IRF9

Summary

Gene Symbol: IRF9
Description: interferon regulatory factor 9
Alias: IRF-9, ISGF3, ISGF3G, p48, interferon regulatory factor 9, IFN-alpha-responsive transcription factor subunit, ISGF-3 gamma, ISGF3 p48 subunit, interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 gamma, interferon-stimulated transcription factor 3, gamma (48kD), interferon-stimulated transcription factor 3, gamma 48kDa, transcriptional regulator ISGF3 subunit gamma
Species: human
Products:     IRF9

Top Publications

  1. Tsuno T, Mejido J, Zhao T, Schmeisser H, Morrow A, Zoon K. IRF9 is a key factor for eliciting the antiproliferative activity of IFN-alpha. J Immunother. 2009;32:803-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, IFN-stimulated response element-like motifs of TRAIL bound to IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex after IFN-alpha treatment...
  2. Maiwald T, Schneider A, Busch H, Sahle S, Gretz N, Weiss T, et al. Combining theoretical analysis and experimental data generation reveals IRF9 as a crucial factor for accelerating interferon ?-induced early antiviral signalling. FEBS J. 2010;277:4741-54 pubmed publisher
    ..behaviour is not distributed among several pathway components but can be primarily attributed to interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), constituting a positive feedback loop...
  3. Martinez Moczygemba M, Gutch M, French D, Reich N. Distinct STAT structure promotes interaction of STAT2 with the p48 subunit of the interferon-alpha-stimulated transcription factor ISGF3. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:20070-6 pubmed
    ..and subsequently form a multimeric transcription factor designated the IFN-alpha-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3)...
  4. Ojha A, Bhasym A, Mukherjee S, Annarapu G, Bhakuni T, Akbar I, et al. Platelet factor 4 promotes rapid replication and propagation of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. EBioMedicine. 2019;39:332-347 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis and immunoblot assay showed significant inhibition of IFN-α production in monocytes via p38MAPK-STAT2-IRF9 axis. Blocking PF4 through antibodies or its receptor CXCR3 through inhibitor i.e...
  5. Schubert C, Allhoff M, Tillmann S, Maié T, Costa I, Lipka D, et al. Differential roles of STAT1 and STAT2 in the sensitivity of JAK2V617F- vs. BCR-ABL-positive cells to interferon alpha. J Hematol Oncol. 2019;12:36 pubmed publisher
    ..IFNa treatment increased Stat1, Stat2, and Irf9 mRNA as well as pY-STAT1 in all cell lines; however, viability was specifically decreased in 32D-JAK2V617F...
  6. Fischer C, Mamillapalli R, Goetz L, Jorgenson E, Ilagan Y, Taylor H. Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure In Utero Leads to Immunoregulatory Cytokine Dysregulation in the Mouse Mammary Gland: A Potential Mechanism Programming Breast Cancer Risk. Horm Cancer. 2016;7:241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..gene family (Il1β and Il1rn), interleukin 2 gene family (Il7 receptor), and interferon gene family (interferon regulatory factor 9 (Irf9), as well as immune response gene 1 (Irg1)...
  7. Ko E, Chorich L, Sullivan M, Cameron R, Layman L. JAK/STAT signaling pathway gene expression is reduced following Nelf knockdown in GnRH neurons. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018;470:151-159 pubmed publisher
    ..transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, including Stat1, Stat2, Stat5a, Jak2, Irf7 and Irf9, were significantly down regulated as assessed by RT-qPCR...
  8. Walter K, Goodman M, Singhal H, Hall J, Li T, Holloran S, et al. Interferon-Stimulated Genes Are Transcriptionally Repressed by PR in Breast Cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2017;15:1331-1340 pubmed publisher
    ..activation, key regulatory transcription factors that are required for IFN-activated ISG transcription, STAT2 and IRF9, exhibit impaired recruitment to ISG promoter regions, correlating with PR/ligand-dependent ISG transcriptional ..
  9. Xiang Y, Liu W, Jia P, Li Y, Jin Y, Chen L, et al. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of interferon-gamma in black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;70:140-148 pubmed publisher
    ..and transiently stimulated the expression of JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes including STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9, as well as the downstream antiviral genes MX1 and ISG15...

More Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. Diotallevi M, Checconi P, Palamara A, Celestino I, Coppo L, Holmgren A, et al. Glutathione Fine-Tunes the Innate Immune Response toward Antiviral Pathways in a Macrophage Cell Line Independently of Its Antioxidant Properties. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1239 pubmed publisher
    ..One group, mapping to innate immunity and antiviral responses (Oas2, Oas3, Mx2, Irf7, Irf9, STAT1, il1b), required GSH for optimal induction...
  2. Carballo C, Castro D, Borrego J, Manchado M. Gene expression profiles associated with lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in experimentally infected Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;66:129-139 pubmed publisher
    ..antiviral-related transcripts (including the mx and interferon-related factors irf1, irf2, irf3, irf7, irf8, irf9, irf10), cytokines (il1b, il6, il8, il12 and tnfa) and their receptors (il1r, il8r, il10r, il15ra, il17r), ..
  3. Han M, Yoo D. Modulation of innate immune signaling by nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in the family Arteriviridae. Virus Res. 2014;194:100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanceosome, whereas PRRSV-nsp1β degrades karyopherin-α1 which is known to mediate the nuclear import of ISGF3 (interferon-stimulated gene factor 3)...
  4. Jin Y, Huo B, Fu X, Hao T, Zhang Y, Guo Y, et al. LSD1 collaborates with EZH2 to regulate expression of interferon-stimulated genes. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;88:728-737 pubmed publisher
    ..LSD1 and EZH2 modify histone methylation at IRF9 gene locus...
  5. Lu L, Zhu F, Zhang M, Li Y, Drennan A, Kimpara S, et al. Gene regulation and suppression of type I interferon signaling by STAT3 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E498-E505 pubmed publisher
    ..STAT3 negatively regulates the lethal type I IFN signaling pathway by inhibiting expression of IRF7, IRF9, STAT1, and STAT2 Inhibition of STAT3 activity by ruxolitinib synergizes with the type I IFN ..
  6. Kim Y, Ahn J. Positive role of promyelocytic leukemia protein in type I interferon response and its regulation by human cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1004785 pubmed publisher
    ..ISG transcription, and that IE1 inhibited ISG transcription by sequestering interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) in a manner requiring its binding of PML and STAT2, but not of HDACs...
  7. Majoros A, Platanitis E, Szappanos D, Cheon H, Vogl C, Shukla P, et al. Response to interferons and antibacterial innate immunity in the absence of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1. EMBO Rep. 2016;17:367-82 pubmed publisher
    ..the delayed expression of IFN-I-stimulated genes (ISG) observed in Stat1(-/-) cells, mediated by the STAT2/IRF9 complex...
  8. Maekawa S, Aoki T, Wang H. Constitutive overexpressed type I interferon induced downregulation of antiviral activity in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;68:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, transduction of IFN signals for STAT1b, STAT2 and IRF9 were down-regulated in the IFNd-Tg fish, and expression levels of RLR signal molecules (MDA5, MITA, IRF1 and IRF3) ..
  9. Thakar J, Hartmann B, Marjanovic N, Sealfon S, Kleinstein S. Comparative analysis of anti-viral transcriptomics reveals novel effects of influenza immune antagonism. BMC Immunol. 2015;16:46 pubmed publisher
    ..BETA predicted decreased ISGF3 activity during influenza A infection of human dendritic cells (reflected in lower expression of Interferon ..
  10. Li W, Gorantla S, Gendelman H, Poluektova L. Systemic HIV-1 infection produces a unique glial footprint in humanized mouse brains. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10:1489-1502 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptional alterations for interferon type 1 and 2 signaling pathways (STAT1, STAT2, IRF9, ISG15, IFI6) and a range of host antiviral responses (MX1, OAS1, RSAD2, ..
  11. Inkpen S, Solbakken M, Jentoft S, Eslamloo K, Rise M. Full characterization and transcript expression profiling of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Dev Comp Immunol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..e. Irf3, Irf5, Irf6, Irf9, and two Irf2 splice variants)...
  12. Vetreno R, Broadwater M, Liu W, Spear L, Crews F. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113421 pubmed publisher
    ..was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48) and adult (P70-P90) binge ethanol exposure...
