Gene Symbol: IL33
Description: interleukin 33
Alias: C9orf26, DVS27, IL1F11, NF-HEV, NFEHEV, interleukin-33, DVS27-related protein, interleukin-1 family member 11, nuclear factor for high endothelial venules, nuclear factor from high endothelial venules
Species: human
Products:     IL33

Top Publications

  1. Ali S, Nguyen D, Falk W, Martin M. Caspase 3 inactivates biologically active full length interleukin-33 as a classical cytokine but does not prohibit nuclear translocation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that IL-33 is not a classical cytokine but exerts its function in the nucleus of intact cells and only activates others cells via its receptor as an alarm mediator after destruction of the producing cell. ..
  2. Moffatt M, Gut I, Demenais F, Strachan D, Bouzigon E, Heath S, et al. A large-scale, consortium-based genomewide association study of asthma. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1211-1221 pubmed publisher
    ..rs9273349 on chromosome 6, implicating HLA-DQ (P=7×10(−14)); rs1342326 on chromosome 9, flanking IL33 (P=9×10(−10)); rs744910 on chromosome 15 in SMAD3 (P=4×10(−9)); and rs2284033 on chromosome 22 ..
  3. Yagami A, Orihara K, Morita H, Futamura K, Hashimoto N, Matsumoto K, et al. IL-33 mediates inflammatory responses in human lung tissue cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:5743-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-33-mediated inflammatory responses of lung tissue cells may be involved in the chronic allergic inflammation of the asthmatic airway. ..
  4. Dhillon O, Narayan H, Khan S, Kelly D, Quinn P, Squire I, et al. Pre-discharge risk stratification in unselected STEMI: is there a role for ST2 or its natural ligand IL-33 when compared with contemporary risk markers?. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:2182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated ST2 and IL-33 were both associated with increased mortality. ST2 demonstrated incremental value over contemporary risk markers but, IL-33 did not. ST2 has a potential role in risk stratification using a multi-marker approach. ..
  5. Luzina I, Pickering E, Kopach P, Kang P, Lockatell V, Todd N, et al. Full-length IL-33 promotes inflammation but not Th2 response in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion. J Immunol. 2012;189:403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The different effects of these isoforms, particularly the pro-Th2 effects of mature IL-33, are due to differential utilization of the IL-33R chain ST2, whereas their similar effects result from regulation of gene expression. ..
  6. Kunisch E, Chakilam S, Gandesiri M, Kinne R. IL-33 regulates TNF-? dependent effects in synovial fibroblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2012;29:530-40 pubmed publisher
  7. Bønnelykke K, Sleiman P, Nielsen K, Kreiner Møller E, Mercader J, Belgrave D, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies CDHR3 as a susceptibility locus for early childhood asthma with severe exacerbations. Nat Genet. 2014;46:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified five loci with genome-wide significant association. Four of these, GSDMB, IL33, RAD50 and IL1RL1, were previously reported as asthma susceptibility loci, but the effect sizes for these loci in ..
  8. Hueber A, Alves Filho J, Asquith D, Michels C, Millar N, Reilly J, et al. IL-33 induces skin inflammation with mast cell and neutrophil activation. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results therefore demonstrate that IL-33 may play a role in psoriasis-like plaque inflammation. IL-33 targeting may provide a new treatment strategy for psoriasis. ..
  9. Yu J, Song J, Wang N, Wu Z, Zhang Q, Zhang N, et al. Implication of IL-33 gene polymorphism in Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1014.e11-4 pubmed publisher
    ..021; additive model: OR = 0.71, p = 0.004) after adjusting for age, gender, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 status. Our results support the evidence that genetic variants of IL-33 affect susceptibility to LOAD in Han Chinese. ..

More Information


  1. Ober C, Yao T. The genetics of asthma and allergic disease: a 21st century perspective. Immunol Rev. 2011;242:10-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing studies will continue to broaden our understanding of asthma and allergy and unravel the mechanisms for the development of these complex traits. ..
  2. Kakkar R, Hei H, Dobner S, Lee R. Interleukin 33 as a mechanically responsive cytokine secreted by living cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6941-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 33 (IL-33), a member of the Interleukin 1 cytokine family, is implicated in numerous human inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis...
