Gene Symbol: IRF5
Description: interferon regulatory factor 5
Alias: SLEB10, interferon regulatory factor 5
Species: human
Products:     IRF5

Top Publications

  1. Rullo O, Woo J, Wu H, Hoftman A, Maranian P, Brahn B, et al. Association of IRF5 polymorphisms with activation of the interferon alpha pathway. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:611-7 pubmed publisher
    The genetic association of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility has been convincingly established...
  2. Alonso Perez E, Suarez Gestal M, Calaza M, Kwan T, Majewski J, Gomez Reino J, et al. Cis-regulation of IRF5 expression is unable to fully account for systemic lupus erythematosus association: analysis of multiple experiments with lymphoblastoid cell lines. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R80 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 gene (IRF5) polymorphisms are strongly associated with several diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The association includes risk and protective components...
  3. Lin R, Yang L, Arguello M, Penafuerte C, Hiscott J. A CRM1-dependent nuclear export pathway is involved in the regulation of IRF-5 subcellular localization. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3088-95 pubmed
    ..Although IRF-5 is phosphorylated by IKKepsilon and TBK1 in co-transfected cells, the phosphorylation of IRF-5 did not lead to IRF-5 nuclear localization or activation. ..
  4. Dieude P, Wipff J, Guedj M, Ruiz B, Melchers I, Hachulla E, et al. BANK1 is a genetic risk factor for diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis and has additive effects with IRF5 and STAT4. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:3447-54 pubmed publisher
    ..SSc) in 2 European Caucasian populations and to investigate the putative gene-gene interactions between BANK1 and IRF5 as well as STAT4. BANK1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in a total population of 2,432 individuals...
  5. Hom G, Graham R, Modrek B, Taylor K, Ortmann W, Garnier S, et al. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus with C8orf13-BLK and ITGAM-ITGAX. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alleles of HLA-DRB1, IRF5, and STAT4 are established susceptibility genes; there is strong evidence for the existence of additional risk loci...
  6. Dieude P, Guedj M, Wipff J, Avouac J, Fajardy I, Diot E, et al. Association between the IRF5 rs2004640 functional polymorphism and systemic sclerosis: a new perspective for pulmonary fibrosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Interferon regulatory factors coordinate the expression of type I IFNs, and the IRF5 gene has been identified as a susceptibility gene of systemic lupus and Sjögren's syndrome...
  7. Li Q, Tang L, Roberts P, Kraniak J, Fridman A, Kulaeva O, et al. Interferon regulatory factors IRF5 and IRF7 inhibit growth and induce senescence in immortal Li-Fraumeni fibroblasts. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:770-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Bisulfite sequencing of the promoter regions of two IFN regulatory transcription factors (IRF5 and IRF7) revealed that IRF7, but not IRF5, was epigenetically silenced by methylation of CpG islands in immortal ..
  8. Barnes B, Field A, Pitha Rowe P. Virus-induced heterodimer formation between IRF-5 and IRF-7 modulates assembly of the IFNA enhanceosome in vivo and transcriptional activity of IFNA genes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16630-41 pubmed
  9. Sigurdsson S, Nordmark G, Goring H, Lindroos K, Wiman A, Sturfelt G, et al. Polymorphisms in the tyrosine kinase 2 and interferon regulatory factor 5 genes are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;76:528-37 pubmed
    ..In two of the genes--the tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) and IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) genes--we identified SNPs that displayed strong signals in joint analysis of linkage and association (unadjusted P&..

More Information


  1. Wieczorek S, Holle J, Muller S, Fricke H, Gross W, Epplen J. A functionally relevant IRF5 haplotype is associated with reduced risk to Wegener's granulomatosis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2010;88:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or in the vicinity of CCL21, CD40, CDK6, IL21, IL2RB, IRF5, KIF5A, KLF12, MMEL1, PRKCQ, STAT4, TNFAIP3, and TRAF1/C5 have been genotyped in >600 German WG cases and >..
  2. Miceli Richard C, Comets E, Loiseau P, Puechal X, Hachulla E, Mariette X. Association of an IRF5 gene functional polymorphism with Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:3989-94 pubmed
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of the host defense...