  13. Volk A, Crispino J. The role of the chromatin assembly complex (CAF-1) and its p60 subunit (CHAF1b) in homeostasis and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1849:979-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas the diverse functions of the large (CAF-1-p150, CHAF1a) and small (RbAp48, p48) subunits of the CAF-1 complex have been well-characterized in many tissues and extend beyond histone chaperone ..
  14. Duszka K, Ellero Simatos S, Ow G, Defernez M, Paramalingam E, Tett A, et al. Complementary intestinal mucosa and microbiota responses to caloric restriction. Sci Rep. 2018;8:11338 pubmed publisher
    ..The HNF, PPAR, STAT, and IRF families of transcription factors, particularly the Ppar? and Isgf3 genes, were identified as potentially critical players in these processes...
  15. Duerr C, McCarthy C, Mindt B, Rubio M, Meli A, Pothlichet J, et al. Type I interferon restricts type 2 immunopathology through the regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Nat Immunol. 2016;17:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and negatively regulated mouse and human ILC2 cells in a manner dependent on the transcriptional activator ISGF3 that led to altered cytokine production, cell proliferation and increased cell death...
  16. Pitt J, Blankley S, Potempa K, Graham C, Moreira Teixeira L, McNab F, et al. Analysis of Transcriptional Signatures in Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection Reveals Temporal Changes That Result from Type I Interferon Signaling. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150251 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, on in depth analysis, changes in gene expression in uninfected mice of key IFN regulatory genes including Irf9, Irf7, Stat1 and others were identified, and although induced by an equivalent degree upon infection this resulted ..
  17. Shrivastava S, Meissner E, Funk E, Poonia S, Shokeen V, Thakur A, et al. Elevated hepatic lipid and interferon stimulated gene expression in HCV GT3 patients relative to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatol Int. 2016;10:937-946 pubmed
    ..that, in HCV GT3-infected patients, IL28B (CC) genotype is associated with lower baseline ISG expression such as IRF9, ISG15, MX1, STAT1, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IFI27 compared to CT/TT genotype...
  18. Gonzales van Horn S, Estrada L, van Oers N, Farrar J. STAT4-mediated transcriptional repression of the IL5 gene in human memory Th2 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2016;46:1504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..While many ISGs are transcriptionally activated by the ISGF3 complex, the significance of other signaling intermediates in IFN-?/?-mediated gene regulation remains elusive, ..
  19. Zolotarenko A, Chekalin E, Mehta R, Baranova A, Tatarinova T, Bruskin S. Identification of Transcriptional Regulators of Psoriasis from RNA-Seq Experiments. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1613:355-370 pubmed publisher
    ..has allowed us to identify 42 core transcriptional regulators of the disease associated with inflammation (NFkB, IRF9, JUN, FOS, SRF), activity of T-cells in the psoriatic lesions (STAT6, FOXP3, NFATC2, GATA3, TCF7, RUNX1, etc...
  20. Goodman M, Trinca G, Walter K, Papachristou E, D Santos C, Li T, et al. Progesterone Receptor Attenuates STAT1-Mediated IFN Signaling in Breast Cancer. J Immunol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the absence of PR led to increased recruitment of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9 (key transcription factors necessary for ISG transcription) to ISG promoters...
  21. Subba Reddy C, Goodfellow I, Kao C. VPg-primed RNA synthesis of norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases by using a novel cell-based assay. J Virol. 2011;85:13027-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the coexpression of each of the other NoV proteins revealed that p48 (also known as NS1-2) and VP1 enhanced and that VP2 reduced the RdRp activity...
  22. Carballo C, Chronopoulou E, Letsiou S, Maya C, Labrou N, Infante C, et al. Antioxidant capacity and immunomodulatory effects of a chrysolaminarin-enriched extract in Senegalese sole. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;82:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..dpi, and the down-regulation of c-lectin receptor as well as some interferon-related genes (ifn1, irf1, irf3, irf8, irf9 and mx) in kidney and cxc10 in spleen indicated that the soles were able to activate a homeostatic response against ..
  23. Laghari Z, Li L, Chen S, Huo H, Huang B, Zhou Y, et al. Composition and transcription of all interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), IRF1‒11 in a perciform fish, the mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi. Dev Comp Immunol. 2018;81:127-140 pubmed publisher
    ..The ISKNV infection induced the significant increase in the expression of some IRF genes, i.e. IRF2, IRF4a, IRF7, IRF9, IRF10 at 24 or 36 h post-infection (hpi) in spleen and head-kidney, and the significant increase of some other ..