  3. Demyanets S, Konya V, Kastl S, Kaun C, Rauscher S, Niessner A, et al. Interleukin-33 induces expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory activation in human endothelial cells and in human atherosclerotic plaques. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2080-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Yang Z, Liang Y, Xi W, Li C, Zhong R. Association of increased serum IL-33 levels with clinical and laboratory characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese population. Clin Exp Med. 2011;11:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that IL-33 may play a role in acute phase of SLE, but it was not associated with course of the disease. Moreover, IL-33 may exert biologic effects on erythrocytes and platelets or their precursors in SLE. ..
  5. Bianchetti L, Marini M, Isgrò M, Bellini A, Schmidt M, Mattoli S. IL-33 promotes the migration and proliferation of circulating fibrocytes from patients with allergen-exacerbated asthma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;426:116-21 pubmed publisher
  6. Talabot Ayer D, Lamacchia C, Gabay C, Palmer G. Interleukin-33 is biologically active independently of caspase-1 cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19420-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results clearly show that caspase-1 cleavage is not required for pro-IL-33 secretion and bioactivity, highlighting major differences between IL-1beta and IL-33. ..
  7. Zhao W, Hu Z. The enigmatic processing and secretion of interleukin-33. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:260-2 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33 was first named NF-HEV (nuclear factor from high endothelial venules), as it was known to interact with nuclear chromatin although its exact intracellular functions ..
  8. Gudbjartsson D, Bjornsdottir U, Halapi E, Helgadottir A, Sulem P, Jonsdottir G, et al. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction. Nat Genet. 2009;41:342-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated with atopic asthma (P = 4...
  9. Liu X, Hammel M, He Y, Tainer J, Jeng U, Zhang L, et al. Structural insights into the interaction of IL-33 with its receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The collective results confer IL-33 structure-function relationships, supporting and extending a general model for ligand-receptor assembly and activation in the IL-1 family. ..
  10. Palmer G, Gabay C. Interleukin-33 biology with potential insights into human diseases. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7:321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, IL-33 also appears to exert important functions in host defense against pathogens and to display cardioprotective properties, which might have implications for the clinical use of IL-33 blockade. ..
  11. Yanaba K, Yoshizaki A, Asano Y, Kadono T, Sato S. Serum IL-33 levels are raised in patients with systemic sclerosis: association with extent of skin sclerosis and severity of pulmonary fibrosis. Clin Rheumatol. 2011;30:825-30 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33 levels were increased in SSc patients and correlated with the extent of skin sclerosis and the severity of pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, IL-33 possibly plays a role in cutaneous and pulmonary fibrosis in SSc patients. ..
  12. Iikura M, Suto H, Kajiwara N, Oboki K, Ohno T, Okayama Y, et al. IL-33 can promote survival, adhesion and cytokine production in human mast cells. Lab Invest. 2007;87:971-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings thus support the hypothesis that IL-33 may enhance mast cell function in allergic disorders and other settings, either in the presence or absence of co-stimulation of mast cells via IgE/antigen-FcepsilonRI signals. ..
  13. Mun S, Ko N, Kim H, Kim J, Kim D, Kim A, et al. Interleukin-33 stimulates formation of functional osteoclasts from human CD14(+) monocytes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:3883-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the osteoclastogenic property of IL-33 is mediated through TRAF6 as well as the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-dependent Syk/PLCγ pathway in human CD14(+) monocytes. ..
  14. Aoki S, Hayakawa M, Ozaki H, Takezako N, Obata H, Ibaraki N, et al. ST2 gene expression is proliferation-dependent and its ligand, IL-33, induces inflammatory reaction in endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;335:75-81 pubmed publisher
  15. Hayakawa H, Hayakawa M, Kume A, Tominaga S. Soluble ST2 blocks interleukin-33 signaling in allergic airway inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26369-80 pubmed
    ..Our study provides a molecular mechanism wherein soluble ST2 modulates the biological activity of IL-33 in allergic airway inflammation. ..
