Gene Symbol: IL9
Description: interleukin 9
Alias: HP40, IL-9, P40, interleukin-9, T-cell growth factor p40, cytokine P40, homolog of mouse T cell and mast cell growth factor 40, p40 T-cell and mast cell growth factor, p40 cytokine
Species: human
Products:     IL9

Top Publications

  1. Nicolaides N, Holroyd K, Ewart S, Eleff S, Kiser M, Dragwa C, et al. Interleukin 9: a candidate gene for asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13175-80 pubmed
    ..We assessed bronchial responsiveness as a quantitative trait in mice and found it linked to chromosome 13. Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is located in the linked region and was analyzed as a gene candidate...
  2. Pilette C, Ouadrhiri Y, Van Snick J, Renauld J, Staquet P, Vaerman J, et al. IL-9 inhibits oxidative burst and TNF-alpha release in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes through TGF-beta. J Immunol. 2002;168:4103-11 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight a new target cell for IL-9 and may account for the beneficial activity of IL-9 in animal models of exaggerated inflammatory response. ..
  3. Erpenbeck V, Hohlfeld J, Volkmann B, Hagenberg A, Geldmacher H, Braun A, et al. Segmental allergen challenge in patients with atopic asthma leads to increased IL-9 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lymphocytes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:1319-27 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, IL9 mRNA expression of BAL cells was detected by means of real-time PCR...
  4. Singhera G, MacRedmond R, Dorscheid D. Interleukin-9 and -13 inhibit spontaneous and corticosteroid induced apoptosis of normal airway epithelial cells. Exp Lung Res. 2008;34:579-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that IL-9 and IL-13 may be critical to normal cellular homeostasis in the setting of airway epithelial injury. A dysregulated response to these cytokines may contribute to airway remodeling in asthma. ..
  5. Staudt V, Bothur E, Klein M, Lingnau K, Reuter S, Grebe N, et al. Interferon-regulatory factor 4 is essential for the developmental program of T helper 9 cells. Immunity. 2010;33:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses revealed direct IRF4 binding to the Il9 promoter in Th9 cells...
  6. Refaat A, Zhou Y, Suzuki S, Takasaki I, Koizumi K, Yamaoka S, et al. Distinct roles of transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-c-Rel and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) pathways in human T cell lymphotropic virus 1-transformed T helper 17 cells producing interleukin-9. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21092-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings indicate that TAK1-c-Rel and IRF4 pathways play distinct roles in the maintenance of IL-9-producing Th17 phenotype of HTLV-1-transformed cells. ..
  7. Kelleher K, Bean K, Clark S, Leung W, Yang Feng T, Chen J, et al. Human interleukin-9: genomic sequence, chromosomal location, and sequences essential for its expression in human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-I-transformed human T cells. Blood. 1991;77:1436-41 pubmed
    ..These results will now allow us to study the regulatory mechanism of IL-9 gene expression in normal and leukemic human T cells. ..
  8. Merz H, Houssiau F, Orscheschek K, Renauld J, Fliedner A, Herin M, et al. Interleukin-9 expression in human malignant lymphomas: unique association with Hodgkin's disease and large cell anaplastic lymphoma. Blood. 1991;78:1311-7 pubmed
    To test the possibility that interleukin-9 (IL-9), the human homologue of the mouse T-cell growth factor P40, may be involved in the pathogenesis of human lymphomas, we examined IL-9 expression in a variety of tumors both by Northern ..
  9. Vermeer P, Harson R, Einwalter L, Moninger T, Zabner J. Interleukin-9 induces goblet cell hyperplasia during repair of human airway epithelia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;28:286-95 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that interventions that limit airway epithelial damage, block IL-9, or modulate the repair process should result in decreased airway remodeling and prevent the chronic manifestations of this disease. ..

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Tsicopoulos A, Shimbara A, de Nadai P, Aldewachi O, Lamblin C, Lassalle P, et al. Involvement of IL-9 in the bronchial phenotype of patients with nasal polyposis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:462-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an important role for IL-9 in the pathogenesis of BHR and a causal relation between IL-9 and the development of bronchial eosinophilia in asthma. ..
  2. Yang L, Aozasa K, Oshimi K, Takada K. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA promotes growth of EBV-infected T cells through interleukin-9 induction. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5332-7 pubmed
    ..Analysis of nasal lymphoma biopsies indicated that three of four specimens expressed IL-9. The present findings suggest that EBV directly affects the pathogenesis of EBV-associated T-cell diseases. ..
  3. Knoops L, Renauld J. IL-9 and its receptor: from signal transduction to tumorigenesis. Growth Factors. 2004;22:207-15 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in vitro, dysregulated IL-9 response can lead to autonomous cell growth and malignant transformation of lymphoid cells associated with constitutive activation of the Jak/STAT pathway. ..