  3. Reddy M, Velázquez Cruz R, Baca V, Lima G, Granados J, Orozco L, et al. Genetic association of IRF5 with SLE in Mexicans: higher frequency of the risk haplotype and its homozygozity than Europeans. Hum Genet. 2007;121:721-7 pubmed
    The IRF5 gene was found to be strongly associated with SLE. We identified two functional polymorphisms and recently an insertion/deletion together with a tag SNP defining the risk haplotype in individuals of European ancestry...
  4. Takaoka A, Yanai H, Kondo S, Duncan G, Negishi H, Mizutani T, et al. Integral role of IRF-5 in the gene induction programme activated by Toll-like receptors. Nature. 2005;434:243-9 pubmed
    ..In haematopoietic cells from mice deficient in the Irf5 gene (Irf5-/- mice), the induction of these cytokines by various TLR ligands is severely impaired, whereas ..
  5. Kelly J, Kelley J, Kaufman K, Kilpatrick J, Bruner G, Merrill J, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-5 is genetically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in African Americans. Genes Immun. 2008;9:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..One transcription factor responsible for regulating IFN, interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF5), has been associated with SLE in genetic studies of Asian, Caucasian and Hispanic populations...
  6. Graham R, Kozyrev S, Baechler E, Reddy M, Plenge R, Bauer J, et al. A common haplotype of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) regulates splicing and expression and is associated with increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Genet. 2006;38:550-5 pubmed
    ..Here we convincingly replicate association of the IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) rs2004640 T allele with SLE in four independent case-control cohorts (P = 4...
  7. Shimane K, Kochi Y, Yamada R, Okada Y, Suzuki A, Miyatake A, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the IRF5 promoter region is associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese population. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:377-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, which regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines...
  8. Sharif R, Mayes M, Tan F, Gorlova O, Hummers L, Shah A, et al. IRF5 polymorphism predicts prognosis in patients with systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Five single nucleotide polymorphisms, IRF5 (rs10488631, rs12537284, rs4728142), STAT4 (rs3821236), CD247 (rs2056626) reached genome-wide significance in the ..
  9. Li H, Yang P, Jiang Z, Hou S, Xie L. Lack of association of two polymorphisms of IRF5 with Behcet's disease. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2018-21 pubmed
    Interferon regulation factor 5 (IRF5) is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors that control the transactivation of type I interferon system-related genes as well as the expression of several other genes involved in immune ..
  10. Lee Y, Bae S, Choi S, Ji J, Song G. Genome-wide pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies on systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:10627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..meta-analysis identified 6 SNPs associated with SLE with genome-wide significance (STAT4, TNPO3, BLK, FAM167A, and IRF5). ICSNPathway identified five candidate causal SNPs and 13 candidate causal pathways...
  11. Malarstig A, Sigurdsson S, Eriksson P, Paulsson Berne G, Hedin U, Wallentin L, et al. Variants of the interferon regulatory factor 5 gene regulate expression of IRF5 mRNA in atherosclerotic tissue but are not associated with myocardial infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:975-82 pubmed publisher
    ..INF regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is one of the mediators of downstream effects of TLRs...
  12. Maalej A, Hamad M, Rebai A, Teixeira V, Bahloul Z, Marzouk S, et al. Association of IRF5 gene polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis in a Tunisian population. Scand J Rheumatol. 2008;37:414-8 pubmed publisher
    A strong genetic association of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene has been described previously in a Swedish population, although this result was not confirmed in a French population...
  13. Barnes B, Moore P, Pitha P. Virus-specific activation of a novel interferon regulatory factor, IRF-5, results in the induction of distinct interferon alpha genes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23382-90 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that multiple signaling pathways induced by infection may be differentially recognized by members of the IRF family and modulate transcription of individual IFNA genes in a virus and cell type-specific manner. ..
  14. Ferreiro Neira I, Calaza M, Alonso Perez E, Marchini M, Scorza R, Sebastiani G, et al. Opposed independent effects and epistasis in the complex association of IRF5 to SLE. Genes Immun. 2007;8:429-38 pubmed
    Genetic variation in the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene affects systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility. However, association is complex and incompletely defined...