  16. Buysschaert I, Grulois V, Eloy P, Jorissen M, Rombaux P, Bertrand B, et al. Genetic evidence for a role of IL33 in nasal polyposis. Allergy. 2010;65:616-22 pubmed publisher
    ..rs3184504 in SH2B3, rs2416257 in WDR36, rs2269426 in MHC, rs9494145 in MYB, rs748065 in GFRA2, and rs3939286 in IL33) using MALDI-TOF. A two-stage design was used while correcting for multiple testing...
  17. Moussion C, Ortega N, Girard J. The IL-1-like cytokine IL-33 is constitutively expressed in the nucleus of endothelial cells and epithelial cells in vivo: a novel 'alarmin'?. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3331 pubmed publisher
  18. Pecaric Petkovic T, Didichenko S, Kaempfer S, Spiegl N, Dahinden C. Human basophils and eosinophils are the direct target leukocytes of the novel IL-1 family member IL-33. Blood. 2009;113:1526-34 pubmed publisher
  19. Liu X, Liu X, Jian C, Li C, He S. IL-33 is induced by amyloid-? stimulation and regulates inflammatory cytokine production in retinal pigment epithelium cells. Inflammation. 2012;35:776-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater understanding of the inflammatory effect of IL-33 and its role in RPE cells should aid the development of future clinical therapeutics and enable novel pharmacological approaches towards the prevention of AMD. ..
  20. Demyanets S, Tentzeris I, Jarai R, Katsaros K, Farhan S, Wonnerth A, et al. An increase of interleukin-33 serum levels after coronary stent implantation is associated with coronary in-stent restenosis. Cytokine. 2014;67:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with both stable and unstable coronary artery disease, an increase of IL-33 serum levels after stent implantation is associated with a higher rate of in-stent restenosis. ..
  21. Ferreira M, Matheson M, Tang C, Granell R, Ang W, Hui J, et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies 11 risk variants associated with the asthma with hay fever phenotype. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..23; P = 2 × 10(-6)). By focusing on the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever, variants associated with the risk of allergic disease can be identified with greater efficiency. ..
  22. Matsuyama Y, Okazaki H, Tamemoto H, Kimura H, Kamata Y, Nagatani K, et al. Increased levels of interleukin 33 in sera and synovial fluid from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:18-25 pubmed publisher
    To determine levels of interleukin 33 (IL-33) in serum and synovial fluid (SF) and their clinical associations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  23. Roussel L, Erard M, Cayrol C, Girard J. Molecular mimicry between IL-33 and KSHV for attachment to chromatin through the H2A-H2B acidic pocket. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:1006-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of the existence of non-histone cellular factors that bind to the acidic pocket of the nucleosome...
  24. Komai Koma M, Xu D, Li Y, McKenzie A, McInnes I, Liew F. IL-33 is a chemoattractant for human Th2 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2779-86 pubmed
    ..These data therefore demonstrate that IL-33 is a selective Th2 chemoattractant associated with the pro-inflammatory property of this novel cytokine. ..
  25. Hong Y, Moon S, Joo Y, Jeon C, Cho M, Ju J, et al. Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and IL-33 receptors (sST2 and ST2L) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:1132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusively, IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of RA and may reflect the degree of inflammation in patients with RA. ..
  26. Granne I, Southcombe J, Snider J, Tannetta D, Child T, Redman C, et al. ST2 and IL-33 in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24463 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that sST2 may play a significant role in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and increased sST2 could contribute to the type 1 bias seen in this disorder. ..
  27. Xiangyang Z, Lutian Y, Lin Z, Liping X, Hui S, Jing L. Increased levels of interleukin-33 associated with bone erosion and interstitial lung diseases in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cytokine. 2012;58:6-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, there was also positive correlation between IL-33 and MMP-3, MSS. These data support the hypothesis that IL-33 may be involved in RA pathogenesis and it may partly contribute to the bone erosion in RA patients. ..
  28. Kageyama Y, Torikai E, Tsujimura K, Kobayashi M. Involvement of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: the effect of etanercept on the serum levels of IL-33. Mod Rheumatol. 2012;22:89-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that the decrease of serum IL-33 levels was a novel function of etanercept, shown for the first time in this study. Measurement of serum levels of IL-33 may become a useful control marker for RA treatment. ..