  24. Guo J, Ito S, Nguyen H, Yamamoto K, Iwata H. Effects on the hepatic transcriptome of chicken embryos in ovo exposed to phenobarbital. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;160:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..activated in both genders, some TFs were activated in a gender-dependent manner, such as PPARa in males and BRCA1 and IRF9 in females. Taken together, our results provided an insight into the mode of action of PB on the chicken embryos.
  25. Singh P, J F. A Biomolecular Network Driven Proteinic Interaction in HCV Clearance. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2018;76:161-172 pubmed publisher
    ..STAT3, SOCS1, and MYD88 genes are prioritized as hub genes along with their common transcription factors (TFs), IRF9, NFKB1, and STAT1...
  26. Du Y, Lin Y, Zhou X, Wang K, Fang S, Deng Q. Full-length sequence and genome analysis of CHV1-CN280, a North China isolate of cryphonectria hypovirus 1. Arch Virol. 2017;162:1811-1818 pubmed publisher
    ..around the start codon of ORFA, the region around the predicted cleavage site of p29 and p40, and the 5'-portion of p48 coding region), the nucleotide sequence identity is lower than 50%...
  27. Stuart J, Sumner R, Lu Y, Snowden J, Smith G. Vaccinia Virus Protein C6 Inhibits Type I IFN Signalling in the Nucleus and Binds to the Transactivation Domain of STAT2. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005955 pubmed publisher
    ..of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding of the interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex to the interferon stimulated response element (ISRE)...
  28. Zhang W, Yin L, Tao X, Xu L, Zheng L, Han X, et al. Dioscin alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury through regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;45:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..decreased the expression levels of FasL, Fas, p53, Bak, Caspase-3/9, and upregulated Bcl-2 level through decreasing IRF9 level against apoptosis...
  29. Botha J, Taylor M, Mans J. Comparative analysis of South African norovirus GII.4 strains identifies minor recombinant variants. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;47:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The encoded proteins with the highest diversity were p48 (Nterm), p22, VP1 and VP2...
  30. Hakim M, Chen S, Ding S, Yin Y, Ikram A, Ma X, et al. Basal interferon signaling and therapeutic use of interferons in controlling rotavirus infection in human intestinal cells and organoids. Sci Rep. 2018;8:8341 pubmed publisher
    ..we revealed the essential roles of the basal IFN signaling in limiting RV replication by silencing STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9 genes...
  31. Markovinovic A, Ljutic T, Béland L, Munitic I. Optineurin Insufficiency Disbalances Proinflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Factors by Reducing Microglial IFN-β Responses. Neuroscience. 2018;388:139-151 pubmed publisher
    ..several transcription factors that support the amplification loop for IFN-β production including STAT1, IRF7 and IRF9. Notably, although optineurin was also reported to block proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, normal NF-κB ..
  32. Lee A, Chen B, Chew M, Barra N, Shenouda M, Nham T, et al. Inflammatory monocytes require type I interferon receptor signaling to activate NK cells via IL-18 during a mucosal viral infection. J Exp Med. 2017;214:1153-1167 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice deficient in type I IFN signaling, Ifnar-/- and Irf9-/- mice, had significantly lower levels of inflammatory monocytes, were deficient in IL-18 ..
  33. Zhu Z, Yang Y, Wei J, Shao D, Shi Z, Li B, et al. Type I interferon-mediated immune response against influenza A virus is attenuated in the absence of p53. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;454:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) including IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 5, IRF9, ISG15, ISG20, guanylate-binding protein 1, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 ..
  34. Sood V, Sharma K, Gupta V, Saha D, Dhapola P, Sharma M, et al. ATF3 negatively regulates cellular antiviral signaling and autophagy in the absence of type I interferons. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8789 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified new targets of ATF3 and show that it binds to the promoter regions of Stat1, Irf9, Isg15 and Atg5 thereby inhibiting cellular antiviral signaling and autophagy...
  35. Zhang J, Chen Z, Tang Z, Huang J, Hu X, He J. RNA editing is induced by type I interferon in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317708546 pubmed publisher
    ..carcinoma clinical samples showed that ADAR1 expression was correlated with the expression of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9. In vitro experiments showed that the abundance of ADAR1 protein was associated with the induced activation of the ..