  15. Sigurdsson S, Goring H, Kristjansdottir G, Milani L, Nordmark G, Sandling J, et al. Comprehensive evaluation of the genetic variants of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) reveals a novel 5 bp length polymorphism as strong risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:872-81 pubmed
    ..analyzed a comprehensive set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and length polymorphisms in the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene for their association with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in ..
  16. Dieude P, Dawidowicz K, Guedj M, Legrain Y, Wipff J, Hachulla E, et al. Phenotype-haplotype correlation of IRF5 in systemic sclerosis: role of 2 haplotypes in disease severity. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:987-92 pubmed publisher
    Identification of an association between IRF5 rs2004640 and systemic sclerosis (SSc) has highlighted a key role for type 1 interferon (IFN). Additional functional IRF5 variants have been identified as autoimmune susceptibility factors...
  17. Balkhi M, Fitzgerald K, Pitha P. Functional regulation of MyD88-activated interferon regulatory factor 5 by K63-linked polyubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7296-308 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) plays an important role in the innate antiviral and inflammatory response...
  18. Dawidowicz K, Allanore Y, Guedj M, Pierlot C, Bombardieri S, Balsa A, et al. The interferon regulatory factor 5 gene confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and influences its erosive phenotype. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011;70:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Interferon regulatory factors, such as IRF5, coordinate type I IFN expression. Multiple IRF5 variants were suggested as autoimmunity susceptibility factors...
  19. Niewold T, Kelly J, Flesch M, Espinoza L, Harley J, Crow M. Association of the IRF5 risk haplotype with high serum interferon-alpha activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:2481-7 pubmed publisher
    A haplotype of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene has been associated with the risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and our previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of serum interferon-alpha (..
  20. Han S, Lee W, Kwon K, Lee B, Nam E, Kim G. Association of polymorphisms in interferon regulatory factor 5 gene with rheumatoid arthritis: a metaanalysis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:693-7 pubmed publisher
    We investigated potential associations between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) polymorphisms in a metaanalysis...
  21. Sigurdsson S, Nordmark G, Garnier S, Grundberg E, Kwan T, Nilsson O, et al. A risk haplotype of STAT4 for systemic lupus erythematosus is over-expressed, correlates with anti-dsDNA and shows additive effects with two risk alleles of IRF5. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2868-76 pubmed publisher
    ..82-fold risk of SLE with two independent risk alleles of the IRF5 (interferon regulatory factor 5) gene.
  22. Ito I, Kawaguchi Y, Kawasaki A, Hasegawa M, Ohashi J, Hikami K, et al. Association of a functional polymorphism in the IRF5 region with systemic sclerosis in a Japanese population. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1845-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5, an established susceptibility factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), plays a role in type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine induction...
  23. Dieude P, Guedj M, Wipff J, Ruiz B, Hachulla E, Diot E, et al. STAT4 is a genetic risk factor for systemic sclerosis having additive effects with IRF5 on disease susceptibility and related pulmonary fibrosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:2472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent identification of an association between IRF5 and SSc further highlights a key role for IFN...
  24. Hu G, Barnes B. IRF-5 is a mediator of the death receptor-induced apoptotic signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5), known to be involved in the innate immune response to pathogens, is also a critical regulator ..
  25. Hirschfield G, Liu X, Han Y, Gorlov I, Lu Y, Xu C, et al. Variants at IRF5-TNPO3, 17q12-21 and MMEL1 are associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. Nat Genet. 2010;42:655-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined analysis of the genome-wide association and replication datasets identified IRF5-TNPO3 (combined P = 8.66 x 10(-13)), 17q12-21 (combined P = 3.50 x 10(-13)) and MMEL1 (combined P = 3...
  26. Vandenbroeck K, Alloza I, Swaminathan B, Antiguedad A, Otaegui D, Olascoaga J, et al. Validation of IRF5 as multiple sclerosis risk gene: putative role in interferon beta therapy and human herpes virus-6 infection. Genes Immun. 2011;12:40-5 pubmed publisher
    In recent reports, IRF5 polymorphisms showed significant association with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in three studied populations and Irf5-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to viral infection, linked to a ..