  29. Kaitu u Lino T, Tuohey L, Tong S. Maternal serum interleukin-33 and soluble ST2 across early pregnancy, and their association with miscarriage. J Reprod Immunol. 2012;95:46-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While there was no significant change in sST2 or IL-3 across the first trimester, we found that women with live pregnancies destined to fail had dysregulated levels of serum IL-33, and potentially sST2 at six weeks' gestation. ..
  30. Saglani S, Lui S, Ullmann N, Campbell G, Sherburn R, Mathie S, et al. IL-33 promotes airway remodeling in pediatric patients with severe steroid-resistant asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:676-685.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33 is a relatively steroid-resistant mediator that promotes airway remodeling in patients with STRA and is an important therapeutic target. ..
  31. Wills Karp M, Rani R, Dienger K, Lewkowich I, Fox J, Perkins C, et al. Trefoil factor 2 rapidly induces interleukin 33 to promote type 2 immunity during allergic asthma and hookworm infection. J Exp Med. 2012;209:607-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments extend the biological functions of TFF2 from tissue repair to the initiation and maintenance of mucosal T(H)2 responses. ..
  32. Lefrançais E, Roga S, Gautier V, Gonzalez de Peredo A, Monsarrat B, Girard J, et al. IL-33 is processed into mature bioactive forms by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the inflammatory microenvironment may exacerbate disease-associated functions of IL-33 through the generation of highly active mature forms. ..
  33. Hong J, Bae S, Jhun H, Lee S, Choi J, Kang T, et al. Identification of constitutively active interleukin 33 (IL-33) splice variant. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20078-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation of the spIL-33 expression pattern may contribute to understanding the involvement of IL-33 in inflammatory disorders. ..
  34. Wang J, Zhao P, Guo H, Sun X, Jiang Z, Xu L, et al. Serum IL-33 levels are associated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:819636 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentrations of serum IFN-? and IL-6 in CHC patients were significantly lower than those of SR-HCV. These data suggest that IL-33 may be a pathogenic factor contributing to CHC-related liver injury. ..
  35. Allakhverdi Z, Smith D, Comeau M, Delespesse G. Cutting edge: The ST2 ligand IL-33 potently activates and drives maturation of human mast cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:2051-4 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that IL-33 may play an important role in mast cell-mediated inflammation and further emphasize the role of innate immunity in allergic diseases. ..
  36. Humphreys N, Xu D, Hepworth M, Liew F, Grencis R. IL-33, a potent inducer of adaptive immunity to intestinal nematodes. J Immunol. 2008;180:2443-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ability of IL-33 to induce Th2 responses has functional relevance in the context of intestinal helminth infection, particularly during the initiation of the response. ..
  37. Sundlisaeter E, Edelmann R, Hol J, Sponheim J, Küchler A, WEISS M, et al. The alarmin IL-33 is a notch target in quiescent endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:1099-111 pubmed publisher of Notch signaling, well in line with the identification of several conserved RBP-J? binding sites in the IL33 gene...
  38. Seidelin J, Bjerrum J, Coskun M, Widjaya B, Vainer B, Nielsen O. IL-33 is upregulated in colonocytes of ulcerative colitis. Immunol Lett. 2010;128:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to describe that IL-33 is upregulated in UC. If IL-33 is driving a Th2-like cytokine response in UC, inhibition of the IL-33 T1/ST2 receptor pathway could be a future therapeutic option in UC. ..
  39. Mu R, Huang H, Li Y, Li C, Ye H, Li Z. Elevated serum interleukin 33 is associated with autoantibody production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:2006-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a novel cytokine involved in joint inflammation in animal models...
  40. Lin J, Zhang L, Zhao G, Su Z, Deng R, Pflugfelder S, et al. A novel interleukin 33/ST2 signaling regulates inflammatory response in human corneal epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60963 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that ST2 is present in human corneal epithelial cells, and IL-33/ST2 signaling plays an important role in regulating IL-33 induced inflammatory responses in ocular surface. ..
  41. Kurowska Stolarska M, Kewin P, Murphy G, Russo R, Stolarski B, Garcia C, et al. IL-33 induces antigen-specific IL-5+ T cells and promotes allergic-induced airway inflammation independent of IL-4. J Immunol. 2008;181:4780-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate here that, in the presence of Ag, IL-33 induces IL-5-producing T cells and promotes airway inflammation independent of IL-4...
