Gene Symbol: IRF4
Description: interferon regulatory factor 4
Alias: LSIRF, MUM1, NF-EM5, SHEP8, interferon regulatory factor 4, lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor, multiple myeloma oncogene 1
Species: human
Products:     IRF4

Top Publications

  1. Nan H, Kraft P, Qureshi A, Guo Q, Chen C, Hankinson S, et al. Genome-wide association study of tanning phenotype in a population of European ancestry. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..genome-wide significance level are located in or adjacent to the loci previously known as pigmentation genes: MATP, IRF4, TYR, OCA2, and MC1R...
  2. Rengarajan J, Mowen K, McBride K, Smith E, Singh H, Glimcher L. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) interacts with NFATc2 to modulate interleukin 4 gene expression. J Exp Med. 2002;195:1003-12 pubmed
    ..In particular, NFATs are important regulators of inducible IL-4 gene expression. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is an immune system-restricted interferon regulatory factor that is required for lymphocyte ..
  3. Mamane Y, Sharma S, Grandvaux N, Hernandez E, Hiscott J. IRF-4 activities in HTLV-I-induced T cell leukemogenesis. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002;22:135-43 pubmed
    ..Further investigation of these novel IRF-4-regulated genes will permit a mechanistic understanding of IRF-4 function in HTLV-I-induced leukemogenesis. ..
  4. Yamagata T, Nishida J, Tanaka S, Sakai R, Mitani K, Yoshida M, et al. A novel interferon regulatory factor family transcription factor, ICSAT/Pip/LSIRF, that negatively regulates the activity of interferon-regulated genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:1283-94 pubmed
    ..leukemia cell line or activated T cells (ICSAT); this protein is the human homolog of the recently cloned Pip/LSIRF. ICSAT is structurally most closely related to the previously cloned ICSBP, a member of the IFN regulatory factor (..
  5. Wang L, Toomey N, Diaz L, Walker G, Ramos J, Barber G, et al. Oncogenic IRFs provide a survival advantage for Epstein-Barr virus- or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-transformed cells through induction of BIC expression. J Virol. 2011;85:8328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Two oncogenic IRFs, IRF4 and -7, in addition to some other members of the family, bind to and significantly transactivate the Bic promoter...
  6. Xu D, Meyer F, Ehlers E, Blasnitz L, Zhang L. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) targets IRF-5 to regulate Epstein-Barr virus transformation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides insight on how IRFs interact with one another to participate in viral pathogenesis and transformation. ..
  7. Yamamoto M, Kato T, Hotta C, Nishiyama A, Kurotaki D, Yoshinari M, et al. Shared and distinct functions of the transcription factors IRF4 and IRF8 in myeloid cell development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25812 pubmed publisher
    Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 8 and IRF4 are structurally-related, hematopoietic cell-specific transcription factors that cooperatively regulate the differentiation of dendritic cells and B cells...
  8. Marecki S, Atchison M, Fenton M. Differential expression and distinct functions of IFN regulatory factor 4 and IFN consensus sequence binding protein in macrophages. J Immunol. 1999;163:2713-22 pubmed
    IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and IFN consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP) are highly homologous members of the growing family of IRF proteins...
  9. Peña Chilet M, Blanquer Maceiras M, Ibarrola Villava M, Martinez Cadenas C, Martin Gonzalez M, Gomez Fernandez C, et al. Genetic variants in PARP1 (rs3219090) and IRF4 (rs12203592) genes associated with melanoma susceptibility in a Spanish population. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:160 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped the 9 markers corresponding to 8 genes (PARP1, MX2, ATM, CCND1, NADSYN1, CASP8, IRF4 and CYP2R1) in 566 cases and 347 controls from a Spanish population using KASPar probes...

More Information


  1. Lan Q, Au W, Chanock S, Tse J, Wong K, Shen M, et al. Genetic susceptibility for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among Chinese in Hong Kong. Eur J Haematol. 2010;85:492-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The rs872071 variant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) = 1.78 (1.25-2.53), P = 0.0013) in the IRF4 gene region showed the strongest association, similar to that reported in the UK study...