  27. Barnes B, Lubyova B, Pitha P. On the role of IRF in host defense. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002;22:59-71 pubmed
    ..Three of these vIRF were shown to inhibit induction of IFN genes and ISG in infected cells and function as dominant negative mutants of cellular IRF. The unique properties of previously uncharacterized vIRF-2 and vIRF-3 are discussed. ..
  28. Siu H, Yang W, Lau C, Chan T, Wong R, Wong W, et al. Association of a haplotype of IRF5 gene with systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:360-2 pubmed
  29. Dideberg V, Kristjansdottir G, Milani L, Libioulle C, Sigurdsson S, Louis E, et al. An insertion-deletion polymorphism in the interferon regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) gene confers risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:3008-16 pubmed
    The interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene encodes a transcription factor that plays an important role in the innate as well as in the cell-mediated immune responses...
  30. Löfgren S, Yin H, Delgado Vega A, Sanchez E, Lewén S, Pons Estel B, et al. Promoter insertion/deletion in the IRF5 gene is highly associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in distinct populations, but exerts a modest effect on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:574-8 pubmed publisher
    We examined the genetic association of the promoter insertion/deletion (indel) in IRF5 gene with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in distinct populations and assessed its role in gene expression...
  31. Harley J, Alarcon Riquelme M, Criswell L, Jacob C, Kimberly R, Moser K, et al. Genome-wide association scan in women with systemic lupus erythematosus identifies susceptibility variants in ITGAM, PXK, KIAA1542 and other loci. Nat Genet. 2008;40:204-10 pubmed publisher
    ..strong association between SLE and the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 and the previously confirmed non-HLA locus IRF5 on chromosome 7q32, we found evidence of association with replication (1.1 x 10(-7) < P(overall) < 1...
  32. Yang L, Zhao T, Shi X, Nakhaei P, Wang Y, Sun Q, et al. Functional analysis of a dominant negative mutation of interferon regulatory factor 5. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5500 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional characterization of the novel IRF-5 mutant in transformed B and T cell lines and in ATL and CLL patients may lead to a better understanding of the role of these transcriptional regulators in hematopoietic malignancies. ..
  33. Wen F, Ellingson S, Kyogoku C, Peterson E, Gaffney P. Exon 6 variants carried on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk haplotypes modulate IRF5 function. Autoimmunity. 2011;44:82-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) regulates innate immune responses to viral infection. IRF5 genetic variants have been shown to be strongly associated with risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  34. Kozyrev S, Lewén S, Reddy P, Pons Estel B, Witte T, Junker P, et al. Structural insertion/deletion variation in IRF5 is associated with a risk haplotype and defines the precise IRF5 isoforms expressed in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:1234-41 pubmed
    To determine whether specific isoforms of IRF5 are transcribed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who have risk genotypes in the exon 1B donor splice site at single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) no. rs2004640...
  35. Han J, Zheng H, Cui Y, Sun L, Ye D, Hu Z, et al. Genome-wide association study in a Chinese Han population identifies nine new susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1234-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2; 1.77 x 10(-25) < or = P(combined) < or = 2.77 x 10(-8)) and confirmed seven previously reported loci (BLK, IRF5, STAT4, TNFAIP3, TNFSF4, 6q21 and 22q11.21; 5.17 x 10(-42) < or = P(combined) < or = 5.18 x 10(-12))...
  36. Gorlova O, Martin J, Rueda B, Koeleman B, Ying J, Teruel M, et al. Identification of novel genetic markers associated with clinical phenotypes of systemic sclerosis through a genome-wide association strategy. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002178 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the HLA region, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPA1/B1, and NOTCH4 associations with SSc are likely confined to specific auto-antibodies. These data emphasize the differential genetic components of subphenotypes of SSc. ..
  37. Paun A, Reinert J, Jiang Z, Medin C, Balkhi M, Fitzgerald K, et al. Functional characterization of murine interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) and its role in the innate antiviral response. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14295-308 pubmed publisher serum levels of type I interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in Newcastle disease virus-infected Irf5(-)(/)(-) mice...