  36. Bergauer A, Sopel N, Kroß B, Vuorinen T, Xepapadaki P, Weiss S, et al. IFN-?/IFN-? responses to respiratory viruses in paediatric asthma. Eur Respir J. 2017;49: pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro with the RV1b serotype upregulated MYD88, IRF1, STAT1 and STAT2 mRNA, whereas MYD88, IRF1, STAT1 and IRF9 were predominantly induced in control children...
  37. Sprokholt J, Kaptein T, van Hamme J, Overmars R, Gringhuis S, Geijtenbeek T. RIG-I-like receptor activation by dengue virus drives follicular T helper cell formation and antibody production. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006738 pubmed publisher
    ..which phosphorylates IFN?/? receptor-induced STAT1 to drive IL-27 production via the transcriptional complex ISGF3. Inhibiting RLR activation as well as neutralizing antibodies against IL-27 prevented TFH formation...
  38. Rajsbaum R, Versteeg G, Schmid S, Maestre A, Belicha Villanueva A, Martínez Romero C, et al. Unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin synthesized by the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM6 stimulates the interferon-IKK? kinase-mediated antiviral response. Immunity. 2014;40:880-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work attributes a previously unrecognized activating role of K48-linked unanchored polyubiquitin chains in kinase activation and identifies the UbE2K-TRIM6-ubiquitin axis as critical for IFN signaling and antiviral response. ..
  39. Zhu X, Wang D, Zhou J, Pan T, Chen J, Yang Y, et al. Porcine Deltacoronavirus nsp5 Antagonizes Type I Interferon Signaling by Cleaving STAT2. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..of transcription 2 (STAT2) but not Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), STAT1, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), key molecules of the JAK-STAT pathway...
  40. Jiang H, Hegde S, Knolhoff B, Zhu Y, Herndon J, Meyer M, et al. Targeting focal adhesion kinase renders pancreatic cancers responsive to checkpoint immunotherapy. Nat Med. 2016;22:851-60 pubmed publisher
    ..selective FAK inhibitor VS-4718 substantially limited tumor progression, resulting in a doubling of survival in the p48-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D);Trp53(flox/+) (KPC) mouse model of human PDAC...
  41. Wang W, Yin Y, Xu L, Su J, Huang F, Wang Y, et al. Unphosphorylated ISGF3 drives constitutive expression of interferon-stimulated genes to protect against viral infections. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..ISGs) are antiviral effectors that are induced by IFNs through the formation of a tripartite transcription factor ISGF3, which is composed of IRF9 and phosphorylated forms of STAT1 and STAT2...
  42. Mattheolabakis G, Papayannis I, Yang J, Vaeth B, Wang R, Bandovic J, et al. Phospho-Aspirin (MDC-22) Prevents Pancreatic Carcinogenesis in Mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016;9:624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In p48-Cre;Kras(G12D) mice, cerulein treatment (6 hourly injections two times per week for 3 weeks) led to a significant ..
  43. Zhao X, Chu Q, Cui J, Huo R, Xu T. IRF9 as a negative regulator involved in TRIF-mediated NF-κB pathway in a teleost fish, Miichthys miiuy. Mol Immunol. 2017;85:123-129 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we have firstly studied IRF9 functions as a negative regulator involved in TRIF-mediated NF-κB pathway...
  44. Schmid S, Mordstein M, Kochs G, Garcia Sastre A, tenOever B. Transcription factor redundancy ensures induction of the antiviral state. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:42013-22 pubmed publisher
    ..is mediated from IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs) that bind to both the IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) as well as to IFN response factor 7 (IRF7)...
  45. Bego M, Côté Ã, Cohen Ã. Assessing the Innate Sensing of HIV-1 Infected CD4+ T Cells by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Using an Ex vivo Co-culture System. J Vis Exp. 2015;: pubmed publisher
    ..co-cultures are then used to determine the levels of bioactive type-I IFNs by monitoring the activation of the ISGF3 pathway in HEK-Blue IFN-α/β cells...
  46. Zhu M, Lu J, Dong X, Zheng N, Li T, Chen Z, et al. Interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 complex is required for the induction of sterile α motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 expression by interferon-α in SMMC-7721 cells. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:7176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..in SMMC‑7721 cells by IFN‑α was found to be dependent on IFN‑regulatory factor 9 (IRF9)...