  2. Sharma S, Grandvaux N, Mamane Y, Genin P, Azimi N, Waldmann T, et al. Regulation of IFN regulatory factor 4 expression in human T cell leukemia virus-I-transformed T cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:3120-30 pubmed
    ..These experiments constitute the first detailed analysis of human IRF-4 transcriptional regulation within the context of HTLV-I infection and transformation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. ..
  3. Craig F, Soma L, Melan M, Kant J, Swerdlow S. MUM1/IRF4 expression in the circulating compartment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:273-80 pubmed publisher
    MUM1/IRF4 is normally expressed in late germinal center/post germinal center B-cells...
  4. Havelange V, Pekarsky Y, Nakamura T, Palamarchuk A, Alder H, Rassenti L, et al. IRF4 mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2011;118:2827-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors and has been shown to have critical functions at several stages of B-cell development...
  5. Malumbres R, Sarosiek K, Cubedo E, Ruiz J, Jiang X, Gascoyne R, et al. Differentiation stage-specific expression of microRNAs in B lymphocytes and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Blood. 2009;113:3754-64 pubmed publisher
    ..may be physiologically relevant by demonstrating that GC-enriched hsa-miR-125b down-regulates the expression of IRF4 and PRDM1/BLIMP1, and memory B cell-enriched hsa-miR-223 down-regulates the expression of LMO2...
  6. Salaverria I, Philipp C, Oschlies I, Kohler C, Kreuz M, Szczepanowski M, et al. Translocations activating IRF4 identify a subtype of germinal center-derived B-cell lymphoma affecting predominantly children and young adults. Blood. 2011;118:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Those were predominantly GCB-type DLBCL or follicular lymphoma grade 3, shared strong expression of IRF4/MUM1 and BCL6, and lacked PRDM1/BLIMP1 expression and t(14;18)/BCL2 breaks. BCL6 aberrations were common...
  7. van der Stoep N, Quinten E, Marcondes Rezende M, van den Elsen P. E47, IRF-4, and PU.1 synergize to induce B-cell-specific activation of the class II transactivator promoter III (CIITA-PIII). Blood. 2004;104:2849-57 pubmed
    ..The finding that PU.1, IRF-4, and E47 play an important role in the B-cell-mediated activation of CIITA-PIII provides a link between antigen presentation functions and activation and differentiation events in B lymphocytes. ..
  8. Han J, Qureshi A, Nan H, Zhang J, Song Y, Guo Q, et al. A germline variant in the interferon regulatory factor 4 gene as a novel skin cancer risk locus. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with two known pigmentation loci, MC1R and OCA2, the IRF4 rs12203592 T allele was associated with an increased risk of each type of skin cancer (P value, 6...
  9. Xu D, Zhao L, Del Valle L, Miklossy J, Zhang L. Interferon regulatory factor 4 is involved in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of human B lymphocytes. J Virol. 2008;82:6251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is required for EBV transformation processes. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) is a transcription factor and has oncogenic potential...
  10. Mamane Y, Sharma S, Petropoulos L, Lin R, Hiscott J. Posttranslational regulation of IRF-4 activity by the immunophilin FKBP52. Immunity. 2000;12:129-40 pubmed
    ..IRF-4-FKBP52 association inhibited IRF4-PU.1 binding to the immunoglobulin light chain enhancer E(lambda2-4) as well as IRF-4-PU...
  11. Brass A, Zhu A, Singh H. Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers. EMBO J. 1999;18:977-91 pubmed
    ..1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes. ..
  12. Pham Ledard A, Prochazkova Carlotti M, Laharanne E, Vergier B, Jouary T, Beylot Barry M, et al. IRF4 gene rearrangements define a subgroup of CD30-positive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a study of 54 cases. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:816-25 pubmed publisher
    The identification of IFN regulatory factor 4 gene (IRF4) translocation in 8 out of 14 cases of cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas (C-ALCLs) (Leukemia, 2009; 23(3):574-80) prompted us to study IRF4 locus status in different ..