  38. Mancl M, Hu G, Sangster Guity N, Olshalsky S, Hoops K, Fitzgerald Bocarsly P, et al. Two discrete promoters regulate the alternatively spliced human interferon regulatory factor-5 isoforms. Multiple isoforms with distinct cell type-specific expression, localization, regulation, and function. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21078-90 pubmed
  39. Rueda B, Reddy M, Gonzalez Gay M, Balsa A, Pascual Salcedo D, Petersson I, et al. Analysis of IRF5 gene functional polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3815-9 pubmed
    Recent findings suggest that interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) may play a crucial role in several cellular processes, including the transcription of genes for inflammatory cytokines...
  40. Demirci F, Manzi S, Ramsey Goldman R, Minster R, Kenney M, Shaw P, et al. Association of a common interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) variant with increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Ann Hum Genet. 2007;71:308-11 pubmed
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) belongs to a family of transcription factors that control the transactivation of type I interferon system-related genes, as well as the expression of several other genes involved in immune response, ..
  41. Martin H, Lee J, Walls D, Hayward S. Manipulation of the toll-like receptor 7 signaling pathway by Epstein-Barr virus. J Virol. 2007;81:9748-58 pubmed
    ..b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) is a downstream mediator of TLR7 signaling...
  42. Hellquist A, Järvinen T, Koskenmies S, Zucchelli M, Orsmark Pietras C, Berglind L, et al. Evidence for genetic association and interaction between the TYK2 and IRF5 genes in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to systematically replicate 6 such genes, TYK2, IRF5, CTLA4, PDCD1, FCGR2A, and NOD2...
  43. Barnes B, Richards J, Mancl M, Hanash S, Beretta L, Pitha P. Global and distinct targets of IRF-5 and IRF-7 during innate response to viral infection. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45194-207 pubmed
  44. Kawasaki A, Kyogoku C, Ohashi J, Miyashita R, Hikami K, Kusaoi M, et al. Association of IRF5 polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population: support for a crucial role of intron 1 polymorphisms. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:826-34 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the IRF5 gene, which encodes interferon regulatory factor 5, is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Japanese population...
  45. Cunninghame Graham D, Manku H, Wagner S, Reid J, Timms K, Gutin A, et al. Association of IRF5 in UK SLE families identifies a variant involved in polyadenylation. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:579-91 pubmed
    Results from two studies have implicated the interferon regulatory gene IRF5 as a susceptibility gene in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we conducted a family-based association analysis in 380 UK SLE nuclear families...
  46. Radstake T, Gorlova O, Rueda B, Martin J, Alizadeh B, Palomino Morales R, et al. Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus. Nat Genet. 2010;42:426-9 pubmed publisher
    ..39 x 10(-9) in the combined analysis). Additionally, we confirm and firmly establish the role of the MHC (P = 2.31 x 10(-18)), IRF5 (P = 1.86 x 10(-13)) and STAT4 (P = 3.37 x 10(-9)) gene regions as SSc genetic risk factors.
  47. Stone R, Du P, Feng D, Dhawan K, Rönnblom L, Eloranta M, et al. RNA-Seq for enrichment and analysis of IRF5 transcript expression in SLE. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54487 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene have been consistently replicated and shown to confer risk for or protection from the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  48. Barnes B, Kellum M, Pinder K, Frisancho J, Pitha P. Interferon regulatory factor 5, a novel mediator of cell cycle arrest and cell death. Cancer Res. 2003;63:6424-31 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that although IRF-5 is a downstream target of p53, its growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects are independent of p53. ..
  49. Nordmark G, Kristjansdottir G, Theander E, Eriksson P, Brun J, Wang C, et al. Additive effects of the major risk alleles of IRF5 and STAT4 in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Genes Immun. 2009;10:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the association of the three major polymorphisms in IRF5 and STAT4 found to be associated with SLE, in patients from Sweden and Norway with primary SS...
  50. Graham R, Kyogoku C, Sigurdsson S, Vlasova I, Davies L, Baechler E, et al. Three functional variants of IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) define risk and protective haplotypes for human lupus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6758-63 pubmed
    ..risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is strongly associated with a common SNP in IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), and that this variant altered spicing in a way that might provide a functional explanation for the reproducible ..