  4. Arendse B, Van Snick J, Brombacher F. IL-9 is a susceptibility factor in Leishmania major infection by promoting detrimental Th2/type 2 responses. J Immunol. 2005;174:2205-11 pubmed
    ..The results extend efforts made to generate autoantibodies capable of regulating biological processes, with IL-9 a potential drug target against leishmaniasis. ..
  5. Nagato T, Kobayashi H, Kishibe K, Takahara M, Ogino T, Ishii H, et al. Expression of interleukin-9 in nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma cell lines and patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:8250-7 pubmed
    ..Most significantly, IL-9 was present in biopsies and sera from patients with this lymphoma. These results suggest that IL-9 plays an important role in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma possibly via an autocrine mechanism. ..
  6. Wang T, Chen W, Huang Y, Shih N, Feng W, Tseng H, et al. The synergistic effects of the IL-9 gene and environmental exposures on asthmatic Taiwanese families as determined by the transmission/disequilibrium test. Int J Immunogenet. 2006;33:105-10 pubmed
  7. Qiu L, Lai R, Lin Q, Lau E, Thomazy D, Calame D, et al. Autocrine release of interleukin-9 promotes Jak3-dependent survival of ALK+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cells. Blood. 2006;108:2407-15 pubmed
    ..Our results illustrate that IL-9/Jak3 signaling plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of ALK+ ALCL and that it represents a potential therapeutic target for treating patients with ALK+ ALCL. ..
  8. Wu B, Huang C, Kato Maeda M, Hopewell P, Daley C, Krensky A, et al. IL-9 is associated with an impaired Th1 immune response in patients with tuberculosis. Clin Immunol. 2008;126:202-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, increased expression of IL-9 may contribute to the development of TB. ..
  9. Li H, Rostami A. IL-9: basic biology, signaling pathways in CD4+ T cells and implications for autoimmunity. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:198-209 pubmed publisher
  10. Beriou G, Bradshaw E, Lozano E, Costantino C, Hastings W, Orban T, et al. TGF-beta induces IL-9 production from human Th17 cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the presence of IL-17(+)IL-9(+) CD4 cells induced by IL-1beta that may play a role in human autoimmune disease. ..
  11. Cappuzzello C, Di Vito L, Melchionna R, Melillo G, Silvestri L, Cesareo E, et al. Increase of plasma IL-9 and decrease of plasma IL-5, IL-7, and IFN-? in patients with chronic heart failure. J Transl Med. 2011;9:28 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase of plasma IL-9, and the decrease of plasma IL-5, IL-7 and IFN-? in ICM as well as in NIDCM groups vs controls may contribute to get further insights into the inflammatory pathways involved in CHF. ..
  12. Blom L, Poulsen B, Jensen B, Hansen A, Poulsen L. IL-33 induces IL-9 production in human CD4+ T cells and basophils. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21695 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that barrier functioning cells are important for the regulation of IL-9 production by immune cells in inflamed tissue...
  13. Yanaba K, Yoshizaki A, Asano Y, Kadono T, Sato S. Serum interleukin 9 levels are increased in patients with systemic sclerosis: association with lower frequency and severity of pulmonary fibrosis. J Rheumatol. 2011;38:2193-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine serum interleukin 9 (IL-9) levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)...
  14. Purwar R, Schlapbach C, Xiao S, Kang H, Elyaman W, Jiang X, et al. Robust tumor immunity to melanoma mediated by interleukin-9-producing T cells. Nat Med. 2012;18:1248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a role for IL-9 in tumor immunity and offer insight into potential therapeutic strategies. ..
  15. Popp V, Gerlach K, Mott S, Turowska A, Garn H, Atreya R, et al. Rectal Delivery of a DNAzyme That Specifically Blocks the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Reduces Colitis in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2017;152:176-192.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..deletion of GATA3 did not develop colitis and their colonic tissues did not produce inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL9, or IL13)...
  16. Olivry T, Mayhew D, Paps J, Linder K, Peredo C, Rajpal D, et al. Early Activation of Th2/Th22 Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Pathways in Acute Canine Atopic Dermatitis Skin Lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1961-1969 pubmed publisher
    ..g., IL4, IL5, IL13, IL31, and IL33), Th9 (IL9), and Th22 (IL22) cytokines as well as Th2-promoting chemokines such as CCL5 and CCL17. Proinflammatory (e.g...
  17. Xu H, Jiang W, Feng L, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;52:111-38 pubmed publisher
    ..factors, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 P35 (only in spleen), IL-12 P40, IL-15, IL-17D, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ..