  13. Zhao W, Liu Y, Zhang Q, Wang L, Leboeuf C, Zhang Y, et al. PRDM1 is involved in chemoresistance of T-cell lymphoma and down-regulated by the proteasome inhibitor. Blood. 2008;111:3867-71 pubmed publisher
    ..were detected in laser-microdissected T-lymphoma cells in 27 and 14 patients, respectively, mostly in cases with IRF4 expression. PRDM1beta was associated with increased c-MYC expression...
  14. Han J, Kraft P, Nan H, Guo Q, Chen C, Qureshi A, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies novel alleles associated with hair color and skin pigmentation. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000074 pubmed publisher
    ..An initial analysis of 528,173 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 2,287 women identified IRF4 and SLC24A4 as loci highly associated with hair color, along with three other regions encompassing known ..
  15. Bruhn S, Barrenas F, Mobini R, Andersson B, Chavali S, Egan B, et al. Increased expression of IRF4 and ETS1 in CD4+ cells from patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis. Allergy. 2012;67:33-40 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor (TF) IRF4 is involved in the regulation of Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 cells, and animal studies have indicated an important role in allergy...
  16. Negishi H, Ohba Y, Yanai H, Takaoka A, Honma K, Yui K, et al. Negative regulation of Toll-like-receptor signaling by IRF-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15989-94 pubmed
    ..induction of proinflammatory cytokines is markedly enhanced in peritoneal macrophages from mice deficient in the Irf4 gene, whereas the induction is inhibited by the ectopic expression of IRF-4 in a macrophage cell line...
  17. Gauzzi M, Purificato C, Conti L, Adorini L, Belardelli F, Gessani S. IRF-4 expression in the human myeloid lineage: up-regulation during dendritic cell differentiation and inhibition by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;77:944-7 pubmed
    ..These results point to IRF-4 as a potential player in human myeloid DC differentiation and as a novel target for the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). ..
  18. Praetorius C, Grill C, Stacey S, Metcalf A, Gorkin D, Robinson K, et al. A polymorphism in IRF4 affects human pigmentation through a tyrosinase-dependent MITF/TFAP2A pathway. Cell. 2013;155:1022-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A SNP within an intron of the gene encoding Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4), a transcription factor with no known role in melanocyte biology, is strongly associated with ..
  19. Crowther Swanepoel D, Mansouri M, Enjuanes A, Vega A, Smedby K, Ruiz Ponte C, et al. Verification that common variation at 2q37.1, 6p25.3, 11q24.1, 15q23, and 19q13.32 influences chronic lymphocytic leukaemia risk. Br J Haematol. 2010;150:473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CLL risk increased with increasing numbers of risk alleles (P(trend) = 1.40 x 10(-15)), consistent with a polygenic model of disease susceptibility. These data validate the relationship between common variation and risk of CLL. ..
  20. Do T, Ucisik Akkaya E, Davis C, Morrison B, Dorak M. An intronic polymorphism of IRF4 gene influences gene transcription in vitro and shows a risk association with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in males. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..b>IRF4 is involved in the differentiation of B and T cells and is overexpressed in B-cell malignancies as a result of c-..
  21. Yang Y, Shaffer A, Emre N, Ceribelli M, Zhang M, Wright G, et al. Exploiting synthetic lethality for the therapy of ABC diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:723-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In a cereblon-dependent fashion, lenalidomide downregulates IRF4 and SPIB, transcription factors that together prevent IFNβ production by repressing IRF7 and amplify prosurvival ..
  22. Iida S, Rao P, Butler M, Corradini P, Boccadoro M, Klein B, et al. Deregulation of MUM1/IRF4 by chromosomal translocation in multiple myeloma. Nat Genet. 1997;17:226-30 pubmed
    ..The translocation juxtaposes the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus to MUM1 (multiple myeloma oncogene 1)/IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family known to be active in the control ..
  23. Grossman A, Mittrucker H, Nicholl J, Suzuki A, Chung S, Antonio L, et al. Cloning of human lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (hLSIRF/hIRF4) and mapping of the gene to 6p23-p25. Genomics. 1996;37:229-33 pubmed
    ..To study the role of LSIRF in human lymphocyte development, we have cloned the complete 5.3-kb cDNA for the human homolog (hLSIRF)...