  42. Wang J, Cai Y, Ji H, Feng J, Ayana D, Niu J, et al. Serum IL-33 levels are associated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of CHB and that adefovir dipivoxil therapy can attenuate the production of IL-33 in patients with CHB. ..
  43. Carriere V, Roussel L, Ortega N, Lacorre D, Americh L, Aguilar L, et al. IL-33, the IL-1-like cytokine ligand for ST2 receptor, is a chromatin-associated nuclear factor in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:282-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that, similarly to IL1alpha and HMGB1, IL-33 is a dual function protein that may function as both a proinflammatory cytokine and an intracellular nuclear factor with transcriptional regulatory properties. ..
  44. Smith D. IL-33: a tissue derived cytokine pathway involved in allergic inflammation and asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, there will be a discussion of still unanswered questions regarding the mechanisms by which cytokine activity is generated and IL-33's relationship with other Th2-associated cytokines. ..
  45. Wood I, Wang B, Trayhurn P. IL-33, a recently identified interleukin-1 gene family member, is expressed in human adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;384:105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Human adipocytes and preadipocytes express IL-33, but the various IL-1 family members exhibit major differences in responsiveness to TNFalpha. ..
  46. Santulli P, Borghese B, Chouzenoux S, Vaiman D, Borderie D, Streuli I, et al. Serum and peritoneal interleukin-33 levels are elevated in deeply infiltrating endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2001-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine involved in fibrotic disorders. We have analyzed IL-33 levels in the sera and peritoneal fluids of women with various forms of endometriosis and investigated the correlation with disease activity...
  47. Sakashita M, Yoshimoto T, Hirota T, Harada M, Okubo K, Osawa Y, et al. Association of serum interleukin-33 level and the interleukin-33 genetic variant with Japanese cedar pollinosis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1875-81 pubmed publisher
    ..0018) than in controls. In genetic association analysis, we found a positive association between the polymorphism and JC pollinosis (P=0.048). Our results support a role for IL-33 in the pathogenesis of JC pollinosis. ..
  48. Tu X, Nie S, Liao Y, Zhang H, Fan Q, Xu C, et al. The IL-33-ST2L pathway is associated with coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:652-60 pubmed publisher
    ..One tag SNP in each gene was significantly associated with CAD (rs7025417(T) in IL33, padj = 1.19 × 10(-28), OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.31-1.47; rs11685424(G) in IL1RL1, padj = 6.93 × 10(-30), OR = 1...
  49. Ali S, Mohs A, Thomas M, Klare J, Ross R, Schmitz M, et al. The dual function cytokine IL-33 interacts with the transcription factor NF-?B to dampen NF-?B-stimulated gene transcription. J Immunol. 2011;187:1609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that nuclear IL-33 sequesters nuclear NF-?B and reduces NF-?B-triggered gene expression to dampen proinflammatory signaling. ..
  50. Onda H, Kasuya H, Takakura K, Hori T, Imaizumi T, Takeuchi T, et al. Identification of genes differentially expressed in canine vasospastic cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1999;19:1279-88 pubmed
    ..Characterization of these genes should help to clarify the molecular mechanism of continuous cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. ..
  51. Marvie P, Lisbonne M, L Helgoualc h A, Rauch M, Turlin B, Preisser L, et al. Interleukin-33 overexpression is associated with liver fibrosis in mice and humans. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1726-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, IL-33 expression was increased in cultured HSC when stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, IL-33 is strongly associated with fibrosis in chronic liver injury and activated HSC are a source of IL-33. ..
  52. Kurowska Stolarska M, Stolarski B, Kewin P, Murphy G, Corrigan C, Ying S, et al. IL-33 amplifies the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages that contribute to airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;183:6469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we demonstrate here that IL-33/ST2 plays a significant role in the amplification of AAM polarization and chemokine production which contribute to innate and Ag-induced airway inflammation. ..
  53. Talabot Ayer D, McKee T, Gindre P, Bas S, Baeten D, Gabay C, et al. Distinct serum and synovial fluid interleukin (IL)-33 levels in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and osteoarthritis. Joint Bone Spine. 2012;79:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Local expression of IL-33 in the synovium was observed at similar variable levels in RA, PsA and OA, suggesting that inflamed joints do not represent the primary source of elevated serum and SF levels of IL-33 in RA. ..