  18. Lin T, Walker G, Kurji K, Fang E, Law G, Prasad S, et al. Parainflammation associated with advanced glycation endproduct stimulation of RPE in vitro: implications for age-related degenerative diseases of the eye. Cytokine. 2013;62:369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL10, IL1ra and IL9 were all overexpressed...
  19. Mehrbani Azar Y, Green R, Niesler C, van de Vyver M. Antioxidant preconditioning improves the paracrine responsiveness of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to diabetic wound fluid. Stem Cells Dev. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..05) were detected in the secretion of 2 chemokines (GMCSF, Eotaxin), 3 pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF?, IFN?, IL9) and 4 anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10, IL4, IL13, IL3)...
  20. Piro G, Simionato F, Carbone C, Frizziero M, Malleo G, Zanini S, et al. A circulating TH2 cytokines profile predicts survival in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Oncoimmunology. 2017;6:e1322242 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of IL4 and IP10 higher than cutoff identified, and level of TH1 cytokines TNF? and INF?, and of IL9 and IL1R? lower than cutoff identified were significantly associated with a shorter DFS...
  21. Martinez de la Casa J, Pérez Bartolomé F, Urcelay E, Santiago J, Moreno Montañés J, Arriola Villalobos P, et al. Tear cytokine profile of glaucoma patients treated with preservative-free or preserved latanoprost. Ocul Surf. 2017;15:723-729 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokines was analyzed in each group, including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) basic, granulocyte colony ..
  22. Altman M, Whalen E, Togias A, O Connor G, Bacharier L, Bloomberg G, et al. Allergen-induced activation of natural killer cells represents an early-life immune response in the development of allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;142:1856-1866 pubmed publisher
    ..cell activation and induction of inflammatory signaling molecules, including the key TH2-type cytokines IL9, IL13, and CCL17, as well as a dendritic cell-like gene network, including upregulation of CD1 lipid antigen ..
  23. Escobar T, Kanellopoulou C, Kugler D, Kilaru G, Nguyen C, Nagarajan V, et al. miR-155 activates cytokine gene expression in Th17 cells by regulating the DNA-binding protein Jarid2 to relieve polycomb-mediated repression. Immunity. 2014;40:865-79 pubmed publisher
    ..H3K27 histone methylation was increased in miR-155-deficient cells, coinciding with failure to express Il22, Il10, Il9, and Atf3...
  24. Wang P, Su H, Zhang L, Chen H, Hu X, Yang F, et al. Phosphatase wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 controls the development of TH9 cells and allergic airway inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141:2168-2181 pubmed publisher
    ..increases c-Jun/c-Fos activity in a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent manner and that c-Jun/c-Fos directly binds to Il9 promoter and inhibits Il9 transcription...
  25. Jabeen R, Goswami R, Awe O, Kulkarni A, Nguyen E, Attenasio A, et al. Th9 cell development requires a BATF-regulated transcriptional network. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:4641-53 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that BATF is a central regulator of the Th9 phenotype and contributes to the development of allergic inflammation. ..
  26. Chen C, Lee J, Liu B, Ohta S, Wang P, Kartashov A, et al. Induction of Interleukin-9-Producing Mucosal Mast Cells Promotes Susceptibility to IgE-Mediated Experimental Food Allergy. Immunity. 2015;43:788-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, atopic patients that developed food allergy displayed increased intestinal expression of Il9- and MC-specific transcripts...
  27. Paloschi M, Boeno C, Lopes J, Eduardo Dos Santos da Rosa A, Pires W, Pontes A, et al. Role of l-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom on neutrophil NADPH oxidase complex activation. Toxicon. 2018;145:48-55 pubmed publisher its native form, induces the ROS production in neutrophil and migration of cytosolic NADPH oxidase components p40phox, p47phox and p67phox to the membrane, and Rac, a GTPase protein member, with ..
  28. Dantas A, Marques C, da Rocha Junior L, Cavalcanti M, Gonçalves S, Cardoso P, et al. Increased Serum Interleukin-9 Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Pathogenic Role or Just an Epiphenomenon?. Dis Markers. 2015;2015:519638 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated increased serum levels of IL-9 in SLE and RA patients, but further studies are needed to clarify the precise role of this cytokine and its potential use as therapeutic target. ..
  29. Zundler S, Neurath M. Interleukin-12: Functional activities and implications for disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2015;26:559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a heterodimeric protein of two subunits (p35, p40) secreted by phagocytic cells in response to pathogens and mainly acts through STAT4 to induce IFN-γ production ..