  24. Hu C, Jang S, Fanzo J, Pernis A. Modulation of T cell cytokine production by interferon regulatory factor-4. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49238-46 pubmed
    ..These studies thus support the notion that IRF-4 represents one of the lymphoid-specific components that control the ability of T lymphocytes to produce a distinctive array of cytokines. ..
  25. Duffy D, Zhao Z, Sturm R, Hayward N, Martin N, Montgomery G. Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..homolog (mouse) gene), TYR (tyrosinase), TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1), MC1R, OCA2, IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4), SLC24A4 (solute carrier family 24, member 4), and SLC45A2 (solute carrier family 45, member 2)) for ..
  26. Feldman A, Law M, Remstein E, Macon W, Erickson L, Grogg K, et al. Recurrent translocations involving the IRF4 oncogene locus in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Leukemia. 2009;23:574-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, due to its involvement in translocations, MUM1/IRF4 protein may play an important biologic role in some PTCLs, and might represent a possible therapeutic target.
  27. Sundram U, Harvell J, Rouse R, Natkunam Y. Expression of the B-cell proliferation marker MUM1 by melanocytic lesions and comparison with S100, gp100 (HMB45), and MelanA. Mod Pathol. 2003;16:802-10 pubmed
    ..Previous work has demonstrated that the B-cell proliferation/differentiation marker MUM1/IRF4 is detected in malignant melanoma and hematolymphoid malignancies, but not in any other neoplasm tested (..
  28. Sulem P, Gudbjartsson D, Stacey S, Helgason A, Rafnar T, Magnusson K, et al. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1443-52 pubmed
    ..3 is associated with freckles. The fifth region provided refinements to a previously reported association in OCA2, and the sixth encompasses previously described variants in MC1R. ..
  29. Lehtonen A, Veckman V, Nikula T, Lahesmaa R, Kinnunen L, Matikainen S, et al. Differential expression of IFN regulatory factor 4 gene in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. J Immunol. 2005;175:6570-9 pubmed
    ..The results show that the expression of IRF4 mRNA, but not of other IRFs, was specifically up-regulated during DC differentiation...
  30. Kong X, BANKS A, Liu T, Kazak L, Rao R, Cohen P, et al. IRF4 is a key thermogenic transcriptional partner of PGC-1α. Cell. 2014;158:69-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) as a dominant transcriptional effector of thermogenesis...
  31. Gupta S, Jiang M, Anthony A, Pernis A. Lineage-specific modulation of interleukin 4 signaling by interferon regulatory factor 4. J Exp Med. 1999;190:1837-48 pubmed
    ..Since expression of IRF-4 is mostly confined to lymphoid cells, these data provide a potential mechanism by which IL-4-inducible genes can be regulated in a lineage-specific manner. ..
  32. Di Bernardo M, Crowther Swanepoel D, Broderick P, Webb E, Sellick G, Wild R, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies six susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1204-10 pubmed publisher
    ..36 x 10(-10)), 2q37.1 (rs13397985, SP140; P = 5.40 x 10(-10)), 6p25.3 (rs872071, IRF4; P = 1.91 x 10(-20)), 11q24.1 (rs735665; P = 3.78 x 10(-12)), 15q23 (rs7176508; P = 4.54 x 10(-12)) and 19q13...
  33. Broderick P, Cunningham D, Vijayakrishnan J, Cooke R, Ashworth A, Swerdlow A, et al. IRF4 polymorphism rs872071 and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2010;148:413-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that the IRF4 variant rs872071 influences CLL risk...
  34. Gupta S, Anthony A, Pernis A. Stage-specific modulation of IFN-regulatory factor 4 function by Krüppel-type zinc finger proteins. J Immunol. 2001;166:6104-11 pubmed
    ..These findings thus support a model whereby IRF-4 function is modulated in a stage-specific manner by its interaction with developmentally restricted sets of Krüppel-type zinc finger proteins. ..
  35. Duffy D, Iles M, Glass D, Zhu G, Barrett J, Höiom V, et al. IRF4 variants have age-specific effects on nevus count and predispose to melanoma. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;87:6-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A GWAS of nevus count in Australian adolescent twins identified an association of nevus count with the interferon regulatory factor 4 gene (IRF4 [p = 6 x 10(-9)])...