  54. Kouzaki H, Iijima K, Kobayashi T, O Grady S, Kita H. The danger signal, extracellular ATP, is a sensor for an airborne allergen and triggers IL-33 release and innate Th2-type responses. J Immunol. 2011;186:4375-87 pubmed publisher
  55. Suzukawa M, Iikura M, Koketsu R, Nagase H, Tamura C, Komiya A, et al. An IL-1 cytokine member, IL-33, induces human basophil activation via its ST2 receptor. J Immunol. 2008;181:5981-9 pubmed
    ..IL-33 may be a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of Th2-dominant inflammation by acting not only on lymphocytes but also on effector cells such as basophils. ..
  56. Zeyda M, Wernly B, Demyanets S, Kaun C, Hämmerle M, Hantusch B, et al. Severe obesity increases adipose tissue expression of interleukin-33 and its receptor ST2, both predominantly detectable in endothelial cells of human adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37:658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the adipose tissue microvasculature could participate in obesity-associated inflammation and related complications via IL-33/ST2. ..
  57. Demyanets S, Speidl W, Tentzeris I, Jarai R, Katsaros K, Farhan S, et al. Soluble ST2 and interleukin-33 levels in coronary artery disease: relation to disease activity and adverse outcome. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95055 pubmed publisher
    ..sST2 and IL-33 were associated with mortality in patients with STEMI but not in patients with NSTEMI or stable angina. ..
  58. Torgerson D, Ampleford E, Chiu G, Gauderman W, Gignoux C, Graves P, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of asthma in ethnically diverse North American populations. Nat Genet. 2011;43:887-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified five susceptibility loci. Four were at previously reported loci on 17q21, near IL1RL1, TSLP and IL33, but we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that these loci are associated with asthma risk in three ..
  59. Sponheim J, Pollheimer J, Olsen T, Balogh J, Hammarstrom C, Loos T, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease-associated interleukin-33 is preferentially expressed in ulceration-associated myofibroblasts. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2804-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data point to a novel role for IL-33 in mucosal healing and wound repair and to an interesting difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. ..
  60. Christophi G, Gruber R, Panos M, Christophi R, Jubelt B, Massa P. Interleukin-33 upregulation in peripheral leukocytes and CNS of multiple sclerosis patients. Clin Immunol. 2012;142:308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, IL-33 levels are elevated in the periphery and CNS of MS patients, implicating IL-33 in the pathogenesis of MS. ..
  61. Pastorelli L, Garg R, Hoang S, Spina L, Mattioli B, Scarpa M, et al. Epithelial-derived IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are dysregulated in ulcerative colitis and in experimental Th1/Th2 driven enteritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8017-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the IL-33/ST2 system plays an important role in IBD and experimental colitis, is modulated by anti-TNF therapy, and may represent a specific biomarker for active UC. ..
  62. Kobori A, Yagi Y, Imaeda H, Ban H, Bamba S, Tsujikawa T, et al. Interleukin-33 expression is specifically enhanced in inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis. J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:999-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33, derived from colonic SEMFs, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of UC. ..
  63. Préfontaine D, Lajoie Kadoch S, Foley S, Audusseau S, Olivenstein R, Halayko A, et al. Increased expression of IL-33 in severe asthma: evidence of expression by airway smooth muscle cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:5094-103 pubmed publisher
    ..ASMC are a source of the IL-33 cytokine. Our data propose IL-33 as a novel inflammatory marker of severe and refractory asthma. ..
  64. Lüthi A, Cullen S, McNeela E, Duriez P, Afonina I, Sheridan C, et al. Suppression of interleukin-33 bioactivity through proteolysis by apoptotic caspases. Immunity. 2009;31:84-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, caspase-mediated proteolysis acts as a switch to dampen the proinflammatory properties of IL-33. ..
  65. Cayrol C, Girard J. The IL-1-like cytokine IL-33 is inactivated after maturation by caspase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9021-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that IL-33 may function, similarly to the prototypical alarmins HMGB1 and IL-1alpha, as an endogenous danger signal to alert cells of the innate immune system of tissue damage during trauma or infection. ..