  30. Xiao M, Pan C, Liu Y, Ma L, Yan L, Fan J, et al. Post-treatment with Ma-Huang-Tang ameliorates cold-warm-cycles induced rat lung injury. Sci Rep. 2017;7:312 pubmed publisher the expression and activation of Caveolin-1, Src and NF-?B, and NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox, p40phox and p67phox membrane translocation and inflammatory cytokines production...
  31. Lopez Ferrer A, Laiz A, Puig L. The safety of ustekinumab for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2017;16:733-742 pubmed publisher
    ..Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the p40 subunit shared by IL-12 and IL-23...
  32. Yang J, Li Q, Yang X, Li M. Interleukin-9 Is Associated with Elevated Anti-Double-Stranded DNA Antibodies in Lupus-Prone Mice. Mol Med. 2015;21:364-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate expansion of Th9 cells in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice and the correlation of IL-9 with B-cell proliferation and autoantibody production. These findings suggest that IL-9 is a potential therapeutic target for SLE. ..
  33. Singha A, Bhattacharjee B, Maiti D. Cytotoxic activity of T lymphocytes is induced upon stimulation with IL-3 plus GM-CSF in animal leukemia model. Leuk Res. 2015;: pubmed publisher
    ..The IL-3+GM-CSF treatment also enhanced the expression of both p40 and p35 isoforms of IL-12...
  34. Liang L, Chen T, Wu Y. The electrophysiology of spinocerebellar ataxias. Neurophysiol Clin. 2016;46:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormal BAEP involves prolonged interpeak latency of I-III and III-V. Abnormal SEP usually show absent P40 wave and prolonged P40 latency...
  35. Wang Q, Luo D, Sun X, Feng N, Li H, Hu J, et al. [Increased expression of IL-9 in peripheral blood and liver tissues of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016;32:1679-1682 pubmed
    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of interleukin 9 (IL-9) in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Methods The study enrolled 80 PBC patients and 100 healthy subjects...
  36. Weger S, Hammer E, Gonsior M, Stutika C, Heilbronn R. A Regulatory Element Near the 3' End of the Adeno-Associated Virus rep Gene Inhibits Adenovirus Replication in cis by Means of p40 Promoter-Associated Short Transcripts. J Virol. 2016;90:3981-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that inhibition of adenoviral replication by RIS-Ad requires an active AAV p40 promoter and the 5' half of the intron...
  37. Cai Y, Tan W, Shen X, Zhu Y, Gao Y, Sui A, et al. Neutralization of IL-23 depresses experimental ocular neovascularization. Exp Eye Res. 2016;146:242-51 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine that consists of p19, a novel subunit, and p40, which is shared by IL-12. IL-23 has been demonstrated to play an important role in autoimmunity and tumor growth...
  38. Weber B, Schlapbach C, Stuck M, Simon H, Borradori L, Beltraminelli H, et al. Distinct interferon-gamma and interleukin-9 expression in cutaneous and oral lichen planus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017;31:880-886 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of CD8+ and NK cells as well as Fas/Fas ligand expression suggested that various pathways involved in keratinocyte apoptosis are relevant for LP. These results might help to establish targeted therapies for LP. ..
  39. Field S, Dasgupta T, Cummings M, Savage R, Adebayo J, McSara H, et al. Bayesian modeling suggests that IL-12 (p40), IL-13 and MCP-1 drive murine cytokine networks in vivo. BMC Syst Biol. 2015;9:76 pubmed publisher
    ..resultant networks were very robust and assembled about structural hubs, with evidence that interleukin (IL)-12 (p40), IL-13 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were the primary drivers of network behavior...
  40. Kulig P, Musiol S, Freiberger S, Schreiner B, Gyülveszi G, Russo G, et al. IL-12 protects from psoriasiform skin inflammation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13466 pubmed publisher
    Neutralization of the common p40-subunit of IL-12/23 in psoriasis patients has led to a breakthrough in the management of moderate to severe disease...
  41. Feagan B, Sandborn W, Gasink C, Jacobstein D, Lang Y, Friedman J, et al. Ustekinumab as Induction and Maintenance Therapy for Crohn's Disease. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:1946-1960 pubmed
    Ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody to the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 and interleukin-23, was evaluated as an intravenous induction therapy in two populations with moderately to severely active Crohn's disease...
  42. Bove F, Luigetti M, Gallicchio L, Recchia V, Petruzzellis A, Di Iorio R, et al. Central conduction abnormalities in patients receiving levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion. Neurol Sci. 2017;38:1869-1872 pubmed publisher
    ..we found significant reduction in sural nerve SNAP amplitude, increase of central sensory conduction time N22-P40, and increases of central motor conduction time recorded from I dorsal interosseous and tibialis anterior...