  47. Severa M, Coccia E, Fitzgerald K. Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent viperin gene expression and counter-regulation by PRDI-binding factor-1/BLIMP1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26188-95 pubmed
    ..IFN)-stimulated response elements (ISRE), which in other genes bind IRF3 or the IFN-stimulated gene factor-3 (ISGF3) complex...
  48. Das A, Chai J, Kim S, Lee Y, Park K, Jung K, et al. Transcriptome sequencing of microglial cells stimulated with TLR3 and TLR4 ligands. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:517 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, we observed that previously unidentified transcription factors (TFs) (i.e., IRF1, IRF7, and IRF9) and the epigenetic regulators KDM4A and DNMT3L were significantly up-regulated in both TLR3- and TLR4-stimulated ..
  49. Zemke N, Berk A. The Adenovirus E1A C Terminus Suppresses a Delayed Antiviral Response and Modulates RAS Signaling. Cell Host Microbe. 2017;22:789-800.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..The induced IRF3 bound to chromatin and localized to the promoters of activated ISGs. While IRF3, STAT1/2, and IRF9 all greatly increased in concentration, there were no corresponding mRNA increases, suggesting that e1a regulates ..
  50. Lee S, Ou D, Lee C, Juan L. Gene-specific transcriptional activation mediated by the p150 subunit of the chromatin assembly factor 1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14040-9 pubmed publisher
    Chromatin assembly factor 1 contains three subunits, p150, p60, and p48. It is essential for coupling nucleosome assembly to newly synthesized DNA...
  51. Mostafavi S, Yoshida H, Moodley D, LeBoité H, Rothamel K, Raj T, et al. Parsing the Interferon Transcriptional Network and Its Disease Associations. Cell. 2016;164:564-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Some ISGs are controlled by Stat1/2 and Irf9 and the ISRE DNA motif, but others appeared dependent on non-canonical factors...
  52. Nan J, Wang Y, Yang J, Stark G. IRF9 and unphosphorylated STAT2 cooperate with NF-?B to drive IL6 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:3906-3911 pubmed publisher
    In response to IFN?, the IL6 gene is activated, modestly at early times by ISGF3 (IRF9 plus tyrosine-phosphorylated STATs 1 and 2), and strongly at late times by U-ISGF3 (IRF9 plus U-STATs 1 and 2, lacking tyrosine phosphorylation)...
  53. Di Bona D, Cippitelli M, Fionda C, Cammà C, Licata A, Santoni A, et al. Oxidative stress inhibits IFN-alpha-induced antiviral gene expression by blocking the JAK-STAT pathway. J Hepatol. 2006;45:271-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, oxidative stress impairs IFN-alpha signaling and might cause resistance to the antiviral action of IFN-alpha in chronically HCV infected patients with high level of oxidative stress in the liver. ..
  54. Zhang Q, Wang Y, Wei L, Jiang D, Wang J, Rao H, et al. Role of ISGF3 in modulating the anti-hepatitis B virus activity of interferon-alpha in vitro. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:1747-61 pubmed
    ..We also investigated the role of IFN-stimulated gene factor3 (ISGF3) complex in IFN-alpha-mediated anti-HBV responses in human hepatoma cells by measuring the mRNA of the three genes ..
  55. Huang C, Chou C, Lien H, Chu C, Ho J, Wu Y, et al. IRF9-Stat2 Fusion Protein as an Innate Immune Inducer to Activate Mx and Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression in Zebrafish Larvae. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2017;19:310-319 pubmed publisher
    ..zIRF9-S2C could mimic IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex to constitutively activate transcription of Mx promoter through IFN-stimulatory element (ISRE) sites...
  56. Feng H, Gupta B, Wang M, Zheng W, Zheng L, Zhu X, et al. Genetic diversity of transmission-blocking vaccine candidate Pvs48/45 in Plasmodium vivax populations in China. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:615 pubmed publisher
    The male gamete fertilization factor P48/45 in malaria parasites is a prime transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate. Efforts to develop antimalarial vaccines are often thwarted by genetic diversity of the target antigens...
