracellular signal-regulated kinase in order to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity may offer a useful therapeutic approach in preventing growth and spread of colon cancer. ..
  77. Desai K, Nair M, Prabhu J, Vinod A, Korlimarla A, Rajarajan S, et al. High expression of integrin β6 in association with the Rho-Rac pathway identifies a poor prognostic subgroup within HER2 amplified breast cancers. Cancer Med. 2016;5:2000-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, integrin β6 (ITGB6) is of prognostic value in invasive breast cancers, particularly in HER2+ subtype...
  78. Busk M, Pytela R, Sheppard D. Characterization of the integrin alpha v beta 6 as a fibronectin-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:5790-6 pubmed
    ..A., Smith, J. W., Cooper, H. M., and Quaranta, V. (1989) Cell 57, 59-69), is a mixture of at least two different receptors: alpha v beta 5, mediating adhesion to vitronectin, and alpha v beta 6, mediating adhesion to fibronectin. ..
  79. Heikkilä O, Susi P, Stanway G, Hyypia T. Integrin alphaVbeta6 is a high-affinity receptor for coxsackievirus A9. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, only soluble alphaVbeta6 blocked virus infectivity. These data suggest that CAV9 binding to alphaVbeta6 is a high-affinity interaction, which may indicate its importance in clinical infections; this remains to be determined. ..
  80. Qi L, Cornelis M, Kraft P, Stanya K, Linda Kao W, Pankow J, et al. Genetic variants at 2q24 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2706-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified significantly associated variants near RBMS1 and ITGB6 genes at 2q24, best-represented by SNP rs7593730 (combined OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.86-0.93; P=3.7x10(-8))...
  81. Hecht J, Dolinski B, Gardner H, Violette S, Weinreb P. Overexpression of the alphavbeta6 integrin in endometrial cancer. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2008;16:543-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression is high in metastatic lesions. The level of expression of the primary tumor was not indicative of the presence of nodal metastasis; however, the number of cases with nodal metastases was limited. ..
  82. Wang S, Choi M, Richardson A, Reid B, Lin B, Wang S, et al. ITGB6 loss-of-function mutations cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:2157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of whole-exome sequences identified three integrin beta 6 (ITGB6) mutations responsible for their enamel malformations...
  83. Tatler A, Habgood A, Porte J, John A, Stavrou A, Hodge E, et al. Reduced Ets Domain-containing Protein Elk1 Promotes Pulmonary Fibrosis via Increased Integrin αvβ6 Expression. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:9540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a region in the β6 subunit gene (ITGB6) promoter acting to markedly repress basal gene transcription, which responds to both the Ets domain-containing ..
  84. Xue B, Wu W, Huang K, Xie T, Xu X, Zhang H, et al. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) enhances cells invasion by ?v?6 integrin-mediated signaling in ovarian cancer. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;380:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, our findings will provide a new explanation about how SDF-1 aggravates the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. ..
  85. Seymen F, Lee K, Koruyucu M, Gencay K, Bayram M, Tuna E, et al. Novel ITGB6 mutation in autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta. Oral Dis. 2015;21:456-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous ITGB6 transversion mutation in exon 4 (c.517G>C, p.Gly173Arg)...
  86. Yang S, Du Y, Wu B, Xu S, Wen J, Zhu M, et al. Integrin alphavbeta6 promotes tumor tolerance in colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012;61:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CRC-derived avb6 is involved in the establishment of tumor immune tolerance in local tissues. ..
  87. Jovanovic J, Takagi J, Choulier L, Abrescia N, Stuart D, van der Merwe P, et al. alphaVbeta6 is a novel receptor for human fibrillin-1. Comparative studies of molecular determinants underlying integrin-rgd affinity and specificity. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6743-51 pubmed
    ..Non-focal contact distribution of alpha5beta1 suggests that its engagement by fibrillin-1 may elicit a lesser degree and/or different type of intracellular signaling compared with that seen with a high affinity ligand. ..
  88. Seitsonen J, Susi P, Heikkilä O, Sinkovits R, Laurinmäki P, Hyypia T, et al. Interaction of alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins with human parechovirus 1. J Virol. 2010;84:8509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This first structural characterization of a parechovirus indicates that the differences in receptor binding are due to the amino acid differences in the integrins rather than to significantly different viral footprints...
  89. Defilles C, Montero M, Lissitzky J, Rome S, Siret C, Luis J, et al. ?v integrin processing interferes with the cross-talk between ?v?5/?6 and ?2?1 integrins. Biol Cell. 2011;103:519-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The endoproteolytic cleavage of ?v subunits is necessary for ?v?5/?6 integrin to control ?2?1 function and could thus play an essential role in colon cancer cell migration. ..
  90. Williams C, Kajander T, Hyypia T, Jackson T, Sheppard D, Stanway G. Integrin alpha v beta 6 is an RGD-dependent receptor for coxsackievirus A9. J Virol. 2004;78:6967-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, integrin alpha(v)beta(6) is an RGD-dependent receptor for CAV9 and may be important in natural CAV9 infections. ..
  91. Jacobsen J, Steffensen B, Hakkinen L, Krogfelt K, Larjava H. Skin wound healing in diabetic ?6 integrin-deficient mice. APMIS. 2010;118:753-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that glycation of FN and possibly other integrin ligands could hamper keratinocyte interactions with the provisional matrix proteins during re-epithelialization of diabetic wounds. ..
  92. Tod J, Hanley C, Morgan M, Rucka M, Mellows T, Lopez M, et al. Pro-migratory and TGF-β-activating functions of αvβ6 integrin in pancreatic cancer are differentially regulated via an Eps8-dependent GTPase switch. J Pathol. 2017;243:37-50 pubmed publisher
    ..2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. ..