  43. Souabni H, Ezzine A, Bizouarn T, Baciou L. Functional Assembly of Soluble and Membrane Recombinant Proteins of Mammalian NADPH Oxidase Complex. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1635:27-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The other major proteins (p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, Rac) requisite for the complex activity are cytosolic proteins...
  44. Renauld J, Goethals A, Houssiau F, Van Roost E, Van Snick J. Cloning and expression of a cDNA for the human homolog of mouse T cell and mast cell growth factor P40. Cytokine. 1990;2:9-12 pubmed
    A cDNA encoding the human homolog of mouse T-cell and mast cell growth factor P40 was derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and phorbol myristate acetate...
  45. Sun J, Wong B, Cundall M, Goncharova S, Conway M, Dalrymple A, et al. Immunoreactivity profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:901-8 pubmed
    ..Our data also show that IL-10 inhibits both the effector and directional mechanisms of allergen-specific immune response, further supporting its potential therapeutic benefit in preventing and treating allergic diseases. ..
  46. Chen J, Petrus M, Bryant B, Phuc Nguyen V, Stamer M, Goldman C, et al. Induction of the IL-9 gene by HTLV-I Tax stimulates the spontaneous proliferation of primary adult T-cell leukemia cells by a paracrine mechanism. Blood. 2008;111:5163-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data support a role for IL-9 and its receptor in ATL by a paracrine mechanism...
  47. Dat L, Thao N, Luyen B, Tai B, Woo M, Manzoor Z, et al. A new saponin from Acanthopanax koreanum with anti-inflammatory activity. Arch Pharm Res. 2017;40:311-317 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, compounds 1-5, 7, 10, and 12 showed strong inhibitions towards interleukin-12 (IL-12) production with IC50 values ranging from 1.59 to 5.46 µM. Other compounds were weak or inactive toward IL-12 p40 production.
  48. Pidala J, Beato F, Kim J, Betts B, Jim H, Sagatys E, et al. In vivo IL-12/IL-23p40 neutralization blocks Th1/Th17 response after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Haematologica. 2018;103:531-539 pubmed publisher
    ..Interleukin 12 and 23 are heterodimeric cytokines that share the p40 subunit (IL-12/IL-23p40)...
  49. Xiao X, Fan Y, Li J, Zhang X, Lou X, Dou Y, et al. Guidance of super-enhancers in regulation of IL-9 induction and airway inflammation. J Exp Med. 2018;215:559-574 pubmed publisher
    ..that formation of super-enhancers (SEs) is critical in robust induction of IL-9 and that assembly of the Il9 SEs in Th cells requires OX40-triggered chromatin acetylation...
  50. Baraldo S, Faffe D, Moore P, Whitehead T, McKenna M, Silverman E, et al. Interleukin-9 influences chemokine release in airway smooth muscle: role of ERK. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;284:L1093-102 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that airway smooth muscle is a target for IL-9 and that IL-9 amplifies the potential for these cells to recruit eosinophils and neutrophils into the airways by a mechanism involving ERK. ..
  51. Kaneko K, Williams R, Dransfield D, Nixon A, Sandison A, Itoh Y. Selective Inhibition of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Abrogates Progression of Experimental Inflammatory Arthritis: Synergy With Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockade. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..DX-2400 also inhibited the up-regulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-23 p40 via polarization toward an M2 phenotype in bone marrow-derived macrophages...
  52. Weiss D, Schaschinger M, Ristl R, Gruber R, Kopp T, Stingl G, et al. Ustekinumab treatment in severe atopic dermatitis: Down-regulation of T-helper 2/22 expression. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76:91-97.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..suggested that patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) may profit from anti-interleukin (IL)-12/-23 p40 therapy...
  53. Gu Z, Wang Y, Cao Z. T-Helper Type 9 Cells Play a Central Role in the Pathogenesis of Respiratory Epithelial Adenomatoid Hamartoma. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94:e1050 pubmed publisher
    ..The Th9 cell subset was expanded, the synthesis of IL-9-encoding mRNA was upregulated, and IL-9 secretion was increased in REAH tissue, suggesting that Th9 cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. ..
  54. Mu J, Zhang Y, Hu Y, Hu X, Zhou Y, Chen X, et al. The role of viral protein Ac34 in nuclear relocation of subunits of the actin-related protein 2/3 complex. Virol Sin. 2016;31:480-489 pubmed publisher
    The actin nucleator actin-related protein complex (Arp2/3) is composed of seven subunits: Arp2, Arp3, p40/ARPC1 (P40), p34/ARPC2 (P34), p21/ARPC3 (P21), p20/ARPC4 (P20), and p16/ARPC5 (P16)...
  55. Humblin E, Thibaudin M, Chalmin F, Derangère V, Limagne E, Richard C, et al. IRF8-dependent molecular complexes control the Th9 transcriptional program. Nat Commun. 2017;8:2085 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and BATF, which binds to DNA and boosts Il9 transcription...