  51. Sigurdsson S, Padyukov L, Kurreeman F, Liljedahl U, Wiman A, Alfredsson L, et al. Association of a haplotype in the promoter region of the interferon regulatory factor 5 gene with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:2202-10 pubmed
    To determine whether genetic variants of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) and Tyk-2 genes are associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  52. Feng D, Sangster Guity N, STONE R, Korczeniewska J, Mancl M, Fitzgerald Bocarsly P, et al. Differential requirement of histone acetylase and deacetylase activities for IRF5-mediated proinflammatory cytokine expression. J Immunol. 2010;185:6003-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies from IRF5 knockout mice have confirmed a critical role for IRF5 in virus-induced type I IFN expression and proinflammatory ..
  53. Stone R, Feng D, Deng J, Singh S, Yang L, Fitzgerald Bocarsly P, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 5 activation in monocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus patients is triggered by circulating autoantigens independent of type I interferons. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:788-98 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) are associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  54. Kristjansdottir G, Sandling J, Bonetti A, Roos I, Milani L, Wang C, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene variants are associated with multiple sclerosis in three distinct populations. J Med Genet. 2008;45:362-9 pubmed publisher
    b>IRF5 is a transcription factor involved both in the type I interferon and the toll-like receptor signalling pathways...
  55. Liu X, Invernizzi P, Lu Y, Kosoy R, Lu Y, Bianchi I, et al. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify three loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. Nat Genet. 2010;42:658-60 pubmed publisher
    ..9 x 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) = 1.46), IRF5-TNPO3 (P = 2.8 x 10(-10), OR = 1.63) and 17q12-21 (P = 1.7 x 10(-10), OR = 1.38).
  56. Chen W, Lam S, Srinath H, Jiang Z, Correia J, Schiffer C, et al. Insights into interferon regulatory factor activation from the crystal structure of dimeric IRF5. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:1213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The crystal structure of the transactivation domain of pseudophosphorylated human IRF5 strikingly reveals a dimer in which the bulk of intersubunit interactions involve a highly extended C-terminal ..
  57. Schoenemeyer A, Barnes B, Mancl M, Latz E, Goutagny N, Pitha P, et al. The interferon regulatory factor, IRF5, is a central mediator of toll-like receptor 7 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17005-12 pubmed
    ..The activation of IRF5, is much more restricted...
  58. Miceli Richard C, Gestermann N, Ittah M, Comets E, Loiseau P, Puechal X, et al. The CGGGG insertion/deletion polymorphism of the IRF5 promoter is a strong risk factor for primary Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1991-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 5 is a transcription factor involved in type I interferon (IFN) secretion...
  59. Barnes B, Kellum M, Field A, Pitha P. Multiple regulatory domains of IRF-5 control activation, cellular localization, and induction of chemokines that mediate recruitment of T lymphocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:5721-40 pubmed
    ..It also shows that the range of IRF-5 immunoregulatory target genes includes members of the cytokine and chemokine superfamilies. ..
  60. Dieguez Gonzalez R, Calaza M, Perez Pampin E, De La Serna A, Fernandez Gutierrez B, Castañeda S, et al. Association of interferon regulatory factor 5 haplotypes, similar to that found in systemic lupus erythematosus, in a large subgroup of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:1264-74 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have shown either a lack of effect of IRF5 polymorphisms or an association of the IRF5 gene in only a minor subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in whom anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are absent...
  61. Feng D, Stone R, Eloranta M, Sangster Guity N, Nordmark G, Sigurdsson S, et al. Genetic variants and disease-associated factors contribute to enhanced interferon regulatory factor 5 expression in blood cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:562-73 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 5 gene (IRF5) are associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  62. Allanore Y, Saad M, Dieude P, Avouac J, Distler J, Amouyel P, et al. Genome-wide scan identifies TNIP1, PSORS1C1, and RHOB as novel risk loci for systemic sclerosis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002091 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic signal of association with TNIP1 variants, together with tissular and cellular investigations, suggests that this pathway has a critical role in regulating autoimmunity and SSc pathogenesis. ..
  63. Niewold T, Kelly J, Kariuki S, Franek B, Kumar A, Kaufman K, et al. IRF5 haplotypes demonstrate diverse serological associations which predict serum interferon alpha activity and explain the majority of the genetic association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN? production by activating endosomal Toll-like receptors and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), including IRF5. Genetic variation in IRF5 is associated with SLE susceptibility; however, it is unclear how IRF5 functional ..