  66. Kakkar R, Lee R. The IL-33/ST2 pathway: therapeutic target and novel biomarker. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008;7:827-40 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33/ST2 not only represents a promising cardiovascular biomarker but also a novel mechanism of intramyocardial fibroblast-cardiomyocyte communication that may prove to be a therapeutic target for the prevention of heart failure. ..
  67. Zhang L, Lu R, Zhao G, Pflugfelder S, Li D. TLR-mediated induction of pro-allergic cytokine IL-33 in ocular mucosal epithelium. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1383-91 pubmed publisher
  68. Küchler A, Pollheimer J, Balogh J, Sponheim J, Manley L, Sorensen D, et al. Nuclear interleukin-33 is generally expressed in resting endothelium but rapidly lost upon angiogenic or proinflammatory activation. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1229-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we speculate that the proposed transcriptional repressor function of IL-33 may be involved in the control of endothelial cell activation. ..
  69. Palmer G, Talabot Ayer D, Lamacchia C, Toy D, Seemayer C, Viatte S, et al. Inhibition of interleukin-33 signaling attenuates the severity of experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:738-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine IL-33 production in human and mouse joints and to investigate the role of IL-33 and T1/ST2 in experimental arthritis...
  70. Baekkevold E, Roussigne M, Yamanaka T, Johansen F, Jahnsen F, Amalric F, et al. Molecular characterization of NF-HEV, a nuclear factor preferentially expressed in human high endothelial venules. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:69-79 pubmed
  71. Schmitz J, Owyang A, Oldham E, Song Y, Murphy E, McClanahan T, et al. IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23:479-90 pubmed
    ..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. ..
  72. Cherry W, Yoon J, Bartemes K, Iijima K, Kita H. A novel IL-1 family cytokine, IL-33, potently activates human eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:1484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-33 and its receptor, ST2, may play important roles in eosinophil-mediated inflammation; they may provide new therapeutic targets for controlling mucosal eosinophilic inflammation. ..
  73. Suzukawa M, Koketsu R, Iikura M, Nakae S, Matsumoto K, Nagase H, et al. Interleukin-33 enhances adhesion, CD11b expression and survival in human eosinophils. Lab Invest. 2008;88:1245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The IL-33-ST2 pathway might be an important regulator of eosinophil biology in the pathogenesis of Th2-biased allergic diseases. ..
  74. Latiano A, Palmieri O, Pastorelli L, Vecchi M, Pizarro T, Bossa F, et al. Associations between genetic polymorphisms in IL-33, IL1R1 and risk for inflammatory bowel disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62144 pubmed publisher
    ..Common IL-33 and IL1RL1 polymorphisms contribute to the risk of IBD in an Italian cohort of adult and pediatric patients, with some influence on sub-phenotypes. ..
  75. Bourgeois E, Van L, Samson M, Diem S, Barra A, Roga S, et al. The pro-Th2 cytokine IL-33 directly interacts with invariant NKT and NK cells to induce IFN-gamma production. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1046-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these data support the conclusion that IL-33 can contribute as a co-stimulatory factor to innate cellular immune responses. ..
  76. Seltmann J, Werfel T, Wittmann M. Evidence for a regulatory loop between IFN-? and IL-33 in skin inflammation. Exp Dermatol. 2013;22:102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? induces IL-33 in keratinocytes and IL-33 acts on activated T cells to further increase the release of IFN-?, therefore contributing to drive skin inflammation towards chronic responses. ..
  77. Pollheimer J, Bodin J, Sundnes O, Edelmann R, Skånland S, Sponheim J, et al. Interleukin-33 drives a proinflammatory endothelial activation that selectively targets nonquiescent cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:e47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..By this novel concept, quiescent cells may remain nonresponsive to a proinflammatory stimulus that concomitantly triggers a powerful response in cells that have been released from contact inhibition. ..
  78. Zhang H, Xie S, Chen Y, Mai J, Wang J, Zhu W, et al. Altered serum levels of IL-33 in patients with advanced systolic chronic heart failure: correlation with oxidative stress. J Transl Med. 2012;10:120 pubmed publisher
    ..In advanced CHF, IL-33 may exert anti-oxidation effects, which may be overwhelmed by concurrently elevated levels of sST2. ..