  56. Miersch C, Stange K, Röntgen M. Separation of functionally divergent muscle precursor cell populations from porcine juvenile muscles by discontinuous Percoll density gradient centrifugation. BMC Cell Biol. 2018;19:2 pubmed publisher
    ..A mixed myogenic cell population was obtained from the 40/70% interface (termed: mixed P40/70) of a 25/40/70% Percoll gradient...
  57. Demoulin J, Van Roost E, Stevens M, Groner B, Renauld J. Distinct roles for STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 in differentiation gene induction and apoptosis inhibition by interleukin-9. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25855-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that survival and cell growth are redundantly controlled by multiple STAT factors, whereas differentiation gene induction is more specifically correlated with individual STAT activation by IL-9. ..
  58. Paclet M, Berthier S, Kuhn L, Garin J, Morel F. Regulation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity: identification of two cytochrome b558 activation states. FASEB J. 2007;21:1244-55 pubmed
    Activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (phox) requires the association of cytosolic proteins (p67-phox, p47-phox, p40-phox, and Rac1/2) with the membrane cytochrome b558, leading to a hemoprotein conformation change...
  59. Kamat A, BRIGGMAN J, Urbauer D, Svatek R, Nogueras Gonzalez G, Anderson R, et al. Cytokine Panel for Response to Intravesical Therapy (CyPRIT): Nomogram of Changes in Urinary Cytokine Levels Predicts Patient Response to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Eur Urol. 2016;69:197-200 pubmed publisher
    ..9–93.1%).” This cytokine panel and nomogram have potential for identifying patients at risk of tumor recurrence during BCG treatment to guide modification of the dose and duration of BCG immunotherapy. NCT01007058. ..
  60. Fung M, Chu Y, Fink J, Wallace A, McGuire K. IL-2- and STAT5-regulated cytokine gene expression in cells expressing the Tax protein of HTLV-1. Oncogene. 2005;24:4624-33 pubmed
  61. Wang H, Graves M, Zhou H, Gu Z, Lamont R, Scott D. 2-Amino-4-(3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine is an anti-inflammatory TLR-2, -4 and -5 response mediator in human monocytes. Inflamm Res. 2016;65:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium flagellin (0-0.25 μg/ml). TLR-induced cytokine release (TNF, IL-6, IL-12 p40) was monitored by ELISA while Wnt-related signals (GSK3β, p65, IκB, β-catenin) were assessed by Western ..
  62. Hoebee B, Bont L, Rietveld E, van Oosten M, Hodemaekers H, Nagelkerke N, et al. Influence of promoter variants of interleukin-10, interleukin-9, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes on respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:239-47 pubmed
    ..We also explored the interactions between different polymorphisms and found an interaction between the IL-4Ralpha Q551R and IL-10 C-592A polymorphisms. ..
  63. Ciprandi G, De Amici M, Castellazzi A, Tosca M, Marseglia G. Serum IL-9 levels depend on allergen exposure: preliminary study. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;154:246-8 pubmed publisher
    Th9 is a new T cell subset characterized by interleukin 9 (IL-9) production. Serum IL-9 levels are related to symptom severity in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR)...
  64. Fabrega E, Lopez Hoyos M, San Segundo D, Casafont F, Angel Mieses M, Sampedro B, et al. Serum levels of interleukin-9 during acute rejection in liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2012;44:1533-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary results suggest a lack of participation of IL-9 in human liver allograft rejection. ..
  65. Bu X, Zhou Q, Zhang J, Ye Z, Tong Z, Shi H. Recruitment and phenotypic characteristics of interleukin 9-producing CD4+ T cells in malignant pleural effusion. Lung. 2013;191:385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data revealed that recruitment of Th9 cells into MPE could be induced by pleural CCL20 and that the majority of Th9 cells in MPE displayed the phenotype of effector memory cells. ..
  66. Gasch M, Goroll T, Bauer M, Hinz D, Schütze N, Polte T, et al. Generation of IL-8 and IL-9 producing CD4? T cells is affected by Th17 polarizing conditions and AHR ligands. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:182549 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have identified IL-8 and IL-9 producing T helper cells which are subject to regulation by the engagement of the AHR. ..
  67. Zhang J, Wang W, Geng Q, Wang L, Chen X, Liu C, et al. Serum levels of interleukin-9 correlate with negative prognostic factors in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e94637 pubmed publisher
    ..It can also be a significant independent prognostic factor for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, which suggests a role for IL-9 in the pathogenesis of this disease and offers new insight into potential therapeutic strategies. ..