  57. Zhang S, Zhu L, Chen H, Zhang R, Zhang P, Jiang D, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 9 is critical for neointima formation following vascular injury. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5160 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) has various biological functions and regulates cell survival; however, its role in vascular biology has not been explored...
  58. Pisapia L, Barba P, Cortese A, Cicatiello V, Morelli F, Del Pozzo G. EBP1 protein modulates the expression of human MHC class II molecules in non-hematopoietic cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2015;47:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied EBP1, an ErbB3 binding protein, and the effects of p48 and p42 isoforms on the MHC II expression in U87 glioblastoma, M14 melanoma and MCF7 mammary carcinoma cell lines...
  59. Azevedo Pouly A, Sutaria D, Jiang J, Elgamal O, Amari F, Allard D, et al. miR-216 and miR-217 expression is reduced in transgenic mouse models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, knockout of miR-216/miR-217 host gene is embryonic lethal. Funct Integr Genomics. 2017;17:203-212 pubmed publisher
    ..expression, we profiled the expression of 629 miRNAs in RNA isolated from the pancreas of control, young, and old P48+/Cre;LSL-KRASG12D as well as PDX-1-Cre;LSL-KRASG12D mice...
  60. Blaszczyk K, Nowicka H, Kostyrko K, Antonczyk A, Wesoly J, Bluyssen H. The unique role of STAT2 in constitutive and IFN-induced transcription and antiviral responses. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2016;29:71-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This complex, also known as IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), then translocates into the nucleus and binds the IFN-I-stimulated response element (ISRE) leading to the ..
  61. Assetta B, De Cecco M, O Hara B, Atwood W. JC Polyomavirus Infection of Primary Human Renal Epithelial Cells Is Controlled by a Type I IFN-Induced Response. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylated STAT1 and IRF9, which are responsible for inducing ISGs, translocated to the nucleus of JCPyV-infected cells but did not in BKPyV-..
  62. Chaudhary V, Yuen K, Chan J, Chan C, Wang P, Cai J, et al. Selective Activation of Type II Interferon Signaling by Zika Virus NS5 Protein. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..The recruitment of STAT1-STAT2-IRF9 to IFN-β-stimulated genes was compromised when NS5 was expressed...
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    ..that the risk-conferring A allele was correlated with lower expression of p46 and increased expression of p42, p48, and p44...
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    ..Using an animal model of aggressive PDAC (Kras/p48TGFβRIIKO), we discovered an effect of TGFβ signaling in regulation of G-CSF secretion in pancreatic ..
  65. Watanabe T, Asano N, Fichtner Feigl S, Gorelick P, Tsuji Y, Matsumoto Y, et al. NOD1 contributes to mouse host defense against Helicobacter pylori via induction of type I IFN and activation of the ISGF3 signaling pathway. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1645-62 pubmed publisher
    ..which led to activation of a heterotrimeric transcription factor complex known as IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) and the subsequent production of CXCL10 and additional type I IFN...
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    ..The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) is a component of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling downstream of the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR)...
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    The transduction of type I interferon signals to the nucleus relies on activation of a protein complex, ISGF3, involving two signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, STAT1 and STAT2, and the interferon (IFN) ..
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    ..Furthermore, IRF-10 expression is regulated, at least in part, by members of the Rel/NF-kappa B and IRF families. ..
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    ..The results from biochemical experiments indicated that PKV VP3 associated with STAT2 and IRF9, and interfered with the formation of the STAT2-IRF9 and STAT2-STAT2 complex, impairing nuclear translocation of ..
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    ..Herein, we review the ability and novel mechanisms of several diverse viruses to inhibit IFN-induced JAK/STAT signal transduction. ..
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  76. Zhan F, Liu H, Lai R, Jakovlić I, Wang W. Expression and functional characterization of interferon regulatory factors (irf2, irf7 and irf9) in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;67:239-248 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, three irf family members (irf2, irf7, irf9) were identified and characterized in Megalobrama amblycephala at the mRNA and amino acid levels. M...
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    ..For the IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), STAT1 and IRF-9 mediate IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) binding, whereas STAT2 provides a potent ..
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    The interferon (IFN)-induced signal transduction and transcription activation complex, ISGF3, is assembled from three proteins, STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9...