  36. Staudt V, Bothur E, Klein M, Lingnau K, Reuter S, Grebe N, et al. Interferon-regulatory factor 4 is essential for the developmental program of T helper 9 cells. Immunity. 2010;33:192-202 pubmed publisher
    Interferon-regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for the development of T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cells...
  37. Wang L, Ning S. Interferon regulatory factor 4 is activated through c-Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation in virus-transformed cells. J Virol. 2013;87:9672-9 pubmed publisher
    The importance of the oncogenic transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in hematological malignancies has been increasingly recognized...
  38. Slager S, Goldin L, Strom S, Lanasa M, Spector L, Rassenti L, et al. Genetic susceptibility variants for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1098-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations were seen for rs9378805 [OR, 1.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.19-1.80; P trend = 0.0003] near IRF4 and rs735665 near GRAMD1B (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.89; P trend = 0.003). However, no associations (P > 0...
  39. Minnich M, Tagoh H, Bönelt P, Axelsson E, Fischer M, Cebolla B, et al. Multifunctional role of the transcription factor Blimp-1 in coordinating plasma cell differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2016;17:331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It directly activated genes, which led to increased expression of the plasma cell regulator IRF4 and proteins involved in immunoglobulin secretion...
  40. Tang S, Ma D, Cheng B, Fang Q, Kuang X, Yu K, et al. Crucial role of HO-1/IRF4-dependent apoptosis induced by panobinostat and lenalidomide in multiple myeloma. Exp Cell Res. 2018;363:196-207 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA and protein of transcription factor IRF4 were overexpressed in CD138+ mononuclear cells from MM patients compared with in those from healthy ..
  41. Jourdan M, Cren M, Schafer P, Robert N, Duperray C, Vincent L, et al. Differential effects of lenalidomide during plasma cell differentiation. Oncotarget. 2016;7:28096-111 pubmed publisher
    ..It also reduced the expression level of Ikaros, Aiolos, and IRF4 transcription factors, in plasmablasts and early plasma cells...
  42. Salaverria I, Martin Guerrero I, Burkhardt B, Kreuz M, Zenz T, Oschlies I, et al. High resolution copy number analysis of IRF4 translocation-positive diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013;52:150-5 pubmed publisher
    Translocations affecting chromosome subband 6p25.3 containing the IRF4 gene have been recently described as characteristic alterations in a molecularly distinct subset of germinal center B-cell-derived lymphomas...
  43. Costa V, Righelli D, Russo F, De Berardinis P, Angelini C, D Apice L. Distinct Antigen Delivery Systems Induce Dendritic Cells' Divergent Transcriptional Response: New Insights from a Comparative and Reproducible Computational Analysis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that E2 drives polarization toward the Th2 phenotype, mainly mediated by Irf4, Ccl17, and Ccr4 over-expression...
  44. Madouri F, Chenuet P, Beuraud C, Fauconnier L, Marchiol T, Rouxel N, et al. Protein kinase C? controls type 2 innate lymphoid cell and TH2 responses to house dust mite allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139:1650-1666 pubmed publisher
    ..eosinophil recruitment, TH2-related cytokine and chemokine production, lung histopathology, interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) mRNA expression, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT1) protein expression were ..
  45. Qiao J, Li X, Wu Y, Wu X, Zhu F, Liu N, et al. An increased expression profile of Th9/IL-9 correlated with Th17/IL-17 in patients with immune thrombocytopenia. Platelets. 2017;28:287-294 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, RNA was isolated from PBMCs for the measurement of the mRNA level of PU.1, IRF4, BATF, and RORγt by quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma levels of IL-9 and IL-17 were detected by ELISA...
  46. Berndt S, Skibola C, Joseph V, Camp N, Nieters A, Wang Z, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Nat Genet. 2013;45:868-76 pubmed publisher
    ..3 (ODF1, P=5.40×10(-8)) and 5p15.33 (TERT, P=1.92×10(-7)). Although further studies are required, the proximity of several of these loci to genes involved in apoptosis suggests a plausible underlying biological mechanism. ..