  68. Peters C, Häsler R, Wesch D, Kabelitz D. Human Vδ2 T cells are a major source of interleukin-9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:12520-12525 pubmed
    ..cells, including IKAROS family zinc finger 4 (IKZF4; Eos), integrin subunit alpha E (ITGAE; CD103/αEβ7), and IL9 This up-regulation was associated with potent IL-9 production as revealed by flow cytometry and multiplex analysis ..
  69. Velagapudi R, El Bakoush A, Lepiarz I, Ogunrinade F, Olajide O. AMPK and SIRT1 activation contribute to inhibition of neuroinflammation by thymoquinone in BV2 microglia. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;435:149-162 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoblotting was used to detect protein levels of p40phox, gp91phox, AMPK, LKB1 and SIRT1...
  70. Guggino G, Lo Pizzo M, Di Liberto D, Rizzo A, Cipriani P, Ruscitti P, et al. Interleukin-9 over-expression and T helper 9 polarization in systemic sclerosis patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;190:208-216 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Th9 cells and IL-9 could be implicated in the pathogenesis of SSc. ..
  71. Yago T, Nanke Y, Kawamoto M, Kobashigawa T, Yamanaka H, Kotake S. IL-23 and Th17 Disease in Inflammatory Arthritis. J Clin Med. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    IL-23, which is composed of p19 and p40 subunits, is a proinflammatory cytokine that contributes to the formation and maintenance of Th17 cells in inflammatory autoimmune diseases...
  72. Bishop J, Andreasen S, Hang J, Bullock M, Chen T, Franchi A, et al. HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma: An Expanded Series of 49 Cases of the Tumor Formerly Known as HPV-related Carcinoma With Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma-like Features. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:1690-1701 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry for p16, c-kit, and myoepithelial cell markers (S100, actin, calponin, p63, and/or p40) was performed along with RNA in situ hybridization for HPV (type 33-specific as well as a high-risk cocktail)...
  73. Tanegashima K, Takahashi R, Nuriya H, Iwase R, Naruse N, Tsuji K, et al. CXCL14 Acts as a Specific Carrier of CpG DNA into Dendritic Cells and Activates Toll-like Receptor 9-mediated Adaptive Immunity. EBioMedicine. 2017;24:247-256 pubmed publisher
    ..A combination of CpG ODN (ODN2395) plus CXCL14 induced robust production of IL-12 p40 by wild-type, but not Tlr9-knockout, DCs...
  74. Gisbert J, Chaparro M. Ustekinumab to treat Crohn's disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;40:688-698 pubmed publisher
    Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the p40 subunit, which is part of interleukins IL-12 and IL-23...
  75. Puig L. Paradoxical Reactions: Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Agents, Ustekinumab, Secukinumab, Ixekizumab, and Others. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2018;53:49-63 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways is most likely a cytokine imbalance, and substitution of the anti-TNF? agent by an alternative anti-p40 or anti-IL-17A biologic may be extremely helpful...
  76. Yang Y, Ricciardi S, Ciarletta A, Calvetti J, Kelleher K, Clark S. Expression cloning of cDNA encoding a novel human hematopoietic growth factor: human homologue of murine T-cell growth factor P40. Blood. 1989;74:1880-4 pubmed that of a recently reported novel murine growth factor for helper T-cell clones designated T-cell growth factor P40. The mRNA for the human P40 protein is expressed by several different human T-cell lines and by mitogen-stimulated ..
  77. Matsuzawa S, Sakashita K, Kinoshita T, Ito S, Yamashita T, Koike K. IL-9 enhances the growth of human mast cell progenitors under stimulation with stem cell factor. J Immunol. 2003;170:3461-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, IL-9 appears to act as a potent enhancer for the SCF-dependent growth of mast cell progenitors in humans, particularly asthmatic patients. ..
  78. Osterfeld H, Ahrens R, Strait R, Finkelman F, Renauld J, Hogan S. Differential roles for the IL-9/IL-9 receptor alpha-chain pathway in systemic and oral antigen-induced anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:469-476.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokine IL-9 has been implicated in allergic reactions, including food allergy, but its contribution to parenteral versus oral antigen-induced anaphylaxis remains unclear...
  79. Stephens G, Swerdlow B, Benjamin E, Coyle A, Humbles A, Kolbeck R, et al. IL-9 is a Th17-derived cytokine that limits pathogenic activity in organ-specific autoimmune disease. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for IL-9 in dampening the pathogenic activities of Th17 cells. ..
  80. Namkung J, Lee J, Kim E, Park G, Yang H, Jang H, et al. An association between IL-9 and IL-9 receptor gene polymorphisms and atopic dermatitis in a Korean population. J Dermatol Sci. 2011;62:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..As the classes of helper T cells are diverse and the function of IL-9 cytokine has not been fully described, the cutaneous function of IL-9 needs to be further explored in future studies. ..