  79. Suprunenko T, Hofer M. The emerging role of interferon regulatory factor 9 in the antiviral host response and beyond. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2016;29:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..effects predominantly through a signaling factor complex that comprises the transcription factors, interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) and the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT2...
  80. Basavaraja R, Przygrodzka E, Pawlinski B, Gajewski Z, Kaczmarek M, Meidan R. Interferon-tau promotes luteal endothelial cell survival and inhibits specific luteolytic genes in bovine corpus luteum. Reproduction. 2017;154:559-568 pubmed publisher
    ..recombinant ovine IFNT (roIFNT) markedly elevates interferon-associated genes (STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs: MX2, ISG15 and OAS1Y) in both models...
  81. Chawla Sarkar M, Leaman D, Jacobs B, Tuthill R, Chatterjee Kishore M, Stark G, et al. Resistance to interferons in melanoma cells does not correlate with the expression or activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1). J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002;22:603-13 pubmed
    ..the transcriptional activation complexes, such as, gamma activated factor (GAF) and IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), for IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) induction were assessed in melanoma cell lines...
  82. David M, Romero G, Zhang Z, Dixon J, Larner A. In vitro activation of the transcription factor ISGF3 by interferon alpha involves a membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatase and tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:6593-9 pubmed
    ..alpha (IFN alpha) with its cell surface receptor rapidly activates the formation of the transcription complex ISGF3, which subsequently translocates to the nucleus and stimulates the expression of a variety of early response genes...
  83. Kim S, Lee C. Counter-regulation mechanism of IL-4 and IFN-? signal transduction through cytosolic retention of the pY-STAT6:pY-STAT2:p48 complex. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:461-72 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrated the colocalization and molecular interaction of IL-4-induced pY-STAT6 with IFN-?-induced pY-STAT2:p48 in the cytosol...
  84. Laver T, Nozell S, Benveniste E. IFN-beta-mediated inhibition of IL-8 expression requires the ISGF3 components Stat1, Stat2, and IRF-9. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we dissect the role of each member of the IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) signaling complex in contributing to IFN-beta inhibition of IL-8 gene expression...
  85. Zhang Y, Liu X, She Z, Jiang D, Wan N, Xia H, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 9 is an essential mediator of heart dysfunction and cell death following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Basic Res Cardiol. 2014;109:434 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to investigate whether interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) is involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process...
  86. Kolosenko I, Fryknäs M, Forsberg S, Johnsson P, Cheon H, Holvey Bates E, et al. Cell crowding induces interferon regulatory factor 9, which confers resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:E51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..using knock-down of gene expression showed that cell crowding leads to the induction of IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF9) which together with STAT2 and independently of IFNs, is necessary for ISG upregulation...
  87. Mutocheluh M, Hindle L, Aresté C, Chanas S, Butler L, Lowry K, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral interferon regulatory factor-2 inhibits type 1 interferon signalling by targeting interferon-stimulated gene factor-3. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides both a mechanism and evidence for KSHV vIRF-2-mediated suppression of the consequences of type 1 IFN-induced signalling. ..
  88. Sakamoto S, Potla R, Larner A. Histone deacetylase activity is required to recruit RNA polymerase II to the promoters of selected interferon-stimulated early response genes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40362-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, ectopic expression of IRF9 reverses the inhibitory actions of TSA, suggesting that IRF9 functions to recruit RNA polymerase II to the promoter ..
  89. Roy S, Hu J, Meng Q, Hu J, Reddy S, Kalvakolanu D. Development of monoclonal antibodies against GBF1 and their use in studying its functions. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2005;25:666-73 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, other cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, induced the expression of GBF1. These antibodies may be useful tools for investigating the role of GBF1 in cytokine-induced responses. ..
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    ..an antiproliferative effect was found to mainly derive from a defect in the activation of the transcription factor ISGF3 required for Jak/STATS signaling...
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    ..IRF9 is the DNA-binding component of the transcriptional IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3). CypA binds directly to IRF9 via its peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) pocket...
  92. Sung P, Cheon H, Cho C, Hong S, Park D, Seo H, et al. Roles of unphosphorylated ISGF3 in HCV infection and interferon responsiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:10443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..role in IFN responsiveness during HCV infection in relation to unphosphorylated IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (U-ISGF3), recently identified as a tripartite transcription factor formed by high levels of IFN response factor 9 (IRF9), ..