  47. Weinhold N, Meissner T, Johnson D, Seckinger A, Moreaux J, Forsti A, et al. The 7p15.3 (rs4487645) association for multiple myeloma shows strong allele-specific regulation of the MYC-interacting gene CDCA7L in malignant plasma cells. Haematologica. 2015;100:e110-3 pubmed publisher
  48. Malik S, Sadhu S, Elesela S, Pandey R, Chawla A, Sharma D, et al. Transcription factor Foxo1 is essential for IL-9 induction in T helper cells. Nat Commun. 2017;8:815 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Foxo1 binds and transactivates IL-9 and IRF4 promoters in Th9, Th17 and iTreg cells...
  49. Gopalakrishnan R, Matta H, Tolani B, Triche T, Chaudhary P. Immunomodulatory drugs target IKZF1-IRF4-MYC axis in primary effusion lymphoma in a cereblon-dependent manner and display synergistic cytotoxicity with BRD4 inhibitors. Oncogene. 2016;35:1797-810 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-PEL effects of IMiDs involved cereblon-dependent suppression of IRF4 and rapid degradation of IKZF1, but not IKZF3...
  50. Lorenzi L, Lonardi S, Essatari M, Pellegrini V, Fisogni S, Gazzola A, et al. Intrafollicular Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B cell lymphoma. A variant of "germinotropic" lymphoproliferative disorder. Virchows Arch. 2016;468:441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..atypical cells, including Reed-Sternberg-like cells, showing an activated B cell phenotype (CD10-FOXP1-Bcl6-IRF4+ or CD10-FOXP1+Bcl6+IRF4+) and intense expression of CD30...
  51. Anderson J, Fordham S, Overman L, Dignum H, Wood K, Proctor S, et al. Immunophenotyping of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) defines multiple sub-groups of germinal centre-like tumours displaying different survival characteristics. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:961-71 pubmed
  52. Marschalkó M, Gyöngyösi N, Noll J, Karolyi Z, Wikonkál N, Hársing J, et al. Histopathological aspects and differential diagnosis of CD8 positive lymphomatoid papulosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2016;43:963-973 pubmed publisher
    ..Extensive folliculotropism characteristic to type F was observed in 1 of 14 case. Significant MUM1 and PD1 expression were detected in 2 of 14 and 3 of 14 cases, respectively...
  53. Forero A, Moore P, Sarkar S. Role of IRF4 in IFN-stimulated gene induction and maintenance of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency in primary effusion lymphoma cells. J Immunol. 2013;191:1476-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an inducible expression system, we found that IRF4 directly induced a specific subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in a type I IFN-independent manner in both ..
  54. Lawrence T, Natoli G. Transcriptional regulation of macrophage polarization: enabling diversity with identity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:750-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of transcriptional and chromatin-mediated control of macrophage polarization in physiology and disease. ..
  55. Kataoka K, Iwanaga M, Yasunaga J, Nagata Y, Kitanaka A, Kameda T, et al. Prognostic relevance of integrated genetic profiling in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Blood. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..with an increased burden of genetic and epigenetic alterations, and higher frequencies of TP53 and IRF4 mutations, and many copy number alterations (CNAs), including PD-L1 amplifications and CDKN2A ..
  56. Visser M, Palstra R, Kayser M. Allele-specific transcriptional regulation of IRF4 in melanocytes is mediated by chromatin looping of the intronic rs12203592 enhancer to the IRF4 promoter. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:2649-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, it was demonstrated that the SNP rs12203592, located in intron 4 of the IRF4 gene, is strongly associated with human skin pigmentation and modulates an enhancer element that controls ..
  57. Satou A, Asano N, Kato S, Elsayed A, Nakamura N, Miyoshi H, et al. Prognostic Impact of MUM1/IRF4 Expression in Burkitt Lymphoma (BL): A Reappraisal of 88 BL Patients in Japan. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:389-395 pubmed publisher
    b>MUM1/IRF4 expression is detected in 18% to 41% of Burkitt lymphoma (BL). However, only a few studies of MUM1-positive (MUM1) BL have been reported, and its characteristics still remain controversial...