  81. Kortekaas K, de Vries D, Reinders M, Lievers E, Ringers J, Lindeman J, et al. Interleukin-9 release from human kidney grafts and its potential protective role in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Inflamm Res. 2013;62:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Deceased donor grafts show a substantial IL-9 release upon reperfusion in clinical kidney transplantation. However, inhibition of IL-9 aggravated kidney damage, suggesting a regulating or minor role of IL-9 in clinical I/R injury. ..
  82. Moradi B, Rosshirt N, Tripel E, Kirsch J, Barié A, Zeifang F, et al. Unicompartmental and bicompartmental knee osteoarthritis show different patterns of mononuclear cell infiltration and cytokine release in the affected joints. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015;180:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Inclusion of clinical information into the analysis of cellular and molecular results is pivotal in understanding the pathophysiology of OA. ..
  83. Vasanthakumar R, Mohan V, Anand G, Deepa M, Babu S, Aravindhan V. Serum IL-9, IL-17, and TGF-β levels in subjects with diabetic kidney disease (CURES-134). Cytokine. 2015;72:109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from pro-inflammatory cytokines, T helper (Th) cytokines might play an important role in insulin resistance and DKD. ..
  84. Bagaitkar J, Barbu E, Perez Zapata L, Austin A, Huang G, Pallat S, et al. PI(3)P-p40phox binding regulates NADPH oxidase activation in mouse macrophages and magnitude of inflammatory responses in vivo. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;101:449-457 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytosolic regulatory subunit p40phox plays a specialized role in stimulating NADPH oxidase activity on intracellular membranes via its ..
  85. Sarfraz M, Suleman M, Tikoo S, Wheler C, Potter A, Gerdts V, et al. Immune responses to in ovo vaccine formulations containing inactivated fowl adenovirus 8b with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) and avian beta defensin as adjuvants in chickens. Vaccine. 2017;35:981-986 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, significant enhancement of IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-12(p40) and IL-6 gene expression under the influence of PCEP suggests that as an in ovo adjuvant PCEP has the ability to ..
  86. Karim A, Reba S, Li Q, Boom W, Rojas R. Toll like Receptor 2 engagement on CD4+ T cells promotes TH9 differentiation and function. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1513-1524 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, naïve CD4+ T-cells co-stimulated via TLR2 showed a significant up-regulation of Il9 mRNA compared to cells co-stimulated via CD28...
  87. Wu D, Dinh T, Bausk B, Walt D. Long-Term Measurements of Human Inflammatory Cytokines Reveal Complex Baseline Variations between Individuals. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2620-2626 pubmed publisher
    ..either high (IL-8, IFN-?, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-1?) or low (IL-15, TNF-?, IL-12 p70, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IL-12 p40, IL-10, IL-7, IL-1?, and IL-5) subject-to-subject variation...
  88. Park S, Lee S, Lee S, Hong K, Bae S, Kim K, et al. SIRT1/Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase ? Signaling Enhances Macrophage Polarization to an Anti-inflammatory Phenotype in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1135 pubmed publisher
    ..activity by inhibiting p65 acetylation and the expression of M1 genes, such as CCL2, iNOS, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40. Macrophages from SIRT1 transgenic (Tg)-mice exhibited enhanced polarization of M2 phenotype macrophages and ..
  89. Boguniewicz M. Biologic Therapy for Atopic Dermatitis: Moving Beyond the Practice Parameter and Guidelines. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5:1477-1487 pubmed publisher
    ..Other biologics in current trials for AD are targeting the IL-31 receptor, IL-13, and the common p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-23.
  90. Yin T, Keller S, Quelle F, Witthuhn B, Tsang M, Lienhard G, et al. Interleukin-9 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 via JAK tyrosine kinases. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:20497-502 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results strongly suggest that IL-9 and IL-4 utilize common and unique signaling pathways via inducing the similar and distinct tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. ..
  91. Chen N, Lu K, Li P, Lv X, Wang X. Overexpression of IL-9 induced by STAT6 activation promotes the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7:2319-23 pubmed
    ..Our data indicated that the upregulation of IL-9 induced by pSTAT6 may be involved in the pathogenesis of CLL. ..
  92. Farrell M, Holland F, Shansky R, Brenhouse H. Sex-specific effects of early life stress on social interaction and prefrontal cortex dendritic morphology in young rats. Behav Brain Res. 2016;310:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats were euthanized at postnatal day 40 (P40; adolescence), and randomly selected infralimbic pyramidal neurons were filled with Lucifer yellow using ..