  58. Jacobs L, Liu F, Pardo L, Hofman A, Uitterlinden A, Kayser M, et al. IRF4, MC1R and TYR genes are risk factors for actinic keratosis independent of skin color. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:3296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..A GWAS for AK severity was conducted, where promising signals at IRF4 and MC1R (P < 4...
  59. Kiesewetter B, Simonitsch Klupp I, Kornauth C, Dolak W, Lukas J, Mayerhoefer M, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of cereblon and MUM1 as potential predictive markers of response to lenalidomide in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Hematol Oncol. 2018;36:62-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, high expression levels of cereblon (CRBN) and MUM1 have been associated with better response rates in multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide...
  60. Feng J, Liu X, Ni X, Qi H. External signals regulate germinal center fate-determining transcription factors in the A20 lymphoma cell line. Mol Immunol. 2018;93:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Both CD40 and BCR stimulation can upregulate IRF4, a transcription factor that suppresses BCL6 expression...
  61. Manojlovic Z, Christofferson A, Liang W, Aldrich J, Washington M, Wong S, et al. Comprehensive molecular profiling of 718 Multiple Myelomas reveals significant differences in mutation frequencies between African and European descent cases. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007087 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we detected a significant difference in mutation frequency of TP53 and IRF4 with frequencies higher among CA cases...
  62. Pinto L, Michel S, Klopp N, Vogelberg C, von Berg A, Bufe A, et al. Polymorphisms in the IRF-4 gene, asthma and recurrent bronchitis in children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43:1152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Associated polymorphisms are localized in a putative regulatory element in the 3'UTR region of IRF-4. These findings suggest a putative role of IRF-4 in the development of bronchitis. ..
  63. Mangiavacchi A, Sorci M, Masciarelli S, Larivera S, Legnini I, Iosue I, et al. The miR-223 host non-coding transcript linc-223 induces IRF4 expression in acute myeloid leukemia by acting as a competing endogenous RNA. Oncotarget. 2016;7:60155-60168 pubmed publisher
    ..increases the repressing activity of miR-125-5p resulting in the downregulation of its target interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), which it was previously shown to inhibit the oncogenic activity of miR-125-5p in vivo...
  64. Guo Z, Xu P, Ge S, Zhang C, Zheng X, Xu J, et al. Ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 stabilizes interferon regulatory factor protein and promotes its function to facilitate interleukin-4 expression in T helper type 2 cells. Int J Mol Med. 2017;40:979-986 pubmed publisher
    We speculated that ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 (USP4) may deubiquitinate interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) and affect T helper type 2 (Th2) cell function. This study aimed to validate this hypothesis...
  65. Ezponda T, Dupéré Richer D, Will C, Small E, Varghese N, Patel T, et al. UTX/KDM6A Loss Enhances the Malignant Phenotype of Multiple Myeloma and Sensitizes Cells to EZH2 inhibition. Cell Rep. 2017;21:628-640 pubmed publisher
    ..Such sensitivity was related to a decrease in the levels of IRF4 and c-MYC and an activation of repressors of IRF4 characteristic of germinal center B cells such as BCL6 and IRF1...
  66. Bosch M, Akhter A, Chen B, Mansoor A, LeBrun D, Good D, et al. A bioclinical prognostic model using MYC and BCL2 predicts outcome in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Haematologica. 2018;103:288-296 pubmed publisher
    ..material was available to create tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry staining for CD10, BCL6, MUM1/IRF4, FOXP1, LMO2, BCL2, MYC, P53 and phosphoSTAT3 (pySTAT3) expression...
  67. Lee C, Kang K, So J, Kwon H, Son J, Song M, et al. A distal cis-regulatory element, CNS-9, controls NFAT1 and IRF4-mediated IL-10 gene activation in T helper cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro binding of NFAT1 and IRF4 to the CNS-9 region was observed by EMSA...
  68. Hong K, Jin H, Song D, Kwak H, Kim S, Kim Y. Genome-wide association study of serum albumin:globulin ratio in Korean populations. J Hum Genet. 2013;58:174-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0 × 10(-4)). These 38 signals were tested in the Ansung population. Eleven SNPs from six loci (GALNT2, IRF4, HLA-DBP1, SLC31A1, FADS1 and TNFRSF13B) were replicated, with P-values<0.05...